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I'hilip IV. of Spain : 50 reales struck at Segovia. Arg. 


















IT is hoped that the following pages may be found to have 
supplied an apparent deficiency in English numismatic 
literature by furnishing an introduction to the more exact 
and complete knowledge of the continental series of European 
coins, and to an approximate estimate of what a collection 
of such a nature embraces and represents. That a virtually 
first attempt of this kind on a comprehensive scale will prove 
more or less imperfect the writer foresees ; yet if it is sensibly 
in advance of all former essays in the same .direction, it 
cannot fail to be of some appreciable service. 

It must be interesting alike to the English and American 
student to note how very frequent are the points of affinity 
and contact between the coins of Great Britain and those 
here described ; and this is particularly the case with the 
early productions of France, Spain, and the Low Countries. 

The illustrations which accompany the volume have 
been exclusively selected from examples in the possession 
of the writer. In the choice made, the aim has been to 
exhibit as far as possible typical specimens and coins recom- 
mended by their historical or personal associations. 

viii The Coins of Europe 

The writer feels it to be an agreeable duty to express 
his sincere acknowledgments for assistance and kindnesses 
received to Lord Grantley, Messrs. Lincoln and Son of 
Oxford Street, Mr. J. Schulman of Amersfoort, Messrs. Spink 
and Son of Gracechurch Street and Piccadilly, and Mr. F. 
Whelan (MM. Rollin and Feuardent). 

October 1893. 



PREFACE . . . . . . . . . vii 

INTRODUCTION . . . .. . . . . 2-66 

General Interest of the Subject ..... i 

The Medal, Jeton, and Token ..... 4 

Magnitude of the Subject ' . . . . . . 6 

Condition of Medieval Europe ' . . . . . 9 

The Feudal System . . . . . . . 12 

Order of Countries ....... 14-29 

Germany . . . . . . . 15 

Low Countries . . . . . . . 19 

Northern States ...... 20 

Italy ........ 20 

Sicily ........ 21 

France ........ 22 

Spain . ./ . . . . . 24 

Portugal ...... 27 

Greece ........ 28 

Mints and Currencies ...... 29 

Nomenclature and Legends ...... 34 

Notation of Value and Date ...... 42 

Material employed for Coins ... 44 

Money and Weight : heavy Swedish and Russian Coins . . 47 

Metrology and Alloy ...... 50 

Development of Types ..... 57 

Formation of Cabinets . . 6 1 

Arrangement of the present Work . . 64 




x The Loins of Europe 



GERMANY . . . /. . . . . 295 

Westphalia ..... . 299 

Rhenish Provinces ..... 300 

Nassau . . .. . . 3 O1 

Lippe .... 3 01 

Waldeck . . . . . ' 301 

Lichtenstein ..... 3 O1 

Hesse-Cassel .... 3 2 

Darmstadt . . 33 

Homburg . . 33 

Frankfurt-am-Main . . 33 

Hochberg . 33 

Baden ... 33 

Baden-Baden . 33 

Durlach . . 33 

Wurtemburg . . . 34 

Bavaria ... 35 

The Palatinate . 37 

Saxony . . . 39 

Anhalt .... 3H 

Schwarzburg . 3'5 

Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt . 3*5 

Reuss ... 315 

Brunswick . . 3 J 6 

Hanover . . 3 1 9 

Oldenburgh . . 320 

Holstein ... 3 21 

Manse Towns . 3 21 

Mecklemburgh . 3 21 

Pomerania . 3 2 3 

Brandenburgh . 3 2 4 

Prussia . 3 2 

Posen . 3 2 9 

Prussian Saxony 33 

Silesia . 33 1 

AUSTRIA . . 33 2 

Goritz ... 336 

Istria and Carinthia . . 33^ 

Carniola ... 337 

Moravia . ... 337 

Table of Contents xi 


Styria . . 337 

Bohemia . . ... . . . 338 

Dalmatia . . , . . . . 341 

Hungary 341 

Transylvania . . . . . . . 344 

SWITZERLAND ....... 346 

POLAND . . . . . . . . 352 

Lithuania ....... 353 

Knights of Livonia . . ... . . 355 

Courland ....... 355 

Cracow ........ 355 

RUSSIA ........ 357 


Wallachia .... . . 362 

Moldavia ....... 362 

Roumania ....... 362 

Bulgaria. . . . . . . . 364 

Servia . . . . . . . . 365 

Bosnia ........ 366 


GREECE ........ 369 

TURKEY IN EUROPE . . . . . . 371 


Denmark . . . . . . .371 

Sweden ........ 377 

Norway ........ 382 

THE Low COUNTRIES ...... 383 

I. Belgium ..... -383 

Brabant ....... 384 

Loos and Rummen ..... 387 

Liege ... 388 

Limburg ...... 389 

Luxemburgh ...... 389 

Reckheim ...... 390 

Flanders . . . . . 391 

Hainault ...... 394 

Artois ....... 395 

xii The Coins of Europe 


Boulogne . ' . . . . . . 396 

Saint-Pol . . . . . -396 

Cambrai ....... 397 

Herstal . ...'-398 

Towns and Minor Fiefs ..... 39$ 

Kingdom of the Belgians . . 4 O1 

2. Holland. .... 4 2 

Counts of Holland . . . 43 

West Friesland . . 44 

Gueldres ... 45 

S' Heerenberg . . . 4 

Utrecht ... 406 

United Provinces .... 47 

Towns in Holland . . 4 11 

Batavian Republic ... 4 12 

Kingdom of Holland . 412 

the Netherlands 4 ! 4 

ITALY .... 4i8 

The Ostrogoths . 4' 9 

Lombards .' . . 419 

Franks . 42O 

Germans . . 4 22 

Republics and Principalities . 4 2 3 

Popes . 424 

Venice . 4 2 

Savoy . 432 

Monaco . 43 

Florence or Tuscany . 43 

Other Italian Cities : . 44 1 

Bologna . 44 2 

Ferrara . 44 2 

Modena . 443 

Reggio . 443 

Mirandola . . 443 

Monteferrnto . 444 

Mantua . . 445 

Milan . . 44 

Pesaro . . 449 

Rimini . 45 

Parma 45 



Franco- Italian Coins 
Italian Kingdoms, 1805 and 1861 

Naples .... 

The Two Sicilies 
Knights of St. John of Jerusalem 


Feudal Coinage of France 

Normandy . 

Aquitaine . 







Avignon .... 

Saint-Martin de Tours 




Burgundy . 

Lorraine and Bar .... 

Alsace .... 

Strasburgh . 

Valois ... . 



Coucy .... 


Moers .... 


Turenne .... 

Encre ..... 

SPAIN .... 

Castile and Leon, etc. . 







xiv The Coins of E^lrope 


PORTUGAL ......... 517 

The Colonies ....... 527 

Copper money ....... 530 

Mints .... ... 531 

Types . 531 

Countermarks .... ... 532 

Legends . , 533 

Current series ....... 533 

Rarities . . ..... 534 


Philip IV. of Spain : 50 reales struck at Segovia. Arg. . . Frontispiece 

Brunswick : thaler, palm-tree type . . . . .85 

Cuilemborg : 5 penningen, 1591 ...... 95 

Groot of Jan van Arkel, Bishop of Utrecht, 1341-64 . . .96 

Thaler of Joseph von Steebenburg, Bishop of Eichstadt, 1796 . . 100 

Groningen : braspenning, 1593 ...... 109 

Schilling of Hamburgh, 1763 . . . . . . in 

4-ducat piece of Charles V. , 1528 . . . . . .113 

Grand-duchy of Kief : denarius, loth c. . . . . .116 

Double thaler of Brunswick-Llineburg, 1655 . . . .122 

Denier of Maguelonne, 13th c. . . . . . .124 

Mannheimergulden of 1608 . . . . . . .125 

Mantua: obolo, Virgilius type, I3th c. ..... 125 

Mayence : I kreutzer, i8th c. ...... 127 

3 pfenningen, 1760 . . . . .127 

Modena : 80 sesini in silver, 1728 . . . . . .132 

Munster : 3 pfenningen, 1602 ...... 135 

Lorraine : silver teston of Antoine, Duke of Lorraine, 1517 . . 1 36 

pattern decime struck at Nancy, 1796 . . . .136 

grande plaque of Marie de Blois, 1346-48 . . .136 

Padua: copper piece of the 1 4th c. . . . . .141 

Ragusa (Sicily) : copper piece of the nth- 1 2th c. .... 147 

Salzburg: thaler of 1522 . . . . . . .156 

Schlitz, Hesse-Darmstadt : thaler of 1660 . . . . .158 

Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt : \ sterbdenkthaler, 1670 . . . 159 

Sienna : scudo di oro, wolf and twins type, I5th c. . . .161 

Stockholm or of 1573 ....... 164 

Zwolle : siege-piece of 1 596 . . . . . 1 79 

Augustale of Frederic II., I3th c. . , . . . . 183 

Centime of the First French Republic . . . . .189 

xvi The Coins of Eiirope 


10 centimes of the Republic of Andorra, 1873 .... 189 

Denier of Louis le Debonnaire : Christiana Religio type . . .190 

of Eudes, King of France : Grati& Domini type . . 193 

of Charlemagne . . . . ."-. ' . .194 

Schaffhausen : dicken, 1633 . . . . . 195 

Ferdinand II. of Germany: gold ducat, 1636 . ' ; . . 197 

Sicilian follaro, I2th c. . . . . . . .201 

Genoa : genovino di oro of Conrad type and period . . 202 

Catherine II. of Russia : gold imperial, 1767 .... 207 

Philip II. of Spain : copper jeton, 1582 ..... 208 

Lepta of Greece and Ionian Isles, 1828-49 ..... 210 

Louis XV. of France : louis d'or, 1717 ... . . . 212 

Charles XII. of Sweden : i mark, 1716 ..... 214 

Merovingian trientes . . . . . . .215 

6 miten of Ghent, 1583-84 . ..... 216 

Denier of inoneta palatina type . . . . .217 

Obole of Charlemagne, struck at Melle . . . . .219 

Switzerland: school prize-money of 1776 ..... 225 

Bohemia: raitgroschen of 1583 ...... 227 

Danari of Sanctus Vulttts type, 1 3th and 1 8th centuries . . . 230 

Mantua: Di Quattro or 4 scudi di oro, I7th c. . . .231 

Siege-piece of Vienna, 1529, in gold ..... 233 

Lombard silica or half silica of the 7th c. . . . . . 233 

Bavaria: thaler, 1825 . . . . . . . 238 

Coins of the Wild Man type, 1741 and 1791 . . . 242 

Mantua : silver coin of 1 564 ...... 269 

Bavaria: gold piece (? 10 ducats) of 1598 ..... 306 

Palatinate : gold florin of 1437 . . . . . % . 307 

Niirnberg : gold florin of 1618 . . . . . . 309 

Saxony: denarius, loth c. ... . . 310 

gulden groschen, I5th c. . . . . 311 

thaler, 1623 . ..... 311 

Brunswick - Liineburg : triple thaler, 1657 ..... 317 

thalers of 1668 and 1678 .... 318 

Gold gulden, 1752 . ... 319 

Osnabriick : 9 pfennigen, 1625 ... . . 320 

Mecklemburgh : thaler of 1542 . . >- 322 

thaler of Wallenstein, 1632 .... 323 

Brandenburgh : thaler of 1549 . . 325 

Prussian coins, I4th-i8th c. , 327 

3 thaler of Frederic III. of Brandenburgh, 1693 .... 328 

Mansfeld: thaler, 1532 .. . 330 

List of Illustrations xvii' 


Stolberg : bracteate, I3th c. ...... 331 

Gold florin, 1743 . . . . . 331 

Coins of Austria and the Tyrol . . . . . . 335 

Bohemia: esterling of John of Luxemburgh (1309-46) . . . 339 

Joachimsthaler, 1525 . . ^, . . 339 

Frederic V. Count Palatine, 24 kreutzer, 1620 . . . 340 

Hungary: esterling of Andrew (1047-61) . ... . . 341 

copper coin, I3th c. . . . . .- 341 

gold florin of Matthias Corvinus . . . . 342 

Transylvania : copper solidus, 1591 . . . . . 344 

thaler, 1657 . 345 

Switzerland : 32 franken, 1800 . . . . . . 348 

thaler of Zurich, 1727 ... . 350 

Polish coins, i6th-i8th c. . . . . . . . 354 

Russia: coins of Peter the Great, 1707-24 ..... 360 

coins (chiefly patterns), 1726-40 ..... 363 

Servia : denarius of Stephen VII., 1336-56 .... 365 

Denmark: esterling of nth c. ...... 373 

double gold ducat, 1658 .... 374 

silver klippe, 1648 . . . . 375 

Sweden : Charles XII. daler, 1707 ...... 379 

Swedish coins, i6th-i9th c. ...... 380 

Coins of the Southern Netherlands ...... 393 

Dutch East Indies ...... 409 

Northern Netherlands . . . . . .413 

Rulers of the Netherlands . . . . .415 

Papal coins ......... 425 

Venetian coins ....... 429, 431 

Savoyard coins ........ 435 

Coins of the Medici Family ..... 439-4 

Bologna: doppio scudo di oro of Giovanni I. Bentivoglio (1401-2) . 442 

Ferrara : testone of Ercole I. D'Este (1475-1506) .... 442 

Monteferrato : testone of Guglielmo, M. di M., 1494-1518 . . 444 

Mantua : scudo di argento, 1622, George and Dragon type . . 446 

Milanese coins ........ 448 

Testone of Trivulzio family, 1 6th c., George and Dragon type . . 449 

Pesaro : copper sesino of Gio. Sforza (1510) .... 449 

Coins of Parma . . . . . . . .451 

Lucca and Piombino . . . . . -453 

Saluzzo : testone of Lodovico II., 1475-1502 .... 454 

tallero or medaglia of Marguerite de Foix, his consort. 1516, by 

Johann Clot . . . . . . 454 

xviii The Coins of Europe 


-Sicilian coins ........ 459 

Coins of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, I4th-i8th c. . . 463 

France : coins of Henry III. and IV. and Louis XIII. . . . 473 

Louis XIV. and XV. . . . . . . 475 

French Revolutionary coins, 1791-93 .... 477-8 

Napoleon I., etc. . . . . . . . 481 

Piece in lead of 1848 (? 10 centimes) . . . " 483 

French feudal coins . . . . '. . 501 

Spain: blanca and dinhero of 151)1 c. ..... 510 

Spanish coins, I3th-i8th c. . . . . . . . 513 

Spain: Isabel II., 4 reales, 1839 . . . . ' . 515 

3 cuartos, 1838 ...... 515 

Portugal : cruzado di ouro, 1 5th c. . . . . . . 521 

Dobra or dobrao, 1726 ...... 525 

Pecunia Insulana, 1750 . . ... 529 

Patacon or 40 reis of 1813 . . . . . 530 



THE unabated and general interest which the numismatic 
systems and remains of the ancient Greeks and Romans have 
commanded from time immemorial at the hands of all 
persons with pretensions to culture and with a desire to 
inform themselves of many features in the history and social 
life of those two great and powerful nationalities, or rather 
peoples, not to be found in ordinary books of reference, has 
been of later years divided with the study and collection of 
the coins belonging to the English and Scotish series ; and 
the enthusiasm and curiosity manifested toward these two 
classes of early money, if they were not quite so powerfully 
justified by the intrinsic merit and the antiquity, were sup- 
posed to be dictated by a sort of patriotism in the case of 
Englishmen and Americans. A man who could not under- 
stand the utility or wisdom of accumulating the currencies 
of remote and extinct states was amenable to the plea for 
that of his native land or of the " old country." Various 
idiosyncrasies of course crept into this movement. Some 
collectors of the new English or British school began at the 
beginning, and persevered unflinchingly to the very end ; 
some drew the line at the Stuarts, others commenced with 
the Georges ; a certain number preferred gold, a certain 
number silver, a few, copper only ; many were omnivorous. 
The majority, however, were not very fastidious, so long as 
a coin was legible and cheap. Here and there condition 
^ t B 

2 The Coins of Europe 

was a postulate to a moderate extent ; in one or two 
instances it was peremptory. 

But for better and worse, under some or other circum- 
stances, the taste and ardour for the British coins from the 
earliest period to the present time patterns and proofs 
included arose, and have been hitherto fairly maintained by 
a succession of students or amateurs. The motive was 
perhaps patriotic ; and it is not to be gainsaid that within 
those lines are to be found many numismatic productions 
alike of interest and merit, particularly among the Anglo- 
Saxon pennies, the Tudor money, the Scotish coins of Mary 
and her father, and of Charles I., and the chefs d'ceuvre of 
Briot, Simon, Rawlins, Blondeau, and Wyon. Retro- 
spectively, the English coinage, extending over about twenty 
centuries (if we comprise the British money), will bear com- 
parison with that of other countries, period by period ; but 
it must be recollected that it was in some important aspects 
indebted to external influences. Offa, King of Mercia, is 
reputed to have employed Italian workmen ; the pennies of 
Edward the Confessor and his Norman successor, in their 
diversity and execution, betray a superior hand ; and the 
names of some of the most prominent English moneyers, 
Briot, Blondeau, Roettier, Pistrucci, Droz, are the names of 
foreigners. 1 Nor do we certainly know that the florin and 
noble of Edward III. were the product of native artists. So 
far as probability will carry us we should say that they were not. 

There can be little doubt that Northern Germany or 
Northern Holland was the source from which the moneyer, 
in common with the printer and engraver, originally derived 
his inspiration. Hence it was that, as learning and science 
revived, and commerce and maritime adventure extended, 
the barbarous and meagre productions of the imitators of 
Roman and Byzantine work were replaced by numismatic 
efforts of an independent and characteristic type, and that 
Europe was furnished with trading tokens (inonetce) adapted 

1 See also Nicholas Tyery's Proposals to Henry the Eighth for an Irish Coin- 
age, inserted in a MS. French Handbook of the year 1526. 8vo, Cambridge, 
1886. With illustrations of the coins. 

Introduction 3 

to the wants, feelings, and traditions of the communities into 
which it was apportioned. The waves of Dutch and German 
influence spread in all directions ; and the British Isles, from 
their geographical position, and successive occupiers or 
colonists, were peculiarly liable to the reception of foreign 
suggestions from all quarters. Perhaps the utmost that is 
capable of being urged in favour of the English series of 
coins is that they are English. Of the hands which made 
them we know, on the whole, too little to warrant us in going 
much farther. 

The titles which the coins of the European continent 
have to our attention and regard are indeed strong and 
manifold. That immense and extraordinary series contri- 
butes, in a degree only to be appreciated on a more or less 
intimate acquaintance, to the illustration both of the public 
and inner life of a section of the globe which has been 
infinitely more fruitful than any other in its achievements 
and triumphs for the cause of human knowledge, progress, 
and happiness. From the thirteenth century, when the 
English currency had sensibly declined from the earlier 
Norman standard, the mints of Central Europe and the Low 
Countries were yielding an inexhaustible store of types 
remarkable for invention and variety no less than for their 
harmony with the atmosphere and costume of the country 
of origin. A study of continental money of the mediaeval 
and more modern eras admits us to an insight into innumer- 
able points connected with political vicissitudes and changes, 
religious aspirations and peculiarities, and social episodes, for 
which we might vainly look elsewhere. The historian, the 
artist, the philosopher, and the portrayer of sentiments and 
usages, possess here a field of research even now very imper- 
fectly explored and utilised. We ought to be thankful for 
the light which is shed on features of bygone life throughout 
an entire continent by thousands on thousands of these 
monuments, each in its portrait, its legend, its motto, its 
name, its very shape and material, telling some story of 
the ages. 

The Coins of Europe 


Undoubtedly interesting and valuable as the Medal, the 
Jeton, and the Token severally are as exponents and memo- 
rials of past events and persons, the COIN may justly claim 
a higher rank in our estimation and regard as less local, less 
special, less flattering ; as more national, more continuous, 
more realistic. It reflects in a greater degree and in a more 
faithful manner the condition, progress, and feeling of the 
community with which it is identified ; it passed from hand 
to hand, from one district to another, from one extremity of 
the world, perhaps, to the other extremity ; and this plea is 
strengthened by the policy, first of the ancients, and subse- 
quently of the continental powers, of blending the actual 
currency with the medal and the jeton in that extensive 
series of European numismatic monuments which the 
Germans term munte-medaUlen, and which served the double 
purpose of a coin and a medal by commemorating an 
historical incident and by being at the same time stamped 
with a value. Among these relics of former days are many 
pieces of striking beauty and interest. They belong more 
particularly to the German series. 

The number of Coins entitled to rank under a variety of 
categories as historical, biographical, or literary records, is 
peculiarly large in the class with which we deal. The 
European continent was so subdivided in an administrative 
and numismatic respect under the old system that a far 
larger proportion of individuals, who attained political 
eminence, acquired, ipso facto, a title to a place among rulers 
and strikers of money. It is not that we possess finely- 
executed portraits of great sovereigns only, such as Charles V., 
Gustavus Adolphus, Peter the Great, Charles XII. of Sweden, 
Frederic of Prussia, Maria Theresa, and Napoleon I. ; but 
the privilege of coining, enjoyed by a host of petty feu- 
datories, has transmitted to us an extensive gallery of 
resemblances, the majority (when we have reached the Renais- 
sance) lifelike in their treatment, which we should not in a 

Introduction 5 

more centralised constitution have had the opportunity of 
seeing. Nearly all the seigniorial magnates of France, 
Germany, and the Netherlands have been handed down to 
us in this way, as they presented themselves to their con- 
temporaries. It is something to be able in the thalers of 
Mecklenburgh to realise ad vivum the lineaments of the great 
Wallenstein ; in those of Transylvania we get the striking 
effigy of Bethlen Gabor and the other independent wai- 
wodes ; the feudal coinage of France and the Low Countries 
presents us with the likeness of many a grand lady or 
seigneur, of many a haughty and imperious prelate, in all 
the pride of life and all the pomp of circumstance : the 
Princes of the house of Medici merchants and standard- 
bearers of Florence before they sat upon the throne are 
here, and the Dukes of Parma, Modena, Milan, Mantua, and 
Ferrara, almost breathing and speaking on the metallic discs 
which received the impress of their features centuries ago ; 
and we may take up a silver denier of Robert the Devil of 
Normandy, or a ducat of Foscari or Faliero, equally fresh as 
when they were submitted for approval. 

Setting aside, however, the question of the relative claims 
of these four classes of archaeological record, the varied 
utility of each in elucidating the others is not to be forgotten 
or ignored. Every possessor of a cabinet of antique coins 
must be better qualified to conduct researches on that division 
of the subject with greater ease and success if he has upon 
his shelves the best modern books on the other three. 
Obscure points or indistinct inscriptions on a German or 
Italian medal are often susceptible of being explained by 
some parallel or cognate characters or design on a coin or 
jeton executed about the same period, possibly by the same 
hand ; and the engraver of many pieces of money is only 
known to us from the fact that he was also a medallist, 
whose work is marked by his style, if not by his cypher. 
The earliest efforts of some men, who subsequently attained 
celebrity, were directed to die-sinking. 1 

1 Attention may be drawn to the interesting indications afforded by M. 
Armand (Les Medailleurs Italiens, 1883-87, 3 vols. 8vo) of the intimate relation- 

6 The Coins of Europe 

It is manifestly a good deal more than the part of a 
virtuoso or a dilettante to collect this rich assemblage of 
unimpeachable memorials around one, and to investigate 
them as aids to the formation of a true judgment of the 
mighty and restless spirits which have in turn swayed and 
shaped the fortunes of the European continent. The great 
men and women who are portrayed or named by us in the 
pages which succeed, lie, as it were, beneath our feet, dust to 
dust, but the records of their lives are in our hands. The 
man of letters, the poet, makes himself our contemporary 
and the contemporary of all who are to come after us in a 
different way ; we study him, converse with him, and measure 
him in his books. But the statesman, the legislator, the 
soldier, the orator, who lifted himself above his fellows, and 
for whom mortality was too frail and too brief, relies on 
other witnesses the archive and the chronicle, the medal 
and the canvas ; and how imperfectly the historical personages 
of all countries would be realised to us if we were required 
to content ourselves, as a rule, with the testimony of the 
manuscript or printed page ! 

Of the material which has reached our hands for elucidat- 
ing and verifying the transactions and occurrences of the 
past, the coin and its posterior development, the medal, are 
at once the most durable, the most trustworthy, the most 
consecutive, and the most universal. 


A survey for the first time of the feudal currencies of 
mediaeval Europe is apt to awaken a feeling of dismay 
and bewilderment. The distribution of authority, and the 
relationship of the Crown to its great vassals, with their 
common obligations to the Church, constitute a political life 
and a social atmosphere diametrically opposed to prevail- 

ship between the medal and coin. Almost all the fine work in both series in 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries is traceable to distinguished artists. 

Introduction 7 

ing ideas and possibilities. Everywhere we readily obtain 
evidence of a dominant seigniorial caste, which often, or 
indeed generally, survived broad territorial changes, and 
transferred its allegiance from one sovereign or suzerain to 
another. A royal or imperial dynasty disappeared ; but the 
lower strata of the system practically remained : a warlike, 
turbulent, despotic nobility and gentry which, in requital of 
services rendered, enjoyed various lofty and enviable privileges, 
among which not the least was the right, sometimes qualified, 
sometimes absolute, of striking money for local or provincial 
use. The clergy looked with favour on this concession ; for 
the incidence of a mint was, it is not to be doubted, attended 
by profit to the beneficiary ; and a proportion of the surplus 
proceeds became a customary due receivable by the ecclesi- 
astical incumbent. When, in process of time, the towns of 
the Continent rose into consequence and power, a new form 
of complication presented itself ; for within a restricted area 
three monetary systems might be established, each on its 
own basis and standard, and it seems to have been the 
exception when the urban authorities and the bishop or 
abbot arrived at some amicable understanding, by which 
a common currency served for both. 

Nor was the practice of entering into conventions for 
mutual security and accommodation one to which there was 
a large or habitual recourse. The decentralising proposal, 
which is at the present moment before the Swiss Govern- 
ment after about forty years' trial of an uniform coinage, 
helps us to comprehend the jealousy and distrust which pre- 
cluded the numberless petty administrative centres of Europe, 
both during and after the Middle Ages, from coming to any 
accord with each other on such a topic as this. 

The gradual and partial acceptance by communities of 
approximately the same race and language of an interna- 
tional principle in regard to money formed at once a source 
of convenience and disadvantage ; the liability of the currency 
of one or more members of the circle to reduction in standard 
or value from financial exigencies and other causes necessarily 
involved loss and embarrassment to the rest ; the state of 

8 The Coins of Europe 

political decentralisation under the feudal system, 1 conferring 
independent power for many subordinate purposes of govern- 
ment on each petty state or division of territory, rendered 
the correction of abuses in the currency almost impracticable ; 
and it was this order of affairs which produced, on the one 
hand, the extraordinary profusion of local mints with dis- 
tinctive types and symbols, and on the other, to a very 
limited extent, the introduction of convention -money of 
true and definite assay. 

It is certain that the expedient was not extensively tried, 
although its efficacy was tested in the Low Countries, for 
instance, in a variety of ways : as between a town and the 
bishop or seigneur, or both ; as between certain towns ; as 
between certain provinces, the vierlander and driclander being 
two special types of the groat which were long admitted as 
legal tenders in four or three of the states of the Netherlands 

The pioneers in this direction seem undoubtedly to have 
been the Brabantines. John II. Count of Namur (1297- 
1331) entered into an agreement on the one hand with 
the Count of Flanders (1322-1 346) him who fell at Crecy ; 
and on the other, with John II. Duke of Brabant, as regarded 
the common acceptance of two types of the groat. 

It is almost obviously the volume and intricacy of the 
seigniorial currency throughout the Continent which makes the 
task in our hands one of any sort of difficulty. The royal or 
imperial money is of course not free from features of obscurity 
and doubt ; but the field is relatively contracted, and the re- 
searches and discoveries of modern numismatists have reduced 
this branch of the subject to a fairly clear method and order. 
In the course of the last twenty or thirty years the inde- 
fatigable labours of several distinguished scholars in nearly 
every European country have brought to light extensive and 
valuable additions to almost all series, and have rectified our 
knowledge of the mints, moneyers, types, and places of origin, 
of some pieces which were previously unassigned. A con- 
siderable share of this gratifying progress, the fruit of a 
1 See Cat. of Denominations, v. "Convention-Money." 

Introduction 9 

healthy emulation, is due to a patient and comparative study 
of ancient records, by which the sites of former mints and the 
names of the masters or engravers are ascertained, and coins 
for the first time referred to their true sources. Such a 
species of documentary testimony restores to notice the 
names of many individuals otherwise forgotten, and of 
localities for which we vainly search on ordinary maps. 

The frequent changes of dynasty on the Continent 
operated on the coinages in two distinct and opposite ways : 
either in leading to an immediate issue of the new currency 
with the name and titles of the fresh-comer, or to a continu- 
ance of the former one from considerations of expediency. 
The Romans, as the Greeks had done before them, set the 
example of promptly suppressing the evidence and support 
afforded by the money of a vanquished or deceased ruler ; 
but in modern Europe, on the whole, the more sagacious 
practice seems to have prevailed of allowing the familiar 
name and emblems to survive, and of denoting the presence 
of an altered constitution by some subsidiary token. The 
Ostrogothic line in Italy adopted this policy, and during a 
century or so merely placed their monograms on coins bear- 
ing otherwise the old imperial types ; the portraits and titles 
of the Merovingian house in France long outlived its actual 
power ; the Norman Dukes of Apulia, in the money struck 
at Gaeta, style themselves Consuls and Dukes without, as a 
rule, inserting any name ; the great German and Italian 
families, whose government was virtually absolute, contented 
themselves with the nominal rank of imperial vicars ; and, 
coming down to more recent days, even . Napoleon I. sat 
upon the throne many years before his coinage parted with 
all its republican significance. 


To realise the numismatic history of a group of countries 
we have to begin by studying the political, social, and topo- 
graphical state of the region affected and described. The 

io The Coins of Europe 

far more limited population of Europe, even down to the 
close of the eighteenth century, the large area of forest and 
other waste lands, and the difficulty of intercourse, favoured 
the growth and consolidation of a feudal system under 
which an almost innumerable body of chieftains, secular 
and ecclesiastic, exercised within local precincts an authority 
dependent only on the imperial or royal prerogative. 

Where communication was so slow and precarious, and 
all appliances, military and mechanical, so defective, the 
control of the emperor or king was practically restricted to 
services in peace or war ; there was no central or direct 
power in the modern sense ; and the head of the state 
was virtually little more than a suzerain, who did not 
interfere in the relations between his tenants-in-chief and 
their vassals even in the performance of some acts of 
sovereignty. Of these acts the coinage of money for 
circulation within a specified radius was the most important, 
most cherished, and most decisive ; and while in certain 
instances the legends acknowledged the jurisdiction of a 
superior lord, in some there was no symptom of qualified 
autonomy. 1 

It is to be apprehended that, in the case of the minor 
townships on the Continent, the right of coinage was not 
only limited to a definite area, but to the base metal and 
low denominations. The money was in fact a local token. 
On the other hand, we have to remember the vast or stealthy 
changes which have affected the prosperity, if not the very 
existence, of a large number of seats of government and 
centres of industry, insomuch that instances might be pro- 
duced of places which were formerly prominent royal or 
seigniorial mints, and are at present obscure and lifeless 
hamlets, while there are a few, proved to have been licensed 
seats of coinage, of which no examples have been recovered 
or identified. 

1 The ancient system of partition of authority, on a similar principle, among 
a number of petty princes, and the parallel assertion of suzerainty by some indi- 
vidual potentate, may explain the grandiloquent terms found on the coinage of 
Parthia and Bactria, and retained at the present time by more than one Eastern 

Introduction 1 1 

A scrutiny of the carefully -prepared charts which we 
have of the periodical development of Western Europe will 
shew us the difficulty and importance of keeping always in 
mind the difference between the mediaeval and later bound- 
aries of states and the numerous changes which have taken 
place in topographical nomenclature. The series of com- 
parative maps introduced into Bouillet's Atlas Universel, 
1872, helps to illustrate the distribution of territory and the 
changes of frontier from the sixth to the sixteenth century. 
At the latter point of time, while the internal political fabric 
and economy were still largely preserved, the confines of the 
principal countries had been settled on modern lines. We 
are apt to forget, till we reflect, that the former divisions of 
the Continent were often not conterminous with their more 
recent or present namesakes ; so extensive has been the 
survival of old geographical terms. 

The maps of France exhibit a progressive extension of 
territory from 511, the date of the death of Clovis, to 1483, 
that of the death of Louis XI. Germany did not comprise 
Prussia and much of the existing German Empire. Prussia 
partly belonged to Poland, and partly to Brandenburgh. 
The kings of Poland ruled over a considerable portion both 
of Prussia and of Russia. The province of Burgundy, 
which belongs to France, and was once a feudal appanage of 
that monarchy, importantly differs from the great Duchy of 
Charles the Bold. The early Dukes of Muscovy owned a very 
small proportion even of the dominions of Peter the Great. 
The Counts of Flanders were virtually absolute masters of a 
feudal area, to which the constitutional kingdom of Belgium 
bears a very imperfect relationship. The Counts of Holland 
exercised a sovereignty restricted to the province so owned ; 
and while the actual kingdom of the Netherlands embraces 
only a portion of them, the Napoleonic kingdom of Holland 
comprehended more than the whole. 

The Europe at which we are looking is not only 
superficially but chronologically of vast extent. In a 
geographical sense it reaches from one end of the Continent 
to the other ; and in a political one its two extremities touch 

1 2 The Coins of Europe 

the Roman empire on the east and the world in which we 
actually move. Centuries posterior to the commencement 
of our story, Byzantine emperors sat on the throne of 
Valens ; at the point of time where we begin Italy and 
Spain were slowly emerging from barbarism under Greek 
and Moorish influence ; and the republic of Venice was 
founded. But Britain and Gaul were inhabited by savage 
tribes, whose rulers styled themselves kings; Germany had not 
yet felt the beneficial influence of Prankish conquest ; and 
the Slavonic and Scandinavian peoples were as unknown 
to the inhabitants of the West as the natives of Australia or 
the aboriginal dwellers on the Hudson. We are witnesses 
to the rise, decline, and fall of empires, of which the 
magnitude was fatal to a weaker head and hand than those 
of the founder, if not to himself ; and we conclude our view 
in the presence of the blessings and evils of the most 
advanced Western civilisation. 

Of every development and vicissitude the currency 
of countries has been a partaker and a memorial ; and of 
many minor or subsidiary events it is often the sole surviving 

The feudal system, as we are aware, existed in a most 
flourishing condition throughout the Continent during the 
whole period covered by the following pages ; and whatever 
abuses may have attended it in its operation on the 
community, the gain which it has brought to the numis- 
matist is positively immense. We have only to contemplate 
the uniform and inarticulate currencies of quite modern days, 
on what are conventionally termed imperial lines, to perceive 
how barren of import and attraction the present undertaking 
would have been if such a condition of things had always 
been a possibility. 

The French Revolution shook the system to its base 
throughout Western Europe, and the Napoleonic regime still 
farther tended to obliterate ancient landmarks and to favour 

Introdiiction \ 3 

centralisation. Although the old seigniorial principle 
remained or revived after the close of the last century to a 
certain extent, the fundamental changes in France itself, 
and the rise of new political ideas, combined to draw an 
indelible line between the past and the present, and our 
inquiry mainly parts with its interest where the former order 
of things may be regarded as having come to a practical 
termination. The prosaic tenor of latter-day numismatic 
history and art is incapable of yielding much scope for 
useful or agreeable reflection. On the contrary, how 
extremely interesting and instructive it becomes to study 
and consider in every part of feudal Europe the almost 
numberless groups or clusters of minor sovereignties, 
subordinate to the Crown in a very limited sense and degree, 
and exercising within their own confines an authority more 
untrammelled than that of existing constitutional princes of 
the highest rank. The Continent, parcelled out among the 
tenants-in-chief of the emperor or king of a given zone or 
circle, and governed for all internal and municipal purposes 
by laws and ordinances which varied and conflicted at every 
frontier and within short distances, presented a spectacle 
which can never return, and of which we can acquire a 
knowledge only through literary and other monuments. It 
was a political condition, slowly evolving from primaeval forest 
and village life, until it developed by the usual agencies 
into a sort of network, and overspread the entire area from 
the Atlantic to the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains, 
and from the Arctic Ocean to the Mediterranean, with a 
host of petty lordships, alike independent and jealous one of 
the other. Those which lay in proximity might speak the 
same language, cultivate the same soil, and serve the same 
suzerain in peace and in war ; but the obstacles to central 
control, as well as to mutual intercourse, were incredibly 
great, and each little community grew in course of time 
virtually autonomous. If it had, as was frequently the case, 
a prolonged duration and a prosperous career, it was 
undoubtedly very far from fulfilling our ideal of what public 
and private life should be ; but all the more for that reason 

14 The Coins of Europe 

it built up an organisation in which, by the light of available 
records, we at this moment are enabled to realise a picture, 
impressive and captivating if only by contrast. For it is 
precisely in this narrow localisation that we have to seek 
peculiar types of thought and production ; and in the 
absence of such a system of tenure and service we should 
have lost nearly all that is most precious to us in mediaeval 
costume, symbolism, portraiture, dramatic incident, and, by 
no means least of all, monetary examples. 


The determination of the order in which the several 
countries of Europe should be treated, naturally introduced 
to the mind of the writer the apposite and relevant question 
as to the centre and cradle of numismatic renaissance in the 
Western hemisphere. In the first place, the almost universal 
circulation of the ancient Greek and Roman currencies 
offered to the primitive European moneyer a rich choice of 
prototypes, and led, as we know, to feeble imitations of the 
Macedonian stater in Britain, and of the small brass coinage 
of Rome and the Phocaean silver in Gaul, if indeed, which is 
still a dubious point, the Briton was not directly indebted 
for the idea of the Greek model to his immediate 
neighbour across the Channel. Secondly, the vastly 
influential result to civilisation of the successive settlements 
of the Arabs and Moors in Spain, and of the Greeks, 
Northmen, Arabs, French, and Spaniards in Southern Italy 
and Sicily, embraced the modification of the currency in 
vogue in all these regions ; and the Crusaders had their 
share in bringing under notice, and recommending to 
adoption, the characters and designs on Eastern money, 
sometimes, as in the case of the French gros tournois, 
following, without signal fitness or felicity, the lines of the 
Arabic dirliem, supposed to have been brought by Louis IX. 
from the Holy Land, yet more probably introduced into 

Introduction 1 5 

France by the Arabs or Moorish occupiers of Franco-Spanish 
territory during a protracted lapse of time. 

The tendency of copyists in all ages has been to 
degenerate, as they proceeded, from their originals. Progress 
and improvement can only be expected from the exercise of 
thought and taste and their judicious adaptation to existing 
circumstances ; and it may be predicated of almost all the 
attempts, even in the best period of Italian art, to reproduce 
classical subjects, that they are unfortunate or at least 
imperfect. The happiest efforts of the modern moneyer in 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries were in portraiture, 
heraldry, and costume, because he rendered what he saw 
before him, and rendered it admirably, whereas in the 
manipulation of fables or objects depicted on Greek work of 
the best and purest period by mediaeval artists even of 
approved skill and repute, we can discern at most nothing 
more than an inferior revival of what had been given to the 
world a thousand years before. 

Venturing to assume that the fountain of the modern 
numismatic revival about the sixth century was somewhere 
in Northern Germany or Northern Holland, the writer has 
made the former country, including Switzerland, Poland, 
Russia, etc., his starting-point, and has allowed the Nether- 
lands to follow next in order. The precedence accorded 
to Germany seemed to render it convenient to trace the 
Teutonic influence, so far as it went, and to include in the first 
division or group of districts those, such as Russia, Servia, 
Bulgaria, where in the first place the Byzantine, and finally 
the Western types, prevailed. Although the Swiss subse- 
quently adopted French models and denominations, their 
earliest numismatic culture and sympathy were German, 
and the source of the civilisation and refinement of Inde- 
pendent Poland is to be found in the same direction through 
the political relationship of that kingdom at the outset to 
the margravate of Brandenburgh and to Prussia. The Mus- 
covite moneyers received their elementary education when 
Moscow became the capital, and the old Greek patterns fell 
out of favour, from the Poles and Hungarians. 

1 6 The Coins of Europe 

Germany naturally divides itself into North and South ; 
and in the latter are comprised the former kingdoms of 
Bohemia and Hungary, and the principality of Transylvania, 
each of which of course possessed during centuries an autono- 
mous coinage of a very varied and interesting character. 
Austria itself is entitled to the honour of having produced 
the earliest dated thalers, commencing with the schauthaler, 
which commemorates the marriage of Maximilian I. and 
Mary of Burgundy in 1477. The Transylvanian series is 
particularly curious from the portraits of the waiwodes 
or princes, and the singular head-dress of some of them an 
invariable feature of it being the aigret or heron's crest. 

In the North, Saxony yields an unique succession of 
portrait-thalers, and Brunswick in its several branches, though 
more especially that of Luneburg, is remarkable for its artistic 
contributions to the numismatic stores of the Fatherland. 
The influence of the first-named region on that of Branden- 
burgh was attended by very important results in consequence 
of the intimate and permanent alliance between the mar- 
gravate and Prussia, and between Prussia and Poland. The 
issue of large silver money appears to have begun in Austria 
and Saxony almost concurrently, if the gulden groschen with 
the portrait of Frederic the Wise (1486-1500) is to be 
accepted as the first experiment in the latter country. 

On the other hand, Brunswick, from its numerous grand 
alliances in a variety of directions during the Middle Ages, 
may be held to have played a very leading part in determin- 
ing the types not only of neighbouring states, but of those 
at a distance ; and the extension of the rule of the Frankish 
and German emperors of the Carlovingian and later dynasties 
over a considerable portion of Italy was necessarily productive 
of a certain degree of monetary conformity on the part of 
the Peninsula to Teutonic treatment and feeling. 

The Italian trading communities, such as Venice, Genoa, 
and Pisa, exercised an influence in the same direction by 
spreading, wherever their ships penetrated, or their colonies 
established themselves, an acquaintance with the monetary 
medium employed at home. This agency may explain a 

Introduction 1 7 

certain resemblance in fabric and design between the Lombard 
denaro, of which so many varieties existed in the Peninsula, 
and the mediaeval currency of regions so far apart as France 
and Armenia. But with both the Venetians became familiar 
in the Middle Ages. A Venetian settlement was formed at 
Limoges in 977 ; l and in the beginning of the fourteenth 
century the republic contracted a mercantile treaty with Leo 
I., King of Armenia. The coinages of feudal France and 
many of the small pieces struck under Leo II. and his suc- 
cessors appear to shew the ascendency of the same Italo- 
Teutonic genius. 

There is a striking general resemblance among the entire 
family of ancient European coins, always excepting those 
which we owe to temporary Byzantine or Oriental inspira- 
tion ; and the reason may be, that the Continent was prin- 
cipally indebted for its primitive currency to a Teutonic 
germ, undoubtedly traceable to Roman or Greek prototypes, 
and gradually developed by the revival of art and mechanical 
knowledge. Many of the coins of the Medici, Gonzaga, and 
Farnese families in Italy, for instance, are beyond question 
very fine specimens of the moneyer's skill ; and nothing can 
be bolder, freer, and more characteristic than some of those 
of the fifteenth century, or even of the first half of the 
sixteenth, which appeared at Milan and Ferrara under 
Visconti and D'Este rule ; but we must recollect that the 
Germans have it in their power to point to such superb 
productions as the Maximilian thaler of 1479, the Klappe- 
miinze or gulden groschen of Frederic the Wise of Saxony, 
and the two later Maximilian thalers. 

The great initiative, in short, is, so far as we can see or 
judge, ascribable to Northern Germany, whose skilled opera- 
tives had before them, perhaps, the same patterns as those 
employed by the so-called Merovingian moneyers, and 
already in the former moiety of the ninth century had 
learned to execute pieces of a distinctly improved character 
at Durstede and other Merovingian mints, as we are able to 
infer from a large number of extant monuments in the shape 

1 See Hazlitt's Venetian Republic, 1860, iv. 234-238. 

1 8 The Coins of Europe 

of deniers, first of the original Prankish type, and secondly 
of the less archaic one belonging to the later years of 
Charlemagne, with which the French silver currency prac- 
tically commenced under Charles le Chauve. 

The German series in its wealth of portraiture, and the 
singularly strong personality of many of its larger silver 
coins, \sfaciUprinceps. There was a manifest aim on the 
part of those who controlled the designs for the currency to 
profit to the utmost extent and at every opportunity by the 
advantage which was undoubtedly discerned in popularising 
the likenesses of reigning families ; and even on pieces of 
the smallest module we find the portrait of the sovereign 
introduced. Of all the Teutonic nationalities, however, 
Saxony through its length and breadth carried this principle 
the farthest : on several of the thalers of the ancient dukedom 
proper it is not unusual to meet with three or four portraits, 
representing the prince himself and his brother or cousins 
in a variety of positions; and one of Saxe- Weimar, 1615, 
bears the bell, we believe, in possessing the maximum of eight 
effigies those of Johann Ernst and his seven brothers an 
absolute gallery of family portraits within an extremely 
moderate compass. 

We prefer to see in such a practice more than meaning- 
less self-assertion or vainglory. It was rather a method, 
agreeable to the spirit and possibilities of the time, of identi- 
fying and recognising the members of the reigning family, 
and of bringing their resemblances ' before the eyes of the 
people in the readiest and most frequent manner. 

In venturing upon such a high estimate of German 
excellence in this direction, we must remember that that 
country was only carrying into a cognate and collateral 
field its noble achievements in wood-engraving ; nor do we 
lose sight of the early Italian school of numismatic and 
medallic art, for the close relationship between Italy and 
Germany under the imperial system from the time of Char- 
lemagne produced a community of taste and treatment easily 
recognisable on the coinages of the two nations, both in 
regard to portraiture and costume. 

Introduction 1 9 


The Low Countries, numismatically considered, fall at 
different periods under four successive systems of divisional 
or other treatment: namely, I, the ancient feudal States; 
2, the United Provinces ; 3, the Kingdom of Holland ; 4, 
the Kingdom of the Netherlands. For our immediate object 
the first period is immeasurably the most important, and the 
two monarchical eras the least so. Such space as it is in 
our power to allot will therefore be chiefly occupied by a 
sketch, sufficient, it is to be hoped, to guide our readers, of 
the long and extensive series of virtually autonomous coinage 
with and without the imperial titles, struck between the 
eighth and sixteenth centuries by the Counts and Dukes 
of Gueldres ; the Counts of Holland and West Friesland ; the 
Bishops of Utrecht, Daventer, and Lie"ge ; the Counts of 
Flanders, Hainault, and Namur ; the Dukes of Luxemburgh, 
and a host of subsidiary personages ; no less than by such 
towns as Nimmhegen, Daventer, Campen, Zwolle, Maestricht, 
Ghent, Antwerp, Tournay, and Bois-le-Duc. 

The consolidation of the Netherlands into provinces, 
concurrently with the cruel and protracted struggle against 
foreign invaders, introduced a new monetary epoch, which 
possesses its own strong and often painful interest, and 
which in reality was brought to a close only in the present 
century on the establishment of the existing forms of govern- 
ment in Holland and Belgium respectively. 

Certain general features of similarity in fabric, linear 
disposition, and the treatment of the Cross as an auxiliary 
between some of the Carlovingian coins of bath types, the 
coeval Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman pennies, and the 
silver money published by the eleventh century rulers of 
Denmark and Norway, are apt' to awaken curiosity and 
speculation. The subject is a very obscure and complicated 
one ; and the differences of judgment among the best and 
latest authorities upon it may warrant us in declining to 
enter into the argument in more than a passing way. 

2O The Coins of Europe 

The constant intercourse of the sea-rovers of the North, 
by whatever name they might be known Saxons, Danes, 
or Jutes with the British Isles might serve to account for 
the introduction into England of such money as they had in 
use from time to time and the loan of suggestions from 
it. In the course of their dealings and depredations these 
adventurers naturally came in contact with the money of 
different countries, and parted. with it in exchange; and a 
second channel for this sort of influence was France, whence 
the Britons had been borrowers of numismatic patterns and 
symbols from the most remote period, and with which there 
was a steady commerce. The money coined by Pepin le 
Bref and Charlemagne in the second half of the eighth 
century, and that issued by the latter on an improved or at 
least altered model toward the close of the reign, were 
equally of Teutonic origin, and with the various Merovingian 
types and even certain hints from the inscribed British gold 
pieces of Cunobeline, Verica, and others, constituted the 
material from which the Anglo-Saxon, Anglo-Norman, and, 
last of all, the successors of Canute II. in Denmark, derived 
their own productions. The coinage of the kings of Mercia 
exhibits in a very marked manner the diversified form of 
the Cross, till the original conception was lost and forgotten ; 
and there can be no reasonable doubt that the Anglo-Danish 
monarchs or their mint-masters in the eleventh century were 
indebted to English prototypes for those artistic and graceful 
pennies which belong to the reigns of Magnus and Sweyn 
II., and which vary alike from the Teutonic taste and from 
the primitive Swedish mintage. 

Italy, like Germany, is susceptible of treatment under 
two grand sections, the Northern, including Lombardy, and 
the Southern, comprising Sicily, or in other words, the Two 
Sicilies, and with these Savoy may be most appropriately 
grouped, not only on geographical and political, but on 
artistic, grounds. 

In Northern Italy we have to deal with at least four 
classes of coinage : i , the money issued in the name of the 
Gothic, Lombard, and other early conquerors ; 2, the 


2 I 

autonomous coins of the republics and states gradually 
formed within those limits ; 3, the money of the French, 
Spanish, and Austrian occupiers ; and 4, that of the two 
kingdoms as constituted in 1804 and 1860, of which the 
latter at all events removed the stigma conveyed in the 
epigram describing Italy as " a geographical expression." 

The foundations of the monetary systems of Northern 
Italy were almost undoubtedly German or Teutonic, and 
were far less indebted to classical suggestion and Oriental 
feeling than the southern portion, or than the region within 
which the Merovingian family of gold tricntes circulated. 
Ages elapsed before the Venetians resorted to Byzantine 
models ; the latest researches have identified twenty - four 
varieties of the denier or danaro produced under imperial 
control from the ninth to the twelfth century ; and the 
other portions of this division of the Peninsula conducted 
their transactions where specie was demanded with descrip- 
tions of money on which there is no distinct trace of Greek, 
Roman, or Oriental taste. At the period of the Renaissance, 
the autonomous currency of some of the states exhibited 
proofs of the study and appreciation of ancient numismatic 
art, modified by contemporary requirements ; but the noble 
examples of medallic work, produced by such men as 
Leonardo da Vinci, Pisanello, Francia, and Cellini, under 
the auspices of generous patrons, were virtually as original 
as any of the other cinquecento masterpieces in oil, marble, 
or bronze. These great artists, instead of servilely and 
unskilfully copying the coins of the ancients, as the British, 
Gaulish, and Merovingian moneyers had severally done, 
sought to shew the world that they could equal if not 
surpass them. 

With the South, including Sicily, the case stood some- 
what differently, owing to the Lombard settlement in the 
sixth century at Beneventum and the adoption of Mero- 
vingian patterns, and to the successive conquests of Sicily and 
Apulia by the Arabs, the Normans, the French, the Spaniards, 
as well as by the Germans. These great and frequent 
political changes could not be unattended by striking numis- 

22 The Coins of Europe 

matic effects and by the presence on the same soil in 
course of time of coins commemorative of each nationality 
which had taken its turn in occupying and governing the 
territory ; for the earliest care of a conqueror was to secure 
the distribution of monetary tokens of his jurisdiction, if not 
of his personality. We accordingly find on the mediaeval 
Sicilian series between the sixth and sixteenth centuries, 
instead of the purely Teutonic types current in the northern 
portion, a chronological memorial of all the vicissitudes 
undergone by the country during this long lapse of time, 
local emblems accompanied by the names, legends, and 
mottoes of foreign masters, and under the Normans (1085- 
I 200) even pronounced Arabic workmanship with bilingual 


As we have made Switzerland and the Low Countries 
fall under the German group of districts, we now pass over 
into FRANCE, where we without much difficulty perceive a 
very wide field and a very extensive, as well as varied, body 
of material. What is now recognised as exclusively French 
ground has been trodden and held by Greek, Roman, Gaul, 
Visigoth, Frank, Breton, and Norman, all of whom have left 
their footprints and their contributions to its archaeology and 
history. The boundaries of this fair and fertile region since 
the mediaeval era have been repeatedly exposed to modifica- 
tion by the fortune of war or the force of circumstances ; 
the royal authority in many important respects has been 
shared with feudal potentates, all of whom claimed local 
supremacy ; while a few were almost as powerful as the 
Crown itself; and among the pretensions which these 
magnates, alike secular and ecclesiastical, advanced and 
valued, not the least was that of coining their own money. 
The product of such a system prevailing over so wide an 
area through so lengthened a term is the survival of an 
enormous volume of currency in all metals, of all types, and 
of innumerable denominations. Leaving out of account the 

Introduction 2 3 

numismatic annals prior to the Gauls, the regal and seigniorial 
coinage of France has formed the subject-matter of a small 
library of descriptive and critical literature, and embraces, 
besides an unusually rich assortment of essais or patterns, a 
store of rarities in the Merovingian, Franco -Italian, and 
other sections, more than sufficient to engross the lifetime 
and resources of the most enthusiastic and opulent collector. 

Opening the series with the Merovingian princes, who 
struck gold money at Paris, St. Lo, and elsewhere between 
the fifth and eighth centuries (480-750), we pass to their 
successors in authority, the Carlovingian and Capetian races 
(7 5 O' 1 3 2 8), with which we have to associate a very large, 
long-lived, and varied body of money, chiefly billon and 
copper, issued by the grand and minor feudatories of France 
from the mediaeval era to the French Revolution. Among 
these royal and seigniorial currencies there is an abundance 
of material for study and a fair number of rarities, although 
the difficulty of procuring ancient French coins sensibly 
declines after the Merovingian epoch. The house of Valois, 
founded by Charles of Valois, "the son, brother, and father 
of kings, though never himself a king," lasted from 1328 to 
1574, and is remarkable from two points of view, for the 
Anglo-Gallic group of coins produced by the dispute for the 
succession with England, and mostly struck at Rouen and 
Bordeaux, and for the Franco-Italian one, struck at a variety 
of places. The latter are among the most difficult to obtain 
in fine state of all the French money of this period ; and 
even of the Anglo-Gallic pieces some are rare, as will be 
hereafter specified. But, as we have elsewhere noted, the 
coins in billon and silver of the later Valois and of Henry 
IV. are particularly ill-struck and ill-preserved. 

The Bourbons occupied the French throne during three 
centuries in the persons of five monarchs, of whom three 
reigned 164 years. Very few features of interest can be 
mentioned as belonging to this long lapse of time. There 
was nothing beyond the reform of the gold and silver coinage 
quite at the close of the reign of Louis XIII. (1640-41), the 
issue of the Franco-Spanish money, and a limited colonial 

24 The Coins of Europe 

series, and the continuation of the very striking deniers and 
double tournois in copper, which had been commenced under 
Henry III., and remained in use till they were replaced by 
the Hard and the sol. They are, which seems curious, far 
more carefully struck than some of the higher denominations. 

The operations of the French mints during the revolu- 
tionary era and under the First Republic deserve attentive 
consideration, and included several patterns, novel termin- 
ology, countermarked pieces, and hybrid productions between 
the assignat and the current coin. It was then that the 
earliest centime appeared, and the modern type of the franc ; 
but the Republic limited itself to a piece of 5 francs, just as 
it issued 6 livres in silver and 24 livres in gold, yet no unit. 

A few words on the coinage of Napoleon I. will be all 
that the circumstances render necessary. The most note- 
worthy specimens connected with Napoleon himself are the 
presumed patterns for a sol or a piece of 5 centimes struck 
by Gengembre in 1802, with the earliest portrait of the First 
Consul, the loo francs, and the silver type of 1807 (tte de 
negre}> which does not seem to have gone beyond the circula- 
tion of the ^ franc. The bust of the emperor somewhat 
resembles in style that on his Italian currency. 

The feudal money, which was current in parts of France 
down to comparatively modern times, comprises many pro- 
ductions of artistic merit and historical importance, and is a 
series of vast extent. It divides itself, in common with that 
of Germany and the Low Countries, into two principal 
sections, Lay and Ecclesiastical, of which the latter offers to 
view the coinage of archbishops, bishops, abbots, and priors, 
and the former exhibits a limited number of grand fiefs of 
the Crown, such as Brittany, Normandy, and Burgundy, 
with a long roll of names of minor dependencies, each 
in many respects self-governing and jealous of interference 
or control. With such a political fabric the English found 
it an easy task to deal when the war of succession between 
Edward III. and the Valois dynasty commenced about 1340. 

The origin of the SPANISH coinage is to be found in the 
Gothic conquest and occupation of Spain, Portugal, and a 

Introduction 2 5 

portion of France from the commencement of the fifth to 
that of the eighth century. Italy, France, and the Peninsula 
were in fact colonised by Northmen Vandals, Huns, Goths 
just as England received in turn settlers from the same 
part of Europe, variously designated Danes and Saxons. 
But in the case of Spain the Gothic influence and rule were 
supplanted at a very early date by a circumstance which 
completely changed and permanently affected the fortune of 
the country. In the opening years of the eighth century it 
became the object of a Mohammedan invasion, and down to 
the close of the fifteenth it remained the seat of what is 
known as the Moorish power. This new element in the 
religious and political constitution, which from the long 
anterior migration of the Goths or Vandals of Spain to 
Morocco was probably of a very mixed character, limited 
its domination to Cordova and Granada, and side by side 
with it -in Arragon, in Navarre, in Asturias or Oviedo, 
Leon and Castile, and even in Galicia and elsewhere 
separate governments rose and flourished ; and after many 
changes the whole was only eventually united under Fer- 
dinand and Isabella in the beginning of the fifteenth century. 
These successive changes and fusions unavoidably in- 
volved a correspondingly complex and voluminous numis- 
matic chronicle, of which, in a general manual, an outline, 
drawing attention to features and points of particular interest 
to the student or the collector, is all that is readily feasible. 


It is probable that very few specimens of the extremely 
debased form of the Merovingian type, known as the Visi- 
gothic, and remarkable only as existing both in gold and 
silver, and of the currency of the Moorish emirs and kings 
of Granada, will satisfy the taste or enthusiasm of the 
majority. The two constitute a large body of coins, of 
course totally distinct from each other, and are in many 
instances of the utmost rarity. They are interesting, how- 

26 The Coins of Europe 

ever, from the presence among them of certain dated 
examples, which are entitled to rank as the earliest attempts 
of the kind. But slight progress is perceptible in the style 
and execution of the money, even when we arrive at the 
eleventh century, and examine the types in use in Arragon 
and in Leon and Castile ; and it was not till the close of the 
thirteenth that a marked improvement occurred in the pro- 
ducts of these mints, and that we discern the beneficial 
results of combined Gothic and French influence. 

The numismatic system of Leon and Castile appears 
to have been somewhat irregular. Some pieces bear the lion, 
others the castle, alone, while a third variety unites those 
symbols. It is likely enough that there were special coin- 
ages for the two divisions of the kingdom. 

The armorial bearing or cognisance on some of the 
early silver pieces of these provinces exhibits a curious 
anomaly and contradiction in the shape of a rampant lion, 
although on the other side the true etymology of the name 
of the former province presents itself in the word Legio. A 
coin of Alfonso X. (1252-84) has the legend disposed in 
a then novel linear fashion ; and one of John II. (1406-54), 
in whose reign commenced a currency in a sort of metal 
resembling copper, adopted the lamb and flag of the French 
moutons (for, and, like the maravedioi Ferdinand and Isabella, 
the initial of the monarch, crowned, on the other side. 

The money peculiar to Arragon, prior to its amalgamation 
with the remainder of Spain, is found as far back as the 
thirteenth century with the distinctive emblems of the Barce- 
lona mint, the pellets and annulets in the alternate angles of 
the Cross on the reverse ; and from the same period we have 
a series of characteristic portraits of the reigning princes. 

On the whole, the strange vicissitudes which Spain 
underwent are tolerably legible in the variant character of 
her coinage while she remained the home of so many 
successive or contemporary races. Visigothic Northman, 
Moorish Goth (descendant of Genseric and his fellow-emi- 
grants), Celt, Provencal, Frenchman, left their mark in turn 
on her institutions of all kinds. During the Visigothic era 

Introduction 2 7 

her frontier extended far into France. Toward the end of 
the thirteenth century Navarre lapsed by the marriage of an 
heiress to the French, and continued to be an appanage of 
that kingdom till the extinction of the Capetian line. But 
although Ferdinand and Isabella augmented the heraldic 
cognisance with the arms of those provinces which they were 
the first to reduce to submission, if not to uniformity of 
government, their successors down to the period of the 
Republic of 1869 renounced all but the ancient quartered 
insignia of Leon and Castile. 

At the same time, pronounced individuality of character 
will be discerned in the several branches of this group of 
productions, both during the coexistence of more than one 
autonomous state on Spanish soil and after the consolida- 
tion into one monarchy by Ferdinand and his consort. 
Some of the earlier gold coins, such as those of Peter the 
Cruel (1350-69), are coveted on account of their rarity. 

The Spanish copper coins may be commended to notice 
as a peculiarly rich field for the amateur who desires curious 
specimens at a moderate cost. Starting with the reign of 
John II. (1406-54) he will find it possible to possess an 
almost consecutive assemblage of specimens and types to 
the present day, including the special currency for Pampeluna, 
the siege pieces of the Peninsular struggle, 1808-1809, and 
the colonial money. The larger proportion of the ordinary 
coins are very poorly executed and very roughly struck, and, 
when they are in pristine state, do not offer a very inviting 
appearance, especially where they are countermarked. 

The numismatic history of PORTUGAL appears to date 
from the eleventh century, when that extremity of the 
Peninsula was already under the government of independent 
and hereditary counts. These in the person of Alfonso I. 
(1139-85) assumed the royal title after a victory over the 
Moors of Granada. In the course of three hundred years the 
country, under the auspices of several wise administrators, 
and through the spirit of maritime discovery, rose by steady 
degrees to the rank of a first-rate European power. From 
1 5 80 to 1 640 its fortunes were bound up with those of 

28 The Coins of Europe 

Spain ; but the zenith of its commercial prosperity and 
political importance had been long reached when Philip II. 
annexed it to his dominions. Subsequently to the revolution 
of 1640, by which Portuguese independence was restored, 
and John, Duke of Braganza, proclaimed king as John 
IV., the annals yield very few incidents of intere'st to the 

The coinage of the Portuguese is infinitely less intricate 
than that of Spain for obvious reasons. There is merely the 
usual currency of the counts and kings, supplemented by 
that established during the sixty years of Spanish sway, and 
by the money struck for Brazil and other colonies. The 
most conspicuous features in the series are: I, the heavy 
gold pieces, commencing at an unusually early period 
about 1521 and preserving their continuity down to the 
middle of the last century, while the national wealth still 
outlived the wealth-earning power; and 2, the Spanish 
money issued in the names of Philip II. and his two suc- 
cessors, some of which is of the most uncommon occurrence. 
The coins of John IV. and Alfonso VII. (1640-67) are also 
difficult to procure in desirable preservation. Respecting the 
more modern numismatic productions there is nothing special 
to note. Some account of these will be furnished hereafter, 
as well as of the coinage for Brazil, Goa, Guinea, Terceira, 
Madeira, and the Azores. As far back as the closing years 
of the fifteenth century some of the ordinary money of John 
II. (1481-95) and Emmanuel (1495-1521) describe them 
as Lords of Guinea. 

Our survey of the European monetary system terminates 
with a glance at that of modern Greece under Capo d' I stria 
(1828-30), and of the Ionian Isles during the British pro- 
tectorate. The types used by the Turkish Government for 
their possessions on the Continent belong rather to the 
Oriental series, and are in any case of very slight import. 

The parts of Europe where the Byzantine influence 
lingered or survived the longest were the Eastern princi- 
palities bordering on Turkey in Europe : Sicily, and Venice. 
In Servia, Cyprus, and Sicily, not only the style, but the 

Introduction 29 

concave fabric of the money struck by the later emperors at 
Constantinople, was servilely imitated ; and it is worthy of 
remark that^ while the Britons copied the patterns of their 
gold and silver money either from Macedonia or from Gaul, 
they followed in some of their copper pieces the concave 
form of the Byzantine currency. It would be interesting to 
know the origin of this module ; whether it was suggested by 
the cup-like development of certain shells or by its supposed 
facility for preserving the type of the obverse. But the 
British concave coins were evidently copies from Byzantine pat- 
terns, and were therefore among the latest issues of the series. 
The money in all metals of the earliest Norman kings 
of Sicily was distinctly Eastern in its complexion, while it 
partook of the two principal sources of inspiration Arab 
and Greek prototypes. We find, side by side with the con- 
cave forms borrowed from Constantinople, the copper coins 
of thick fabric, and some of them of unusually large module, 
evidently copied from earlier Greek or from Arabian sources. 


The at first surprising multiplicity of currencies and 
mints is susceptible of easy explanation by the ancient and 
prolonged severance of centres from each other by wide 
areas of forest and waste, interconnected only by the rudest 
form of foot or packhorse track. Towns at an inconsider- 
able distance were virtually isolated at certain seasons of the 
year ; and the primitive clearing in the woods became by 
degrees a free burgh or a feudal lordship, alike substantially 
independent of the emperor or other suzerain. This condi- 
tion of affairs naturally favoured the growth of mints as 
well as of types ; and, again, even in comparatively small 
dominions, the ruler is found employing several seats of 
coinage. In the dukedom of Cleves there were at least 
four within a small territory. Yet it is possible that the 
mint-master and his staff moved from place to place, and 
that only a single apparatus was employed or required. 

30 The Coins of Europe 

We seem to know comparatively little of the history of 
the somewhat extensive and artistic coinage of Louis of 
Maele, Count of Flanders from I 346 to 1 384. This powerful 
prince, who went with the times in multiplying and improving 
his types, possessed at successive periods no fewer than seven 
denominations in gold alone ; and both here and in other 
cases it is obviously almost impossible to be sure whether all 
the issues of a minor ruler proceeded from mints in situ, or 
were struck at the nearest great centres on their behalf. 

The varying delimitation of frontier from time to time 
naturally accounts for the transition of seats of coinage and 
for the presence of mints beyond the region to which they 
may appear to have belonged. It was on a somewhat 
cognate principle that the German or Roman emperor, down 
to the end of the eighteenth century, struck coins for nearly 
every part of Europe, and that Napoleon I. issued French 
money from the mints at Utrecht, Rome, and Turin. Paris 
did not become the capital of the kingdom till the tenth 
or eleventh century, and at that time Normandy, Brittany, 
Burgundy, Dauphine, Vermandois, and Navarre were inde- 
pendent, while during the Middle Ages on the Spanish side 
there were constant fluctuations of boundary. The capital 
of the Visigothic kingdom was at Bordeaux. That of the 
Merovingians, prior to their removal to Paris, had been at 
Soissons, and subsequently, on the partition of the kingdom, 
the seats of government were at Paris, Soissons, Orleans, 
and Metz. 

The mintage of coins in feudal castles was nothing 
more than that of the English money in the Tower of 
London during centuries. The seigniorial chateau or the 
royal fortress was the only place of security, where there were 
no municipal or official centres. 

At present all is changed. Our arrangements are 
simplified. The entire modern machinery is mechanical and 
monotonous. The mints of these days are strictly utili- 
tarian. Coins are no longer works of art and historical 

In the case of many of the minor mints, where the 

Introduction 3 1 

number, as in France and Germany more particularly for 
the earlier stages of our inquiry, was enormous, it de- 
manded too large a space to admit every one into the 
alphabetical arrangement, but no locality of any consequence 
has been overlooked either in our Catalogue or our Chart. 
It is quite necessary to remark that others than the rulers 
of the several states struck money within their confines for 
currency there or elsewhere. Wiirtemburg, to cite a typical 
example, has at present within its territory a single mint ; 
formerly it had at least fifty. 

The contrast between ancient and modern political con- 
ditions cannot be more forcibly exemplified than by the radical 
change which has been accomplished in the laws of mone- 
tary production. The want or absence of consolidation in 
this respect, which survived the great revolutionary crisis of 
1789, was an inheritance from the militarism of the Romans, 
and was favoured and extended by the bias and demands of 
the feudal system. The successive dynasties which swayed 
the Continent in and after the Middle Ages found it neces- 
sary to propitiate the towns and the clergy; the coinage of 
each locality was a question in which the emperor or king, the 
bishop, the lord, and the municipality claimed to have a voice 
and a share : and a variety of coexistent pretensions was 
constantly traversed and entangled by abuse and usurpation. 

The committal of the most ancient mediaeval mints to 
the superintendence of ecclesiastics was necessitated by the 
absence of the culture required to transfer Latin legends and 
mottoes to the dies with accuracy on the part of the lay 
folk ; and the employment of a dead language in a state of 
barbarous decadence as a vehicle for conveying to the people 
at large the meaning of the engraved characters on the 
money intended for their common use was in perfect keep- 
ing with the habit of rendering all public acts and documents 
by the same means incomprehensible to every one who was 
not a scholar or a clerk in orders. The imperfect knowledge 
of the mechanism of the coining processes may be sufficient 
to account for the faulty presentment of the type on many 
early pieces, which, so far as they go, are clerically e^cact ; 

32 The Coins of Europe 

but illiterate readings not unreasonably excite a suspicion 
that the coin belongs to some unauthorised source, or was at 
least put into circulation by a pretender or usurper. 

Our Catalogue of Mints, shewing approximately at least 
all the places on the Continent which at various times 
have been employed as seats of coinage, no less than 
those of Denominations and Rulers, will, it is trusted, be 
found of service and interest. Many of the localities still 
retain their importance and the distinction of coining for the 
region to which they belong ; others, from fundamental 
political changes, have long ceased to be centres of activity, 
or have at all events lost their numismatic associations ; and 
of a few little beyond the site is at present known. One or 
two towns, which must have possessed at one period trade 
and power, have altogether disappeared, and survive only in 
numismatic and other records. 

It is more than possible that in certain cases we have 
erred in ascribing the coinage of money to given localities ; 
but we have never done so without a careful consideration 
of all the circumstances and probabilities. 

The disparity in the mechanical execution of continental 
coins is too conspicuous to escape observation ; it is a 
phenomenon which affects certain periods more than others, 
certain metals, or certain parts of a series. The gold money 
appears, as a rule, to have been treated with greater care ; 
while the silver of low standard, so largely used over the 
whole world for small values, before copper grew more 
general, met with almost invariable neglect, as it has, from 
its nature, descended to us in the same deplorable state as 
the "brazen-nose" shillings of Henry VIII. of England. 
But even the silver currency of France down to the Napoleon 
epoch is notoriously ill-struck, and collectors find it hard to 
secure for their cabinets really fine specimens either of the 
early French or the Franco-Italian series, nay, of the coins 
of Louis XIV. XV. and XVI. and of the First Republic. 
The gigliati, gold sequins, and other money of the Knights of 
St. John of Jerusalem are almost invariably poor from a 
similar cause. On the contrary, the good work which soon 

Introduction 33 

began to appear on the German and Netherland currencies, 
is generally shewn to the best advantage by the staff of the 
mint-master ; and it is a pleasure to meet with a mediaeval 
piece in high preservation, where the skilfully -executed 
portrait or other design is as fresh as when it left the die, 
and is perfect in all its elaborate details. The mintage is 
obviously as paramount in importance as the part played by 
the moneyer ; for the finest production may be marred in 
the striking, while the utility to the student of the most 
barbarous effort peculiarly depends on the choice of an 
adequate flan and a successful transfer to it of the type. 

Perhaps there is no country in Europe where the weight 
of the money has fluctuated more than in Russia, and yet 
there is none where, from the great numismatic revolution 
under Peter the Great, the coinage in every metal has been 
carried out with greater care, and where so few weakly-struck 
pieces have been produced, or at least suffered to pass. 

A natural fruit of the always increasing monetary inter- 
change among the various divisions of Europe was the 
mutual imitation of types by moneyers in quest of novel or 
improved designs. We find from the very outset the Mero- 
vingian dynasty in France, the Visigoths in Spain, the 
Anglo-Saxons in England, even the Italians, copying with 
a varied measure of skill and success the products of the 
mints of Utrecht and West Friesland in the Low Countries, 
and the German types. The Netherlands, on their side, 
adopted the English rose - noble, the Swiss dicken, the 
Bolognese lira, the Brunswick thaler, the Hungarian gold 
type of Virgin and Child, 1 the French gros, the last a piece 
of which the germ is Oriental. Throughout Eastern Europe 
the Byzantine influence and style were followed with an 
intermixture of Arab and Tartar feeling ; in the North, and 
eventually in the West, through immigrants or invaders, the 
Teutonic models prevailed ; and, finally, in the South in 

1 What is generally known as the Hungarian type, or Italian ungaro of gold, 
limited itself to reproducing the small full-length portrait on obverse. But the 
Netherlands copied the whole, including the of course incongruous legend. This 
rather favourite pattern, as far as the portrait went, was copied by the Medici 
and other Italian rulers. 


34 The Coins of Europe 

the Two Sicilies notably the current money was a tolerably 
faithful reflex of the successive races which obtained a footing 
on that soil. 

All sorts of obscure and accidental circumstances con- 
tributed to govern the countless varieties or modifications of 
fabric and character which now represent the European 
family of current coins, and favoured the tendency to borrow 
what was evidently treated as public property the happiest 
experiments in numismatic art. On the innumerable inde- 
pendent townships and seigniorial fiefs which swell the propor- 
tions of our Catalogue of Mints, the neighbourhood of a power- 
ful and permanent central authority, with affinity of language 
and religion, naturally operated toward the spread of certain 
favourite and familiar coins over a region, and even from 
one region to others ; and this incidence has sometimes 
created a difficulty in assigning pieces to their true patria. 

The trading caravans by land, and the annual fleets of 
the Italian republics and other maritime commercial states 
of Europe, with the great periodical fairs and the constant 
movements of troops, were the distributing agents in times 
when modern travelling was almost unknown, and was chiefly 
undertaken with a military or a diplomatic object. 

Denominations, as well as types, were freely appropriated 
under the ancient system of monetary economy ; and it 
strikes us as a personal trait on the part of an imperious and 
irascible pontiff, rather than a gauge or test of the average 
sentiment of the period, when Sixtus V. excommunicated the 
Marquis of Castiglione for copying a small papal coin known 
as a picciolo. 


A good deal of perplexity and inconvenience has been 
occasioned, in regard .to the older continental money, by 
the want of some authority for determining the actual 
nomenclature. The circumstances under which appellations 
were bestowed by accident or design were so remote and 
even so obscure, that it has only been by a gradual process 

Introduction 35 

and by co-operative research that the true distinctive terms 
have been to a large extent recovered, and even now there 
exists a large assortment of pieces, especially in copper, of 
which the correct denomination is uncertain or unknown. 
But the present work will, it is hoped, contribute not incon- 
siderably to set this branch of the question on a clearer and 
more satisfactory footing, and to diminish the necessity for 
specifying foreign coins, of whatever country or source, as 
deniers, oboles, and such other vague or generic titles. In 
almost every instance coins had their own habitat, and circu- 
lated within their own appointed lines ; and the numismatic 
frontier was formerly observed and respected as scrupulously 
as the political or geographical one. 

Coins of foreign extraction derived their appellations ( I ) 
from the standard to which they belonged, as sol parisis,gros 
tournois ; (2) from the place of origin ; (3) from the method 
of original fabrication, as the rouble ; (4) from some con- 
spicuous feature, as the croivn, the rider or cavalier, the 
griffin, the pkcenix, the briquet (short sword), the cruzado, 
the glocken-gulden and thaler, the ecu or schild ; (5) from 
the metal ; from the weight, as the livra or livre, the onsa, 
the dracJima, the peseta ; (6) from the value, as the dnarius, 
the vintem, the denier, the cent, centime, or centimo ; or 
(7) from the monarch under whom they were first introduced 
or were current, as the Carolus, the PJiilippus, the Leopold, 
the Francois, the Louis, the Napoleon, and (at Venice) the 
Marcella and Moceniga. 1 

The silver coinage of Capo d'Istria, President of the Greek 
Republic, 1828-30, bore the same symbol as his copper, 
namely, the phoenix, mentioned above, and was known under 
that name ; it was an appropriate one for a scheme of national 

As with the English Jacobus and Carolus, Harry groat 
and Edward, the inclination of the community to identify 
the public currency, as it passed from hand to hand, with 

1 It is necessary to observe that nearly all the foreign numismatists translate 
terms and names into their own language, and thus often mislead the inquirer. 
The French are the worst culprits in this direction ; everything and everybody has 
to be re baptized. 

36 The Coins of Europe 

the reigning prince or his family, was one which the Crown 
had every reason to encourage. 1 It was a practice which 
tended to familiarise and endear the features of the sovereigns 
to thousands who had never beheld, and might die without 
beholding, the individual ; and the engraver often succeeded 
in idealising, so as to convey a favourable notion of the 
personality of the king or queen, if he did not go so far as 
the artists of Greece, when they produced deified resemblances 
of great rulers, and led an ignorant and unlettered nation 
to look upon them as allied to the immortals. 

We ought to feel very well satisfied that so many, not 
only of the technical terms, but of what may be called the 
vernacular or sobriquets, bestowed on early continental coins, 
have been recoverable ; and we must not be surprised that 
some, the product of a temporary feeling or a humorous 
fancy, are unintelligible even to the country of their birth. 

The legends on Teutonic coins, both German and 
Netherlandish, were ordinarily in Latin, but occasionally in 
the vernacular. There is an urban silver crown or gulden 
of Nimmhegen, 1565, with Dutch inscriptions; the modern 
Belgian Government has recently adopted the practice of 
using the national language for this purpose. 

It is a curious, and not uninteresting, study to pass 
under review a selection from the various European series 
appertaining to a period of despotic and oppressive rule, and 
to take note of the pious, sympathetic, and paternal senti- 
ments which are engraved on the money. We hear of little 
but clemency and justice, noble and unselfish devotion to the 
general welfare, contempt of lucre, reliance on the Almighty 
or on some patron-saint. On the contrary, the extremely 
valuable assortment of siege pieces tells a very different tale : 
of cruel, unbearable tyranny, of sordid greed, of insolent 
arrogance, of paltry treachery, of popular despair. Such 
mottoes as we encounter on the coins of the Netherlands 
under Spanish misrule are eloquent enough : Aid us in the 
name of the Lord ! Save us, O Lord ; we perisli ! From 

1 See Cat. of Denominations under "Carolus," "Frangois," "Leopold," 
" Napoleon," etc. 

Introduction 3 7 

the lowest depths ^ve cry unto Tkee y O Lord / Others point a 
similar moral, but are more restrained, as Jure et Tempore, 
Pro Rcge et Patrid, Hcec Libertatis ergo. We can afford 
the Italians and Sicilians themselves can afford to smile, 
when they take up an old piece of the Bourbons with Publica 
Felicitas or Securitas Publica ; a copper coin of the Two 
Sicilies (seventeenth and eighteenth centuries) is even termed 
a publica ; we read on some of the reverses of the currency 
of the Knights of Malta, Non ^s, sed Fides ; and a favourite 
sentence is Cliristo Auspice Regno. On a piece of Philip II. 
struck for the Low Countries about 1585, we meet with 
such sentences as Hilaritas universa and Pace et Justitia} 
The interesting variety of the Netherlandish 2 oort and Hard 
with the reading on the reverse -Avx. Nos in Nom. Dom. was, 
like the majority of political movements, a gradual evolution. 
The original pieces, of which there is a tolerably long and 
regular series, bore on the obverse a portrait of Philip II. 
and his title as King of Spain, and on the other side a 
shield of arms with the remainder of his honours. The first 
revolutionary step was to substitute, in 15/7, for the royal 
bust the kneeling or seated figure of a man within a hedge 
beckoning for assistance, and the supplicatory reading above- 
mentioned ; the next replaced the shield with the name of 
the province issuing the money ; and at length we find the 
figure removed to make room for the lion grasping in his 
claw the staff surmounted by the bonnet. Such is the 
numismatic story in little of a noble, prolonged, and patient 
struggle for freedom. Apart from the protest and assertion 
which these changes conveyed, the employment of the coinage 
as a political vehicle helped to educate the popular eye and 
thought in the new doctrines of self-government. 

It is for their multifarious interest and value in preserving 
for the consideration and sympathy of later, and the latest, 
ages fugitive though acute and profound exigencies, that 

1 Some instructive particulars under this head may be found in Armand, 
" Tables de Legendes " apud his Medailleurs Italiens, 1883-87. 

2 Two specimens before us, lent by Mr. W. Stampa Lambert, are dated 
respectively 1577 and 1578, and give the titles of Philip as Count of Holland 
and Zeeland. 

38 The Coins of Europe 

we should prize our Money of Necessity of every region 
and period. We have elsewhere spoken of the excellent 
monograph of M. le Colonel Maillet ; it is wonderful for its 
completeness and accuracy, and for the story which it tells 
a story of all nations. That it might be improved, goes 
without saying ; and the process might perhaps be directed 
both to the withdrawal of existing matter and the insertion 
of new. In one sense and way it may be predicated of the 
entire coinage of the Netherlands, emanating from the 
Hollanders or Brabanters themselves during the transitional 
era (1570-90), that it was the product of a whole people in 
a state of siege. 


The benevolent motives of sovereigns, enunciated on 
their currency, went hand in hand with their claims to a 
divine origin and sanction. It seems to have been in the 
ninth century that the European ruler sought to add to 
the security of his throne by declaring himself to sit there 
by the grace of God. The alliance between Church and 
State was on a different footing when this pronunziamento, 
now a mere formula, was originally introduced ; nor was it 
by any means universal even on the currency of the divinely- 
born House of Hanover. The great aim of the secular and 
ecclesiastical authorities was to uphold each other at the 
cost of the community ; and we see how the Christiana 
Religio and Temple type was favoured by the Prankish 
kings, and continued by the emperors. In some of the 
Brunswick thalers the D.G. of the legend precedes the 
rehearsal of the name and titles, as if it were thought to be 
the primary object to catch the eye and arrest the attention. 

In an excessively rare daalder of Hermann Theodor 
Van Bronkhorst, Heer Van Stein, etc., there is the unusual 
motto (for the Low Countries) of Posvi Devm Adjvtorem 
qv\etn\ Timcbo. 

On the other hand, at the French Revolution in 1792, 
the Democratic party crossed over to the opposite side, and 

Introduction 39 

placed on the coinage, in lieu of the Dei Gratiti, the motto 
La Nation,. La Loi, Le Roi ; and in 1874 the younger Don 
Carlos struck money with Dios, Patria, y Rey. Napoleon 
never used the Dei Gratia, and was here followed by the 
Orleanists and by his nephew. The usage was at all times 
far from general on the Continent ; and it seems to be falling 
into desuetude. 

Not merely did the titular designations of many- 
European sovereigns outlive any actual or substantial 
sovereignty over particular districts or regions, but the 
names of emperors were retained during centuries after 
their death on the coinages of those places which had been 
accustomed to enjoy partial numismatic independence, as in 
the case of many of the Italian republics and German 
and Low-Country municipalities or seigniorial fiefs. The 
Kings of Spain clang to the title of Kings of the Indies, the 
Kings of England to that of Kings of France ; Henry III. 
of France never discontinued the addition to his honours 
of King of Poland ; princes of the House of Hohenstaufen 
occur on the money of Italian cities long after the extinction 
of the dynasty ; and in the seventeenth century Charles V. 
is found on the ecus of Besangon and the daalders of the 
Netherlands. The portrait of William the Silent is found 
on a piece of 1687, struck in gold to pass for fifty guldens ; 
and that of Dudley, Earl of Leicester, remained on the 
Dutch money after his death and the abandonment by 
Elizabeth of the cause. 

The surrender of so many of the mediaeval states of 
Europe to the supposititious patronage of the names belong- 
ing to the Christian hagiology, commencing with the St. 
Michael types of the Lombard kings and dukes, and the 
celebrated piece of Grimoald IV. Duke of Beneventum 
(806-17), bearing the legend Archangelvs Michael, became 
very detrimental to the original and artistic treatment of 
coins, which, as media of general exchange and of every-day 
transactions, were regarded, in a far larger measure than 
medals, appropriate vehicles for the expression of the local 
popular belief, and for the assertion of the secular authority. 

40 The Coins of Europe 

The figure of .the patron-saint, the symbol of the Cross, and 
the portrait and titles of the rulers or government, are 
prevailing characteristics on early numismatic monuments. 
At Venice, St. Mark ; at Naples, St. Januarius ; at Florence, 
St John ; at Genoa, in Hungary, in Bavaria, the Virgin 
Mary ; and in Marisfeldt, in Russia, at Saluzzo, Mantua, 
Ferrara, and elsewhere, St. George ; and so through the 
Calendar strike us as monotonous ; and we turn with a 
feeling of relief and satisfaction to a view of some city, a 
piece of architecture, a shield of arms, even if rather puzzling 
and mysterious, or to the Wolf and Twins, or the Three 
Graces, on coins of Piacenza. The culture of Florence, 
Urbino, and Ferrara, and the wealth, taste, and opportun- 
ities of the Venetians, might have led us to look for some 
digression from commonplace, yet there is only the striking 
series of Medicean portraits in the one case, and in the other 
the memorial of the Battle of Lepanto in the shape of the 
Giustina where, in lieu of a battle-scene or other suitable 
embellishment, we get nothing but a figure of the saint, on 
whose day the engagement took place. At Venice the 
denominations are unusually numerous ; but the spirit of 
invention was absent, and the types were differentiated to 
the most limited extent. 

The adoption of St. George by Russia and by Ferrara 
suggests the mention of two curious coincidences. In a 
grosso of Ercole I. D'Este of Ferrara (1471-1505) the 
reverse exhibits a horseman derived from some ancient 
Greek medal ; but in a danaro of the same prince the type 
has been altered to St. George and the Dragon. In the 
coinage of a region at that period in every sense so distant 
from Italy as Russia, the myth evidently originated in an 
equally casual way. A denga of Alexander of Poland, struck 
for Lithuania (1501-1 506), bears on one side simply a horse- 
man ; in one of Ivan the Terrible, Duke of Muscovy 
(1533-84), there is a spear in the rider's hand and a vestige 
of a monster below ; and in a lo-kopek piece of Peter the 
Great (1682-1725), struck about 1704, the whole legend is 
displayed. Yet even then there was some degree of 

Introduction 4 1 

indecision as to the permanent acceptance of the canonised 
Cappadocian contractor, who possibly presented a portion of 
his plunder to the priests ; for a pattern kopek of Peter, 
1701, a current one of 1711, and a pattern of 1724, shew 
only a mounted spearman, while a pattern of 1723 inserts 
the dragon. The saint ultimately triumphed, and appears on 
a kopek of Catherine I. 1727, and on subsequent kopeks 
and their multiples, and on some of the silver money, but 
with constantly diminishing prominence in modern days. 
An Italian (Pistrucci), who should have been capable by 
tradition of achieving something better, brought him to 
England, and placed him on the money of George III. Any 
other Government in Europe would have dismissed him from 
its service for such a wretched abortion. 

There are one or two remaining aspects of this part of 
the subject worth notice and attention. The canonisation of 
monarchs or rulers, usually after their death, as in the cases 
of Edward the Confessor and Henry VI. of England, the 
Emperor Henry II. of Germany, Philip le Beau, Duke of 
Burgundy, and St. Stephen and St. Lladislaus of Hungary, 
formed a circumstance of which their successors, as a rule, 
took the fullest advantage, by perpetuating their sanctity on 
the coins of subsequent reigns. The legend of St. Lladislaus 
is preserved on the reverses of the money of Matthias 
Corvinus two centuries later ; and a noble gold piece of 
Maximilian the Great of Bavaria, 1598, exhibits on one 
side a small full-length in armour and imperial robes, with 
sceptre and globe, of Henry II. who died in 1024. This 
policy tended to shed a religious halo over the throne, and 
to confer on the occupants a species of divine origin. The 
same principle and feeling underlay the not unfrequent 
practice of introducing on the face of the coinage the 
delivery of the national banner by the patron-saint to the 
reigning prince ; the ceremony imported or suggested a 
superhuman delegation of power, of which, even in such 
commercial states as Venice and Florence, the standard was 
the embodiment and symbol. 

Another respect, in which the same principle was kept 

4 2 The Coins of Europe 

in view, was where a prince favoured the association with 
his currency of a saint his namesake, as we see in several 
instances. Two members of one illustrious Dutch house, that 
of Brederode, Henry of Brederode and Oswald II., introduced 
upon their coinage St. Henry and St. Oswald. It brought 
them at least one degree nearer to the Calendar. 


The express notation of value on the face of a coin, 
which is not found on the earlier continental money, seems 
only to have been introduced, and then very sparingly, when 
the enlargement of intercourse between States, and the changes 
of frontier by conquest, gradually accomplished a revolution 
in the old system, under which each limited currency was 
restricted to a narrow and definite radius, and the worth, as 
well as name, of every piece was well understood to the few 
concerned. The multiplication of mints ordinarily meant 
that of more or less variant types ; and the light shed on 
the origin of a piece by the legend conveyed no intelligence 
to the popular mind. For instance, on the Merovingian, 
Carlovingian, and Anglo-Saxon coinage we meet with 
nothing but the names of the sovereign and the moneyer, 
perhaps the former, perhaps the latter, alone in barbarous 
and illiterate Latin. The inscription merely served as an 
official record ; yet the general appearance and weight of 
the denarius or penny may have sufficed as a passport ; 
and the circulation was at first bound to be circumscribed. 

The formal resort to convention-money long remained 
exceptional on the Continent, and always continued to be 
very incomplete. But practically, as is still the case with 
very few reservations, money of recognised character and 
weight in the more precious metals was accepted with or 
without countermarks, and even early copper coins occur 
with evident traces of having travelled far beyond their legal 
boundaries. The mixed complexion of some of the large 
hoards discovered in England testify to this practice. 

Introduction 43 

It was upon the last-named description of specie, how- 
ever, that the idea of stamping the settled rate was first, 
we believe, carried out ; coins of the lower denominations 
were precisely those which passed through the most ignorant 
hands ; and the employment of numerals facilitated com- 
prehension while it checked deceit. The chronology of the 
currency, except in special pieces, designed to signalise an 
important event, was as much disregarded by the authorities 
during centuries as the standard of exchange ; it was the 
greater frequency of issues, with the diminishing ratio per- 
haps of small local mints, and the sense of convenience, which 
slowly led to the habitual insertion of the period of mintage. 

The principle of authenticating coins as those of a given 
prince or moneyer, if not of both, came first ; then followed 
that of publishing the denomination ; then the date ; finally 
the value. 

Special attention must be invited to the continental 
initiative in dating coins, and to the important series of 
pieces bearing the year of production. The earliest examples 
commence with the first half of the eighth century, and 
belong to the Moorish kings of Granada, many of whose 
coins, struck in Europe, bear the year of the Hegira ; the 
next, whose origin is also in part Oriental, belong to Apulia, 
where we find gold pieces of Roger II. (i 105-54) with the 
words An\no\ R\egnt\ X. Germany seems to take the 
third place. There is a gros tournois of Aix-la-Chapelle of 
1422 ; the Swiss plappart of 1424 ; and also, longo intervallo, 
the gold ducat of the Palatinate, 1437, which last is not 
very uncommon, and exists in more than a single variety. 
But except in priority of time, the thalers of Austria from 
1479 to 1518, and the Joachim thalers of Bohemia, with one 
or two in ,the Saxon coinage, are perhaps of superior interest. 
The piece struck at the marriage of Maximilian I. with 
Mary of Burgundy, in 1477, is the first coin of that deno- 
mination of which the chronology can be absolutely fixed, 
and the portraits of the young couple render it highly 
attractive and desirable, especially in that variety where the 
Arch-Duchess appears in a steeple bonnet and veil. The 

44 The Coins of Europe 

Low Countries seem to have nothing anterior to 1475 m 
any metal or form. But after that period the principle was 
carried out very generally on the Continent. Denmark re- 
sorted to the practice in 1496, Brittany in 1498, Branden- 
burgh in 1500, Saluzzo in 1503, Savoy in 1508, Scotland in 
1539, England in 1551. But the observance was by no 
means universal or invariable even among those nations 
which introduced it. The value to posterity was not the 
motive, although at present it is the consideration which 
recommends it to us. 


Scarcely any substance can be mentioned of which in some 
region or at some period coins have not been struck. Gold, 
electrum, platinum, silver, tin, iron, lead, copper, glass, porce- 
lain, leather, paper, salt, not to mention shells and beads ; 
all these have constituted the material whence men have 
supplied themselves with the means of exchange, when some 
process outside mere barter became requisite or feasible. 
Among all such devices the application of the six last-named 
products to numismatic purposes may be considered more 
especially remarkable, since we somehow associate a currency 
with the various metals, from a natural preference for a token 
at once portable and negotiable. 

Within the confines of Europe itself, leather, paper, and 
salt have been employed as representatives of values in early 
times. The Russians, after the abandonment of whole skins, 
used irregular strips and then circular blanks of leather, 
stamped with some type at a remote date ; and specimens 
are said to survive. At the siege of Leyden in 1574 pieces 
of 5, 10, and 20 sols, formed of the leaves of missals, were 
accepted in payment. The ancient inhabitants of Venetia, 
like those of Hindoostan in more recent days, recognised 
impressed cakes of salt as an equivalent for a coinage, and 
the Abyssinians employ for the same purpose rock-salt 
in bar. 

Introduction 45 

The use of copper as a material for currency has been 
uninterrupted from the earliest coinage of the Greeks in that 
metal to the present day. The British and Northumbrian 
series, running concurrently with the Byzantine money, were 
followed by the curious pieces struck for Hungary, the 
Norman kingdom of Sicily, and for certain feudal possessions 
in Germany and the Netherlands. In the fifteenth century 
Italy, Spain, and Portugal began to employ the metal ; we 
have tolerably abundant examples of the Papacy, Venice, 
Castile, and Arragon, and the earlier Portuguese kings. 
From this period the supply has been more or less copious, 
and the continuity unbroken. But it may be observed that 
among the latest countries to adopt copper were France, 
Russia, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and (after the cessation 
of the Northumbrian mint) Great Britain, unless we consider 
the Gaulish copies of Roman brass as entering into the same 
category as the stycas of Northumbria and the copper and 
tin pieces of Southern Britain ; and again there is always, the 
doubt to which side of the Channel many of these latter 
examples owed their first rise. 

An interesting feature in the copper series of any country 
is that they were essentially for popular use, and above all 
so in cases where daily commodities were obtainable for low 
denominations, and the public call for articles of higher price 
was chronically restricted. When the primitive nature of 
exchange, first by barter and secondly by bullion, was 
partially superseded by the employment of tokens (inonetce) of 
fixed and recognised value, apart from weight, copper soon 
came into use as a medium for retail trade, and the import- 
ance of a trustworthy and uniform standard was discerned 
by the Romans, who by law required the sanction of the 
Senate for issues in this metal, though not in the others. It 
was the money of the people, and was the principal factor in 
supplying their common wants, as well as in furnishing the 
pay of the soldier. The vast quantity of small brass 
pieces of Roman fabric still existing, and the innumer- 
able mints from which they issued, demonstrates the 
enormous demand for them at the time ; and during 

46 The Coins of Europe 

the Middle Ages they continued to pass in France, 
if not elsewhere, in default of small coinage, at an under- 
stood rate. 

The copper coin remained in modern times the special 
machinery for all ordinary transactions of small amount, and 
its early introduction into those European states which were 
the pioneers in commerce and discovery, was a step at once 
wise and convenient. The Arabian and Norman settlers 
in the Two Sicilies were ' followed in this respect by the 
Spaniards and the Netherlanders, the Venetians and Portu- 
guese ; and in some instances, as at Ragusa in Sicily, 
we find copper money of Roman type and fabric, and 
of admirable execution, current during the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries. In parts of Holland, even in the 
fourteenth century, there was already seigniorial or feudal 
money in copper. In the later half of the fifteenth, Pesaro 
in Italy possessed a currency, like Venice, in copper sesmi, 
bearing on the obverse the effigy of Giovanni Sforza (1483- 
1510), and on the reverse the significant words Pvblicae 
Commoditati. A copper grano of Malta of 1629 reads on 
reverse Hospitali Hiervsalem Vt Commodivs, Almost within 
our own time Portugal, though deposed from its former rank 
as a first-rate Power, had an issue of 4O-reis pieces in copper 
of the module of the English twopence of 1797, inscribed in 
a similar spirit, Pvblicae Vtilitati. 

On the Continent from at least the sixteenth, and in 
England from the seventeenth century, the deficiency of 
small change was met by the local issue of traders' tokens of 
copper ; and in England, again, the higher average of wealth, 
with the existence of minor subdivisions of the silver penny, 
rendered the absence of a currency in the lower metal less 
momentous. It was not till 1672 that the confusion and 
inconvenience arising from the multiplicity of tokens led at 
last to the addition of a halfpenny and farthing of Swedish 
copper to the royal coinage ; and these new denominations 
were appropriately designated Numorum famuli, or, in other 
words, pieces of humbler value for common use. This 
designation was exactly on continental lines, just as the 

Introduction 4 7 

material for fabricating the new pieces was of continental 


In ancient times the mutual association of money with 
weight on the original theory and basis of exchange is per- 
ceptible in the Spartan iron currency and the primitive 
Roman As and its parts ; and when those inconvenient 
symbols had been superseded or modified, the idea survived 
in such terms as drachma, libra, lira, livra, peso, peseta, ounce, 
while among certain uncivilised communities the use of bars 
lingered down to the present time. The Hollanders in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries employed for their 
commerce with the East Indies and Ceylon a class of coinage 
approximate in character to that in vogue among the native 
population rough thick pieces of metal, or copper ingots of 
graduated lengths, stamped with the respective values. This 
was a concession on the part of the European trader to the 
Asiatic, for at that period we know very well that the 
Low Countries were numismatically in a very advanced 

The link between the old and modern systems is 
strangely illustrated by a temporary Franco-Spanish bronze 
coinage in the South of France in the thirteenth-fifteenth 
century. It appears to have consisted of a livra, the half, 
the quarter, and the eighth or onsa, so that those responsible 
for the output of the series imagined and created an artificial 
monetary pound of eight ounces ; and in point of fact the 
terminology imported a twofold use as a coin and a weight. 

In England the heavy copper penny and twopence of 
1797, equivalent to one ounce and two ounces, was the sole 
instance of an approach to the same principle ; and both 
these pieces were used as weights. But in what may be 
described as recent days in the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries the simple habits and ignorance of the Swedish 
and Russian peasantry prompted a resort and adherence to 
a species of currency which partook of the nature of barter 

48 The Coins of Europe 

more obviously than one adapted to a scientific standard, 
fixed and enforced by governments. 

Every collector has probably met with what are termed 
weights belonging to different nationalities and periods. 
They usually represent the correct standard of the piece 
named on them without respect to the metallic value, as, for 
instance, a copper weight balancing a gold ducat or real or 
an English sovereign. 1 These contrivances appear to have 
been intended to assist, when no scales of suitable nicety 
were generally available, to test the authenticity of coins, of 
which the weight was known through proclamations or 
periodical pamphlets, such as in the Low Countries they 
designated Placaets, and which were issued at one time 
nearly every year. Somewhat similar books of a more 
elaborate character were published abroad, furnishing engrav- 
ings of money current in various countries, its value, and 
its weight. A very singular one, in agenda form, found at 
Antwerp, is in the British Museum. 

The very designation Or, pi. Ore, applied to the old 
Swedish copper specie, seems to be allied to our word ore or 
bullion, as if a certain quantity of metal was originally 
bartered for a certain quantity of goods. 

The employment of ingots of gold and silver, which has 
to a certain extent survived among primitive communities in 
the East to the present day, was doubtless very general so 
long as no coinage beyond the silver penny and its moiety 
existed in any part of Europe. In the celebrated Cuerdale 
find, among a large assortment of currency of Anglo-Saxon 
and Carlovingian origin, occurred several of these ingots in 
silver stamped with a cross, and undoubtedly used in com- 
mercial transactions in the eighth and ninth centuries. So 
long as the monetary representation of such lumps of metal 
was understood and accepted, the conduct of business on a 
larger scale was immensely facilitated, more especially if 
similar tokens or equivalents for value in gold were also 
once available. The discovery of the hoard at Cuerdale was 
perfectly fortuitous. 

1 See Catalogue of Denominations, v. " Arnoldus Gulden." 

Introduction 49 

Immense quantities of those strange unwieldy discs of 
copper, stamped with a value representing only the cost of 
the metal, once existed in Sweden, where the buyer of 
old days must have carried his money, not in a purse, 
but in a cart, and where weight was almost evidently given 
for weight a daler's worth of provisions or goods balancing 
a daler itself in the scales. The output and circulation of 
gold and silver were extremely circumscribed. 

The introduction of this heavy and barbarous medium 
into the Swedish dominions was not, however, an abrupt 
step or a rudimentary effort ; for from the reign of Gustavus 
Adolphus (161 1-32) the kingdom had possessed the denom- 
ination known as an or and its divisions. The original 
or resembled in fabric, and equalled in weight, the common 
Russian 5 -kopeck piece current from 1758 to 1804, or 
thereabout; and the ponderous dalers of Charles XII. and his 
successors amounted to an extension or exaggeration of this 
currency. Prior to the or the Sw r edes had had nothing in 
copper larger than the mark of John III. and a coin in the 
same metal and of the same reign, called the New Stock- 
holm money (1573). In other words, the abnormal dalers 
of the fifteenth century corresponded with an epoch, not 
of numismatic infancy or of rising power, but with one of 
decline, when the country reverted temporarily to primitive 
methods of finance, and after about half a century (1697- 
1747) of trial relinquished them, perhaps from their sheer 

In the time of Catherine I. of Russia (1725-28) an 
experiment was made in the same direction and from a 
similar motive the motive which actuated the primitive 
rulers of Sparta ; but no further progress was made in it, 
and two or three patterns of the square copper rouble and 
kopeck of 1726 appear to be all that survives of the 
attempt to emulate Sweden. 

50 The Coins of Europe 


The respect for metrology appears to have long remained 
everywhere very slight, and it is difficult to comprehend, 
even in some of the modern currencies, such as Austria and 
Prussia, whether any standard exists, or, if it exists, is 
recognised. One of the inconveniences attendant on decen- 
tralisation and an infinite number of petty states was the 
total absence during centuries of any uniform basis of calcu- 
lation ; within a moderate radius a dozen currencies under 
various names and of conflicting weights were in force ; and 
this evil the convention -money was introduced to meet 
or mitigate. It is impossible to believe that any settled 
principle was known, or at least followed, inasmuch as the 
same value is found inscribed on pieces of the most 
dissimilar character ; and whereas it appears to have been, 
toward the end of the eighteenth century, considered expe- 
dient in parts of North Germany to insert the reassuring 
phrase " good " by way of denoting that the coins are true 
to weight, we see a small flan of copper marked III. Gute 
Groschen, of Mecklenburgh-Strelitz, 1793, and one of Bruns- 
wick in silver, about four times as large and about six times 
as heavy, current for 16 Gute Groschen, 1820. 

The French possessed at an early date two standards, 
those of Paris and Tours ; but the most ancient numismatic 
specimens, posterior to the so-called Gaulish money, were 
independent of either system, and belong to the Merovingian 
and Prankish series. The former are almost exclusively in 
gold, the latter almost exclusively in silver. The Paris 
mint, before the Carlovingian era, struck indeed nothing 
but pieces in the most precious metal ; but the Visigoths, 
whose territories extended over a considerable portion of 
what is now France, had their own silver money in addition 
to rudimentary types of the tremissis or triens. The Carlo- 
vingian currency, which commenced with Pepin le Bref, was 
in its module German, not French, and when Charlemagne 
improved the coinage, and issued deniers and oboles of 

Introduction 5 1 

a new type and of good silver, a distinct era was marked 
in the Prankish numismatic records. A reaction or relapse, 
however, took place in the troubled times which followed 
the death of Louis le Debonnaire in 840 ; the period between 
the close of the tenth and the middle of the thirteenth 
century witnessed a great decline in the currency through- 
out Western Europe ; and it was not till the reign of Louis 
IX. (1226-70), when the Crusades had done so much 
to promote commerce and the arts, when in Italy the 
Florentines and Venetians had set the example of a gold 
coinage and a fixed standard, and when in the Two Sicilies 
Frederic II. (1220-50) had issued his augustale^ that the 
monetary system in France once more received attention, 
and underwent reform. The gros tournois of St. Louis, of 
which the pattern was partly suggested by an Arabic 
dirkem, not only current in Spain at that time, but in all 
probability allowed to circulate in France itself, became a 
very popular and favourite coin, and was imitated both in 
the Low Countries and in Germany. Its standard and 
purity, which surpassed those of the dirhem, seem to have 
been fairly maintained, and in the same way as the Vene- 
tian and English gold currencies it won the confidence of 
the trader even beyond the French frontier. 

Everywhere the condition of national money or of local 
currencies formerly depended in great measure on circum- 
stances, which were perpetually subject to change or modifica- 
tion ; and improvements were intermittent and spasmodic. 
Occasionally the fluctuations and irregularities strike us as 
capricious. Nothing can be much worse than the French 
silver coinage from Charles VIII. to Henry IV. a period of 
about 1 20 years ; yet the gold fan in its varied types did 
not sensibly deteriorate, and the copper currency of the later 
Valois and early Bourbon monarchs is remarkable for the ex- 
cellence of its character and the maintenance of its standard. 

We have spoken of the development and vicissitudes of 
the Swedish copper coinage, which, if it were exhaustively 
treated, might form a topic in itself. The Russians appear 
to have followed in the steps of their neighbours and rivals 

52 The Coins of Europe 

to a certain extent, not only in the rouble of 1726, but in 
those ponderous 5 -kopek pieces, which were associated in 
the popular mind with value, and which had their immediate 
germ in the lo-kopeks of 1726, struck at the coronation of 
Catherine I. But Sweden also set Russia the precedent of 
a permanent reduction, as the principles of metallic currency 
became better understood, to a more reasonable standard 
and module, although, as will be evident to anybody applying 
the test, the latter Power has displayed at all times an 
indifference to metrology throughout its monetary system, 
which is apparently independent of method, and leaves the 
public convenience out of the question. 

It surely goes without saying, that if the regular coinage 
of the Continent was so untrustworthy, with a few signal 
exceptions, that intended for colonial and provincial use, as 
well as the special issues for the payment of troops or for 
other emergencies, was still more liable to suspicion and 
criticism ; and the discrepancy between the intrinsic and the 
artificial values lay in the metal no less than in the weight. 
To gain an insight into this branch of the inquiry we have 
only to examine the Roman currency for Egypt, Judaea, or 
Britain ; the Venetian for Albania, Dalmatia, or Cyprus ; the 
later Portuguese for Goa or Guinea ; the English for Ireland ; 
and the French for the lies de France and the Mauritius. 

The exceptions, which are to be noted, are the early 
Spanish and Portuguese money within the periods of the 
highest prosperity of those kingdoms; the colonial series of 
the East India Company, starting with the portcullis money 
of Elizabeth in 1 600 ; and the equally creditable coinage of 
the Netherlands for their East Indian possessions, extending 
from 1 60 1, when the piece of eight with its divisions came 
from the Amsterdam mint, to the present day. 


The question of alloy, in common with that of weight, 
entered into the calculation of governments under the old 

Introduction 53 

regime purely from a commercial point of view. Trading 
communities, such as the Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, 
and Hollanders in turn, appreciated the vital importance of 
employing in their transactions with foreigners a medium 
which was capable of bearing the test of the scales ; and it 
affords a criterion of the status of a people when the coinage 
begins to part with its prestige. The Venetians during their 
enjoyment of prosperity and power, and from their first rise 
indeed into prominence after the fourth Crusade, jealously 
preserved the integrity of their money both in silver and 
gold, and alike as regarded its weight and its fineness ; and 
we may be at liberty to surmise that the stress laid on those 
points had been originally inculcated by the necessity of 
possessing for the Eastern trade a currency which would not 
suffer from comparison with the high Oriental standard, and 
would even become at need exchangeable as bullion. It 
was much the same with the English noble, and it is so with 
the modern English sovereign. The utility of gold as a 
medium long remained nearly altogether commercial ; and 
even in the absence of treaties or a convention the probably 
studied coincidence of a coinage in that metal under various 
names, but equivalent in value, throughout all the most 
civilised parts of the Continent, aimed at the acceptance of 
gold or even silver specie on some international footing. 
When the knowledge of printing and engraving began to 
facilitate the production of such books, the foreign bankers 
and financiers were provided, as we have mentioned, with 
the means of ascertaining to a fraction the current worth of 
every piece in circulation from one end of Europe to the 
other ; and before these curious and interesting manuals 
existed in a printed shape, they were to some limited extent 
multiplied in manuscript with drawings of the coins. 

The endowment of a person or a locality with a mint 
was prized, no doubt, as an honour and a prerogative ; but 
the tenor of documents and other information seems to be 
unanimous in shewing that the concession had its commercial 
side, and that even a comparatively small municipal centre 
involved to the owner an appreciable amount of profit on 

54 The Coins of Europe 

production under any circumstances. It therefore followed 
that the more the mint-master debased his issues, the greater 
was the revenue arising to his employer, whether a secular 
lord, an ecclesiastical dignitary, or a township. It seems to 
have been, so far, very reasonably and naturally a constant 
incidence of the surrender of a mint by the lord, if not by 
the Crown, that a proportion of the surplus after the clear- 
ance of expenses was settled on the original feoffee ; and 
long after the mediaeval period, in the closing years of the 
sixteenth century, the directors or lessees of the mint at 
Montpellier are found engaging to give the seigneur of 
Damville 15,000 gold ecus to induce him to close a seat of 
coinage which he had opened in the vicinity, and which, so 
far as we can learn, was on a very modest scale. The value 
of the vested interest was presumably considerable, since 
this was a political juncture, when private individuals were 
taking advantage of the general disorder in France to strike 
money in all directions on their own account, and the removal 
of one competitor was apt to favour the rise of others. But 
during centuries, apart from special circumstances, the coinage 
was regarded and employed as a method of raising funds ; 
and the difference between the outlay and the income varied 
with the amount of central control or the financial needs of 
the proprietor. The deplorable spectacle which so much 
of the foreign currency, till we approach the middle of the 
seventeenth century, presents, is largely due to the free and 
unscrupulous depreciation by personages in authority of 
all such species of money as lent themselves to the object 
or repaid the process. The billon types afforded the 
greatest temptation to the speculator, who was usually pre- 
cluded from striking gold, and could gain little by tampering 
with copper. The relative impurity of the metal was not easily 
detected, and the current rate remained unchanged ; and this 
circumstance may be one way of explaining the wide preva- 
lence on the Continent in former days of plated currency. 

A survey of the whole range of European coins con- 
vinces us that each region, enjoying the privilege of a mint, 
was a law to itself, and that the sole check on a perfect 

fniroduction 5 5 

disregard of economic fitness and justice was the convention- 
money. But this system was apparently limited to Northern 
Germany and the Netherlands, where it more or less prevailed 
from the thirteenth century. Elsewhere the utmost difficulty 
must have been experienced in adjusting values in all mone- 
tary transactions ; and it was only the very restricted inter- 
course of communities outside their own local boundaries 
down to quite modern times which tended to render such a 
complex arrangement tolerable. For it was principally, of 
course, where smaller amounts were concerned, that the 
obscurity and confusion were likely to arise : a far greater 
uniformity was observed in the gold values and in the 
standard of pieces in that metal. 

There has always been a certain degree of perplexity 
and doubt in respect to a family of foreign coins, which 
from their composite formation in a varied degree are 
assignable either to the billon or to the copper series. An 
incorrect appropriation is never satisfactory ; and of the 
circumstances under which the bulk of these insignificant 
pieces appeared, we possess in England such slight know- 
ledge, that we have little beyond the prima facie evidence to 
guide us. Again, the currencies in different districts and 
governments diverged and fluctuated in value so much, either 
from local conditions or from temporary exigencies, that what 
is a silver denomination in one state or at one date, becomes 
a plated or copper one in another state or at another time. 

Taking two 12-kreutzer pieces of Hesse- Cassel, 1/59, 
one is manifestly plated, while the other presents the aspect 
of being copper. But the fact is that, instead of having a 
basis of mixed metal, it is a copper coin plated to pass for 
silver value. Indistinct traces of the coating remain in the 
letters and the edge. Time has uncased it, and we have it 
before us as it was struck. It is a sort of nondescript, yet 
it is preferable to those dilapidated relics which so often 
present themselves, in the shape of worn billon money, with 
nothing but the wretched foundation surviving. The plating 
process was an expedient widely adopted by the German- 
speaking communities from the seventeenth century, but 

56 The Coins of Europe 

more particularly within the last one hundred and fifty 
years. It was a poor device, encouraged by the immemorial 
predilection of humanity for something bright, and by the 
advantage accruing to the state from the difference between 
the intrinsic and the official worth. In the Netherlands the 
practice was almost unknown ; there the " black " money 
circulated without disguise and concealment ; and with the 
fewest exceptions the Dutch and Flemish systems were 
exempt from this disfigurement, till the modern Belgian 
kingdom instituted its issue of nickel. 

The question of impure or mixed coinage, which dates 
from the later Greek and Roman periods, the prototype of 
German silver being the plated tetradrachm of Parthia and the 
denarii of a portion of the Roman imperial series, brings us 
to the consideration of another more or less immediately allied 
to it. We refer to the possibility of estimating the material 
standing of a country by its coinage ; and this test limits 
itself to the metrology. The execution is an independent 
department, and may be influenced by the state of the arts 
or by the personal taste of the ruler. Some early European 
governments, as the Venetian Republic, subsisted during ages, 
with ample facilities at command, without producing a single 
specimen of high character. Others, as Florence, Parma, 
Salzburg, Brunswick-Luneburg, have left an abundance of 
beautiful types and excellent and careful work. But the 
more ancient currency of Venice, if it was never remarkable 
for its artistic qualities, was scrupulously exact in its weight, 
and almost without exception of true standard. Toward 
the end it displayed greater negligence in workmanship and 
inferior purity, more especially in its lower divisions. 

From the most remote times spasms of political depres- 
sion and distress, no less than a permanent decline in 
resources, have betrayed themselves by monetary degrada- 
tion. Temporary straits tell their tale to us across centuries 
in an enormous assortment of what is termed money of 
necessity coins or rather tokens struck in any available 
material, and stamped with fictitious marks of value. The 
practice imparted a passing pressure, and if it was too often 

Introduction 5 7 

repeated, Was bound to impoverish the community or the 
purse-holder. The debasement of the ordinary currency was 
a still graver symptom and danger. It might equally denote 
an intermittent or temporary phenomenon arising from the 
dishonesty or extravagance of the Executive, and might in 
such a case be susceptible of remedy ; but chronic and 
progressive deterioration rarely signified less than the de- 
moralising effect of political decadence. 

Outside the mere numismatic point of view there is a 
third direction in which the student or observer may judge 
by this sort of help the financial rank and capacity of a 
people. The descent of the currency to an infinitesimal 
unit, as in the aspar, which in the days of Byron was current 
in Turkey in Europe at less than the thirtieth part of a 
penny, is the surest indication of poverty and insignificance, 
since the circumstance too clearly shews, not that the market 
was proportionately cheap, but that there was nothing which 
in the eyes of a prosperous nation answered to one. A 
moderate proportion of individuals may, from choice or need, 
be " passing rich on forty pounds a year," and a Hindoo 
rice-eater can perhaps live on fourpence a day ; but prices 
may just as easily be too low as too high. 


It is hardly within our immediate province to enter into 
the question of numismatic development among the ancient 
Greeks; but an examination of all the known types of Hellenic 
origin fills us with an agreeable persuasion of the sense of 
beauty and symmetry, accompanied by a reverence for 
anatomical laws and a thorough insight into the structure 
of the human frame. The union of genius with industry 
and mechanical skill produced some of the most masterly 
examples of medallic art which the world can ever hope 
to see, and which found, perhaps, their nearest parallels in 
the chefs d'ccuvre of the Renaissance in Italy. In physio- 
gnomical excellence and external accessories the latter quite 

58 The Coins of Europe 

rivalled the finest Greek work ; but the men who were 
patronised by the great mediaeval families of the Peninsula 
were in the presence of conditions and restraints unknown 
to their predecessors. 

The Greek feeling and taste revealed itself in the 
Roman consular or family series, but was gradually lost in 
the imperial one, more especially in the decadence of the 
reverses. Even in the consular coinage, however, the 
delineation of the human figure already exhibited a marked 
declension from the high standard of fine Greek art, 
although bust-portraits and inanimate objects are rendered 
with equal success and felicity. 

Again, the Byzantine corruption of the debased Roman 
type, spreading itself after the fall of the western division 
of the empire over the greater part of Europe, and affected 
in its progress by climatic, local, and religious influences, 
penetrated on the one hand to Bulgaria, Servia, and Muscovy, 
where we discern it in the coins of the grand duchy of 
Kief, while on the other it found its way westward to 
Venice and other parts of Italy, to the Two Sicilies, France, 
Spain, England, and the Low Countries, where it formed 
the basis of the so-called Merovingian family of gold and 
silver pieces, but more particularly of coins in the more 
precious metal equivalent in weight and value to the third 
part of a Byzantine solidus. 

The variations and disparity observable in the abundant 
remains of the Merovingian money are to be attributed, 
perhaps, to the character of the colonial or provincial coin- 
age of Greece and Rome, with which the mediaeval copyists 
were brought into contact, to the degree of success in 
reproducing originals, and to gradual improvement in con- 
ducting the processes of fabrication during the course of 

At the same time, the types of many of the ancient 
specimens of continental currency were advisedly or insen- 
sibly adapted to local characteristics and peculiarities, and 
were broadly governed by the predominance of military and 
feudal sentiment. Even before any idea of introducing a 

Introduction 59 

date or the value was carried out, the importance seems to 
have been appreciated of identifying coins with the name of 
a ruler and a religious or heraldic symbol ; and the early 
employment of shields of arms, prior to the use of portraits, 
was dictated by the sense of a link between the bearings on 
the money and those on the escutcheons of sovereigns. The 
mediaeval denier soon lost all real relationship to the 
Roman denarius, and more and more, in its multiples up to 
a crown or ecu, complied with the spirit of more modern life 
and the militarism of the Middle Ages. The English word 
arms is translated into most of the Gothic or Teutonic 
languages by one signifying weapons. It was a notion in 
analogy with the formation of tribal government under the 
Lombard dux the duke of later times. 

In the reduction of mediaeval European currency to chrono- 
logical stages of development, we must first deal with typical 
objects without a key or inscription ; (2) typical objects 
accompanied by a few characters more or less unintelligible; 
(3) the same with a distinct legend, and the name of the 
moneyer and mint ; (4) with a shield or cognisance and a 
cross on the reverse infinitely varied in its form and canton- 
ments ; (5) with a rudimentary portrait on the obverse ; (6) 
with an ideal one; (7) with a positive or approximate likeness, 
a fully descriptive legend, and an elaborate blazon ; (8) with 
the date and the value. The extension of Christianity and the 
influence of the Crusades gradually effaced and superseded the 
Byzantine, as well as the Roman, feeling and style ; and with 
very few exceptions the prevailing tone of Western money 
became toward the ninth century Teutonic and unclassical. 

In the European coins of most remote date co-ordinate 
prominence is given to the ruler of the country or province 
and to the place of origin and the engraver. Where there 
was an infinite subdivision of territory and jurisdiction, and 
an equal multiplicity of mints, this course was a safeguard 
against confusion and fraud. 

The leading symbols on coins are : i , a cross ; 2, a 
crown ; 3, a sceptre and orb ; 4, a sword ; 5, an animal as 
an heraldic cognisance or a figurative emblem ; 6, a shield 

60 The Coins of Europe 

with or without quarterings ; 7, and finally, an effigy of a 
patron-saint, ultimately superseded or accompanied by one 
of the temporal ruler. All these marks of authority and 
distinction underwent from period to period development and 
change indicative of modified political and religious feeling, 
of more complex relationships between reigning families, or 
of the growth of artistic taste. 

The type with the cross presents itself with an infinite 
amount of variation both in the form of the cross and in 
the character of the cantonments. The most usual features 
in the angles are pellets, or globules, or annulets ; and most 
frequently the number corresponds to that of the Trinity. 
But on some pieces it is true, of later date -four of these 
objects appear ; and if there is no mystical figure intended, 
there is certainly no reference to value, as the penny or 
denier and the groat or gros equally bear these unexplained 

The evolution of the portrait on coins was gradual. The 
earliest stage was a head, which occurs in the rudest shape 
on the gold trientes of the Visigothic princes of Spain ; the 
next step was the addition of a sceptre, as we see it on 
some of the Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman pennies. 
Then followed in succession the bust or full-length figure in 
armour, the head bare or helmeted ; the crowned bust in 
ordinary costume (sometimes, as on the money of the 
Renaissance in Savoy, Saluzzo, Monteferrato, and Bologna, 
with a characteristic head-dress), in armour, or with the 
armour partly draped ; and the modern head, ordinarily 
uncovered and uncrowned. Between these progressive 
varieties there were, of course, many special and exceptional 
examples, such as the portrait of Charles V. or the splendid 
quadruple ducat of 1528, and the civil costume and peculiar 
head-dress on certain Italian coins of the Renaissance era, 
among which we may cite the very striking tallero of 
Marguerite de Foix, Marchioness of Saluzzo, 1516. 

The Cross was not the only device of the kind, even 
supposing the triads in the angles to have no religious 
import ; for on the mediaeval Bohemian money we perceive 

Introduction 6 1 

the Hand, just as it is on some of the pennies of Edward the 
Confessor ; and abroad it lingered even to a later epoch. 
The strange type adopted by the Georgians of an ingot cut 
in the form of the thumb and fingers, and impressed with a 
legend, more than possibly referred to the ancient super- 
stitious belief in the binding nature of contracts made with 
the thumb. 

The earliest deniers of the Bishops of Utrecht some- 
times bore a curious symbol in the form of the Greek letters 
Alpha and Omega, the latter before, the former behind, the 
crozier. This was a symbol of mortality, while the serpent 
on the reverse of some of the grossi of Ercole I. Duke of 
Ferrara (1471-1505) offers the idea of infinitude. 

Another remarkable divergence from the normal stand- 
ard and style on numismatic productions was the Low- 
Country loan of the so-called Phrygian cap in the stadt- 
holder's bonnet, with which, surmounting his staff or other- 
wise, we meet on the money of the United Provinces. The 
same symbol served at a subsequent crisis for one of the 
insignia of the revolutionary currency in France. 

In considering the question of types, too great a stress 
is sometimes laid on casual and subsidiary variations ; and 
the cabinet of the amateur is embarrassed by duplicate 
specimens of substantially identical coins. We perhaps 
still know too little of the incidence and volume of early 
production to enable us to speak confidently on this 
subject ; but a differentiation, often far more minute and 
trivial than on Greek or Roman coins belonging to the 
same issue, can scarcely be held to amount to a plea 
for possessing eight or ten pieces, exhibiting common 
features and telling no more than a single story, yet 
no two of them absolutely identical. 


In the body of the volume it is proposed to furnish 
to collectors some suggestions in aid of the formation of 

62 The Coins of Europe 

cabinets, where the plan is I, general; 2, special; or 3, 
representative. We cannot, perhaps, urge too emphatically, 
when the initiatory stage has been passed, and the amateur 
begins to enter seriously on his undertaking, the impolicy 
of casting his net too wide, unless it is the case that he 
proposes to study, not completeness, but condition alone. 
An assemblage of coins, all highly preserved, may well be 
rather promiscuous in their character, and may probably 
leave very few places unrepresented ; and yet the aggregate 
will not be excessive. After an experience of many years, 
the actual discovery and conclusion are, that of the entire 
mass submitted to our inspection and judgment, an excess- 
ively slender percentage reaches a fastidious standard. 

When the governing motive is special, either from the 
standpoint of archaeological inquiry or of ordinary curiosity, 
it becomes difficult to exercise the selecting process with 
any severity. A student or collector on these lines lays 
down for his guidance the law that it is absolutely requisite 
to secure every existing specimen of the coinage of some 
given country, prince, or line of princes ; or again, to bring 
together in one focus all recoverable pieces presenting a 
particular type or legend, not excluding such as bear 
illiterate or erroneous inscriptions, mules and contrefa$on$. 
It is a class of enterprise on which it is hardly our province 
to offer an opinion ; and there is no doubt that the judicious 
comparison of differentiated coins side by side has often led 
to useful results. 

The collection formed on a representative basis may or 
may not embrace an adherence to a high standard of 
preservation in each instance ; but it is under any circum- 
stances that of an amateur. The owner is a person who 
acquires only what pleases or suits him. He does not 
expend his resources in purchasing items because he sees 
them in the hands of his friends, or desires to forestall his 
friends in the possession. If he does not know that the 
largest public museums of all countries have desiderata, he 
finds in due course that the acquisition of certain rarities^ is 
either an impossibility or a matter of onerous outlay. By 

Introduction 63 

contenting himself with the proportion which falls in his 
way from season to season, unless he is a second 
Fortunatus, he will become aware at all events of one fact, 
that the supply of desirable articles will always exceed 
the means of securing them. 

An additional plea for a representative programme, 
rather than a general or special one, lies in the consideration, 
which to some may not be material, that too great an 
abundance of a particular class of property, and still more 
of any given section or department, is a sure mode of entail- 
ing commercial loss ; for the very superfluity of examples 
exercises a depreciatory influence. It is sometimes wiser to 
be incomplete. 

From the immensity of its range and the multifarious 
character of its subdivisions the continental series is perhaps, 
above all others, the one where representative treatment can 
be adopted with the largest degree of convenience and the 
least amount of scruple. 

In arranging continental coins in the cabinet in such 
order as may facilitate, where the collection is extensive and 
varied, reference to any piece, the political changes in Europe 
and the fluctuations of empire from the Middle Ages down to 
the eighteenth century have rendered it in numerous instances 
a task of difficulty to decide on the allotment of numerous 
groups of coins struck by foreign rulers for territories over 
which their jurisdiction was more or less titular. Such are 
the money issued by the French for parts of Spain and 
Italy, by the Spaniards and Austrians for parts of the 
Netherlands, by the Poles for Lithuania, by the Russians for 
Prussia and Finland, by Venice for Dalmatia, Albania, and 
other colonies, and by the Teutonic Order and the Margraves 
of Brandenburgh for Prussia. Probably the simplest and 
truest principle is to allow the soil or locality which purports 
to have produced the currency to govern its distribution. 

The subjection of coins to cleaning processes is a matter 
which requires caution and experience. The removal of 
superficial incrustation by soap and water, in the case of all 
but proof pieces, is unattended by much risk of damage, 

64 The Coins of Europe 

more particularly where gold and silver are concerned ; but 
billon and copper coins have to be treated with great 
tenderness, and while ammonia and other chemical appliances 
may be employed by proficient persons to restore to their 
original state specimens in the more precious metals, their 
use in other cases is apt to produce unsatisfactory results, if 
not positive disaster. Where the dirt, accumulated by time 
on old gold or silver money, is loose, its disappearance is 
certainly advantageous and agreeable to the eye, and the 
injury to the tone of the surface or to the patina is temporary. 
But there is a very broad distinction between tone and 
discoloration by soil ; and where a coin of early date has 
acquired genuine patination, it should on no account be 
disturbed, unless it be, perhaps, by the softest possible brush, 
where particles of dust have filled up the characters of the 
legend or the details of the type. 

One word more in the way of caveat is requisite under 
this head. Old coins frequently present themselves in a 
more or less worn condition with bright fields or surfaces, 
which to an experienced eye offer a rather painful contrast 
to the remainder. These pieces have been tooled and 
burnished by modern hands, and are materially impaired in 
value by the process. Their purity has been irretrievably 


The reader will observe that the work in his hands 
divides itself into four portions : the Introduction ; the Two 
Catalogues ; the Descriptive Text. In the first an endeavour 
has been made to survey the whole field, and to assist the 
student, before he proceeds farther, in forming as accurate a 
notion as possible of its extent, its character, and its claims. 
The Catalogues, which are taken to be infinitely more 
complete than anything of the same kind hitherto procurable 
in English and in one corpus, embrace a very considerable 
amount of information, calculated to be serviceable and 
interesting, upon many matters of technical and even of 

Introduction 65 

commercial detail ; they have been drawn up in the alphabetical 
form, with cross-references, to economise time and trouble. 
As for the remaining section, it may be predicated of it that 
the body is in this case not much more than equal to each of 
its component parts ; for all that seemed to be left, when the 
rest had been done, was to present, according to geographical 
distribution, an outline of European numismatic production, 
and to knit the whole together, as it were, with a tolerably 
copious General Index. 

That the earliest attempt on these broad lines will be 
found imperfect, can hardly be doubted ; but its utility may 
nevertheless prove considerable, since it embodies in a 
convenient and accessible compass a very large assortment 
of particulars indispensable to the English and American 
collectors of the continental series. To the majority of 
these two classes of students the voluminous works of 
reference in foreign languages, which form in themselves a 
sort of library, are sealed literature, alike from their obscurity, 
bulk, and cost. Here the means are readily furnished of 
enabling the ordinary collector to satisfy himself what 
constitutes a fairly complete, or at any rate representative, 
series in the several departments, what the leading denom- 
inations, types, and varieties are, and what rarities, or pieces 
historically or otherwise curious, exist. Occasional anecdotes 
and illustrations have been inserted where it was thought 
that they might be of interest or service ; and the writer has 
now and then permitted himself to enter into particulars of 
price. But the question of price and value is one of great 
delicacy and difficulty ; for condition and circumstances rule 
everything, and the selling figure of one coin is no law for 
that of another. 

To the professed and advanced antiquary language is no 
bar ; and those who do not care to bestow the time requisite 
for mastering the almost innumerable monographs of the 
several European countries, and a formidable supplementary 
body of pamphlets illustrative of local and sectional details 
perpetually arising, have the opportunity of resorting to the 
admirable Manual of M. Blanchet, 1890. This work is, 


66 The Coins of Europe 

however, far too elaborate and technical to suit the 
ordinary collector either in or out of England ; and it 
seemed worth while, within the compass of a single volume, 
to endeavour to attract more general attention among 
English-speaking folk to the immense store of interest and 
information which has been hitherto unaccountably neglected 
both by ourselves and by the Americans, and which far 
surpasses the British series in archaeological importance from 
every point of view. 




Aalborg, Alborga, Aalborgen, Alebv, etc., an ancient mint of the 
Kings of Denmark, and one of the Kings of Sweden in the I7th c. 
There is an Or of Gustavus Adolphus, 1627, struck there. 

Aargau, Switzerland, a seat of cantonal coinage for the lower values 
in batzen. 

Aarhuus, in Jutland, a Danish mint in the 1 5th- 1 6th c. A coin of 
Steno Storre (1470-97) reads Moneta Arvs. A piece of four skilling, 
l S3Si of Christian III., belonging here, has a half-length portrait of the 
King and Christianus D.G. Elect. Rex Da. 

Abbeville, a mint of the Counts of Ponthieu, I2th-i3th c. In 1283 
Philip le Hardi accorded permission to Edward I. of England, as Count 
of P., to strike money of the usual type and standard. Both Edward I. 
and II., and perhaps even Edward III., issued coins, some of which have 
a leopard as a difference, with Moneta Pontivi and Abbatis Ville, or 
Abbeville. In 1291 Philip le Bel acknowledged the right of the com- 
mune of A. to strike money ; and the reverses with Sit Nomen, etc., are 
ascribed to this source. 

Abo (since 1743 part of Russian Finland), an early Swedish mint. 

Acquabella, Savoy, the mint of the Bishops of Maurienne in the loth- 
i ith c., and possibly the place of coinage of the earliest Counts of Savoy, 
of whom no money is at present identifiable prior to that of Umberto 
II. (1091-1103). Aqvabella. It is worth suggesting that the A on many 
Savoyard coins may stand for this place, or for Avigliana, though in 
the field. The episcopal money was copied from the types of Vienne in 

Acqui, Piedmont, 17 miles S.S.W. from Alessandria, a place of coinage 
in the I2th-i3th c. There is a silver danaro with Fredric (? Frederic 
Barbarossa), and (in the field) I. P. on obv., and on rev. Aqve. In the 
1 4th c. episcopal money was coined here. There is a matapan of Otto 
Belingeri (1305-10) with Odonvs Aqvesis. 

Aerschot, S. Brabant, 18 miles N.E. from Brussels. The place of 
coinage, doubtless, of the early Dues d'Aerschot, though possibly at a 
later period the money may have been struck at Brussels itself. We 
have only met with jetons and medals ; but the administrative machinery 
indicated on one of these pieces, with lect. De La Chambre Des Compt. 
Dv Dvc, and the law of analogy, unite in supporting the idea of a local 
currency, if only of copper and billon. Similar jetons, as we know, 

70 The Coins of Europe 

were issued in countless profusion by all the continental Powers, espe- 
cially in France, Germany, and the Netherlands. 

Agen. See Aix-la-Chapelle. 

Agen or Auch, a mint of Edward I. of England as Duke of Aquitaine, 
c. 1 1 86 ; of the Bishops of A., 9th-i3th c. ; and of the Counts of Fezenzac 
(nth c.), whose capital was here. Deniers of the latter read on rev. 
Auscio Civ. 

Agimont, near Givet, Ardennes, a seigniorial mint of Jean de Looz, 
1280-1310, known from an esterlin with loh. Dns. De Agimot, and (on 
rev.) Monet a Agimot. 

Ahlen, Prussian Westphalia, a place to which the Bishop of Munster 
accorded a license to coin copper money in 1597 : the pieces bear a 
winged eel, crowned. 

Aire-sur-la-Lys, Pas de Calais, near St. Omer, formerly part of 
Flanders, one of the places which struck the communal niailles, and 
perhaps a mint of Baudouin IX., Count of Flanders, 1 194-1206. Ariensis 
with a lion passant, or Aria. The place of origin of money of necessity 
during the sieges by the French and Spaniards in 1641 under the Mat- 
erial de Meilleray, and by the Allies in 1710. Of the former there is a 
silver livre. 

Aix-en-Provence, Bouches du Rhone, a Carlovingian mint (Aguis 
urbs\ one of the Counts of Provence mentioned in a charter of 1146, and 
an occasional place of coinage of the Bourbon Kings of France. A piece 
of 12 sols, 1776, has the mark & for this place. 

Aix-la-Chapelle, Aachen or Agen (Aquis Grant, Aquensis, Aqvs), 
a mint of the Carlovingian dynasty, subsequently of the Hohenstaufen 
line. Here in 1422 was struck a gros, one of the earliest genuine existing 
pieces with a date. At a later period it was the place of coinage of a long 
series of civic or urban money in silver and copper. There is also siege- 
money, struck here in 1597 and 1670. 

Aix-lcs-Bains, Savoy, a Savoyard mint, I4th-i5th c. 

Aixe, near Limoges, the seat of a special coinage of Gui V., Viscount 
of Limoges (1199-1230), who struck barbarins in his chateau there. 

Alba, in the Abruzzi, a seat of a small coinage in the i6th c. 

Alba Julia, a Transylvanian mint under the independent waiwodes. 

Alba Regia, or Agria, an early Hanoverian mint. 

Albi or Alby, Dept. of Tarn, 42 m. N.E. of Toulouse, a mint, of which 
the profits appear to have been shared from an early period between 
the Bishop and the Count of T. In 1037 the latter is found bestowing 
his quota on his bride as a dowry. In 1278 the mint-master had liberty 
from the Crown to strike petits tournois and oboles tournois in considera- 
tion of paying 30 livres tournois to the King and the same to the See for 
each striking. Albieci. The money bearing Albicnsis and N. Bonafos 
was struck in and after 1248 at the Chateau Neuf de Bonafos, the residence 
of Sicard d'Alaman, Minister of the then Count. The Count, the Bishop, 
and Sicard divided the profits. 

Alessandria, Piedmont, the seat of a republican coinage, I2th-i4th 
c. There is a copper sesino with the head of St. Peter, and on rev. 
Alexandria. In 1746 a piece of 10 soldi in bronze or copper was struck 
during the blockade by the Marechal de Maillebois. 

Alkmaar, N. Holland, the place of origin of tin and lead money, 
struck during the siege by the Spaniards in 1573. 

Almeloo, Overijssel, a mint of the seigneur, Evert van Hekeren, i5th c. 

Catalogue of European Mints 71 

Alost, a itiint of the Count of Flanders, I3th-i4th c. Under Mar- 
garet of Constantinople, Countess of Flanders, 1244-80, and John I. of 
Namur, Count, 1302, \he groat and the tornese were struck here. 

Alpen, Cleves, a seigniorial mint of the I4th c., with a crest on obv. 
entwined with G.E.R.D. [Count Gerard], and on rev. Alp. 

Altenberg, Saxony, an urban mint in the I3th c., and one of the 
Dukes of Saxe-Altenberg, extinct in 1762. It subsequently struck money 
for the Dukes of Saxe-Coburg, to whom this portion of the dominion 

Altenkirchen, Rhenish Prussia, a mint of the Count of Sayn, I7th c. 
Only small denominations. 

Altona, a mint of the Counts of Holstein, 1620. 

Amalfi, the seat of a temporary coinage in the loth and nth c., both 
of gold and copper. The former, which belongs to the latter half of the 
nth c., consisted of tart, somewhat akin to those of Sicily, but apparently 
copied from a distinct Mohammedan prototype. There are copper 
follari of Mastalo I., Duke and Consul, 914-46, and of Mansone III. 
(1042), who bore the same titles. Some of the coinage is anonymous, 
and reads merely Consvl Et Dvx, but on a piece of Richard II. 
(1121-35) we find Ric. Con. Et Dvx 11. 

Amatrice, Naples, in the Abruzzi, a mint of Ferdinand I. of Arragon, 
King of Naples, 1458-94. 

Amiens, an episcopal, seigniorial, and urban or municipal mint from 
the gth c., when we meet with Carlovingian types. Those with part or 
a corruption of the word are ascribed to the bishops and the town, which 
perhaps continued the clerical motto in a degraded form on its oboles 
and deniers. The former are mentioned by the Bishop of Laon in 1 1 1 1. 
In the 1 3th c. this place adopted the Flemish maille with Civium and (in 
a triangle) Amb. on obv. and on rev. Moneta. The pieces reading 
Isiamunai or Isianumai or Isiamuntai (? the name of the moneyer) are 
also referred hither. After the Treaty of Arras, 1435, Amiens became a 
mint of the Dukes of Burgundy, who struck there money of the regal 
type, differenced by the Burgundian briquet. This was one of the places, 
with Ghent, Ypres, Arras, Noyon, and Roye, where the moneyer Simon 
worked for Philippe d' Alsace. 

Amoeneberg, Hesse, a mint of the Archbishop of Mayence. Amenebo, 
On some of the coins of this place occur two wheels as a symbol or 
as armorial bearings. Comp. Mayence. 

Ampurias, Cataluna, the probable place of coinage of the ancient 
Counts of A., of whom there was a long line from the gth to the I4th c. 
The mint may have been in the Castellon. Hugo Comes and Impuriarum, 
Comes Empvr., etc. Low values only. 

Amsterdam, doubtless the place of mintage of the siege-money of 
1578 and 1672-73, as well as of the colonial series of 1601, both fully 
noticed elsewhere. See Ducaton, Real, and Stumer in Cat. of Denom. 
Here also were probably struck the well-executed 'and interesting pieces 
bearing the name of Louis Napoleon, King of Holland, 1806-1 1, who made 
this his capital. His palace still survives. There is a local tradition 
that a certain number of proof impressions of the florin of 1807 were dis- 
tributed in advance among the ladies of the Court. 

Ancona, in the Papal States, a seat of republican coinage from the 
1 3th to the 1 6th, and of papal from the i6th to the i8th c. Under the 
republic there was a tolerably plentiful coinage, shewing a state of pro- 
sperity. The zecchino and double zecchino in gold ; the grosso, grossetto, 

72 ' The Coins of Europe 

and mezzo-grossetto in silver ; and the sesino in bronze, were struck 
here. A double zecchino at the Rossi sale in 1880, No. 6, produced 
360 Iire = ,i4 :8s. The popes, from Nicholas V. (1447-55)10 Pius VI. 
(1775-99), struck the usual pontifical types in all metals. In 1848, pieces 
of one and two baiocchi were minted in the revolutionary interest. 

Andernach, Rhenish Prussia, a mint of the Emperors to Henry III. ; 
of the Dukes of Lorraine ; and of the Archbishops of Cologne. Frederic 
I. confirmed the right of the last-named in 1167. Twodeniersof Thierri, 
Duke of Lorraine, 984-1024, read Andernaka. See Cat. Robert, 1886, 
Nos. 1058-59. Certain municipal or civic money was struck here in 1725. 

Anduse. See Sommieres. 

Angers, a Carlovingian mint and one of Eudes, Count or King of 
Paris, 887-98 ; also a place of coinage of the Counts of Anjou, loth-nth 
c. (Andegavis Civitas}, and of the Anglo-Gallic rulers under the Planta- 
genets. There is a double louis of Louis XIV., 1702, struck here. In 
1716, Louis XV. purchased the tithes claimed by the chapter of St. Laud 
d' Angers on the profits of the coinage, granted to it by the Counts, for 
6000 livres. The money produced here was commonly known as angevin 
or monnaie angevine. 

Anglo -Gallic Mints: Auch or Agen, Auxerre, Bayonne, Bergerac, 
Bordeaux, Calais, Chateauroux, Dax, Ddols, Dijon, Figeac or Fontenay- 
le-Comte, Guiche or Guessin (chateau near Bayonne), La Rochelle, 
Lectoure, Limoges, Melle, Montreuil-Bonnin, Paris, Poictiers, Rouen, 
Saint Quentin, Salle-le-Roy (near Montreuil-Bonnin), Tarbes. 

Angouleme, the seat of a royal and seigniorial mint from the loth to 
the end of the I4th c. Egolisime or Engolismc. This domain was, with 
that of La Marche, united to the Crown in 1322. 

Angra, in the island of Terceira, one of the Agores, a place of inde- 
pendent Spanish coinage in 1582 after the annexation of Portugal itself 
to Spain. Coins in all metals of Spanish fabric and denominations were 
struck here with A and a falcon for the Agores. 

Anhalt-Dcssait, Saxony, a principality in the nth c. under a son of 
the Duke of Saxony. A mint of the Dukes and of the Emperors. The 
right of coining gold was conferred in 1 503. A bracteate of Albert the 
Bear reads Marchio Anehaldensi. The earliest thalers are referred to 
1539. We have a very early copper pfennig with Man. Princ. Anh. Dt. 
and a lion rampant on obv., and on rev. in four lines In Domin. Fiducia 

Anhalt-Bernburg. See Bernburg. 

Anholt, Westphalia, a seigniorial fief, which obtained in 1571 from 
Maximilian II. a recognition of its right to strike money. In 1618 it was 
a mint in the employment of the Grafen von Bronkhorst, and from 1637 
to 1663 in that of the Prince of Salm. There are duits in copper read- 
ing Civitas Anh. or Cvsa Anh. 

Aniche, Dept. of Nord, France, the place of origin ot a bronze piece 
of 30 sols, struck for the miners, 1820. 

Annaberg, Saxony, a mint of the Dukes of Saxony, i6th c. 

Annecy, in the Genevois, a mint of the feudal counts, opened 1 5th 
Aug. 1356, closed in consequence of opposition from the See of Geneva 
and from Savoy in 1362, reopened in 1374, and finally abandoned in 

Annenskoie, a Russian mint under Catherine II. 

Anspach, Bavaria, probably (with Culmbach) the place of coinage of 
the early feudal lords of Brandenburgh-Anspach. 

Catalogue of European Mints 73 

Antignate, a mint of the Bentivoglio family, in the Bergamasque 
territory, Lombardy. Giovanni Bentivoglio I. and II. (1401-2, 1449- 
1 509) both struck money here in gold and silver : the scudo and doppio 
sctido (of which latter there are two types) and the zecchino in gold, and 
the bianco, testone, and half-testone in silver. Only the coins of the second 
Bentivoglio bear the name ; those of the first have Bononia docet and 
^V. Petroni de Bonon., with the papal type of St. Petronius holding the 
Church in his right hand. On the gold money of Giovanni 1 1., Bentivoglio, 
we find a charming portrait with the close-fitting berretta. The reverse 
of a zecchino of Giovanni II., Bentivoglio, reads Maximiliani Mvnvs, 
which probably refers to the right of coinage accorded by the Emperor. 

Antwerp, a busy seat of coinage from the Middle Ages down to the 
present century for local money of low values and for that of the successive 
rulersof the Southern Netherlands. John III., Duke of Brabant, 1312-55, 
used this mint. A type of the gros tournois was struck here in the I3th 
c. In 1584, during the blockade byAlessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma, 
Spanish Governor of the Low Countries, the ecu robustus and its divisions 
were coined for the use of the besieged ; and in 1814 independent pieces 
of 10 and 5 centimes appeared, bearing the respective initials or mono- 
grams of Napoleon I. and Louis XVIII. M.M. a hand. 

Aosta, a mint of the Counts and Dukes of Savoy, 1393-1590. Avgvste 

Aquila, in the Abruzzi, Italy, a place of royal coinage in the I4th and 
1 5th c. The sovereigns of Naples from Louis I. of Anjou (1382-84) to 
Ferdinand I. of Arragon (1458-94) employed this mint. They struck the 
bolognino and its half in silver, and the cavallo in copper. There is also 
a copper cavallo of Innocent VIII. (1484-92) belonging here, as well as a 
coin of Charles VIII. of France, and a sestino in the same metal of Louis 
XII. of France. Ay., Aqla, or De Aqvila. 

Aquileia, on the Adriatic, a seat of the coinage of the patriarchs from 
the 1 2th to the I5th c. The denaro, mezzo-denaro, and picciolo, all in 
silver, were struck here. The fabric of the earlier pieces resembles that of 
the mediaeval Mantuan denari, both being alike loans from the Lombard 
bracteate or semi-bracteate types. The first known issue with a name is 
the denaro ofVolckervon Leubrechts-Kirchen (1204-1218) with Volker P. 
and the seated figure of the patriarch, and on the rev. Civitas Aqvilegia. 
The arms on the rev. of an Aquileian denaro of Antonio II. Panciera 
(1402-18) are partly borrowed on the Venetian money for Dalmatia, 
struck about 1414. The adoption of this cognisance was surely influenced 
by the consideration of the excellent quality of the patriarchal money and 
of the prestige which his ecclesiastical rank carried with it. 

Arches, Dept. of Vosges, 36 miles from Nancy, a mint of the Dukes 
of Nevers in the 17th c. The coins are chiefly liards and doubles 
tournois in copper (1601-62). The liards of Charles II. appear to be 
the earliest (1601-37). 

Arenberg. See Armberg. 

Arezzo, a mint of Hugo, Marquis of Tuscany, loth c. (Carlovingian 
types), and during the republican epoch in the 1 3th- 1 4th c. The types 
were : the grosso and half-grosso in silver, the denaretto in billon, and the 
quattrino in copper. A bishop (Guido Tarlato di Pietramala) struck 
money here in 1313. The mint was suspended during the Florentine rule. 
Some of the early money bears the name and bust of the patron saint, 
San Donate. 

Aries, a mint of Carloman, son of Louis le Debonnaire, and of Charles 

74 The Coins of Europe 

le Gros, and an ecclesiastical seat of coinage from the beginning of the 
loth c. to that of the 1 3th, when the coinage was transferred to Beaucaire. 
About 1480 the Primate had also an establishment at Montdragon. In 1 177 
a seigneur named Bernard d'Auriac enjoyed an interest in the coinage, 
whence an inference may be drawn that Aries was also a seigniorial 
mint. The earliest pieces are deniers of Rostan I. (870-913) with Con- 
stantina on rev. Others, including those struck by the Primate in con- 
cert with the King of Arragon about 1266, have the name of the city : 
Arcla Civi., Areta, Arelato, or Arelaten. Some early pieces of small 
module with AR. have been assigned to this place and mint which, with 
Lyon and Trvees, has been supposed to have been employed by the 
Gauls. The later Primates assumed the title of Princeps, and struck 

Arleux, Cambrai, a mint of Jean de Flandre and his widow, Beatrix 
de Saint - Pol, 1313-25. Moneta Arleus, Arleus Casri Moneta, or 
Moneta Allodiensis. Also of Jean de Chatillon, Comte de Saint-Pol, 
1317-44, of whom there is a piece in fine silver with Moneta DElincowt 
Fet. En Frans. Arlevs. 

Arnhem, a mint of the Counts and Dukes of Gueldres and of the 
Emperors of Germany from the I2th c. The ancient type of denier bears 
on one side a donjon flanked by two towers. 

Arnsbcrg, Arenberg, or Arcnsberg, Livonia or Pruss. Westphalia, a 
mint of Schleswig-Holstein and of the Sees of Cologne and Oesel, I4th- 
i6th c. Arensboch. Also a seigniorial place of coinage, and one of the 
Dukes of Arenberg down to the close of the i8th c. There is a thaler of 
Lud. Engelbert, Duke of A. and S.R.I. P., 1785, with his portrait and 
shield of anus. 

Arquata, N. Italy, the probable place of coinage of a luigino of 
Gerardo Spinola, Marquis of Arquata (1682-94), under imperial sanction. 
The reverse has the two-headed eagle, crowned. 

Arragonese Mints during the French occupation, 1640-52 : Agramon, 
Arbeca, Balaguer, Banolas, Bellpuig, Berga, Besalu, Bisbal, Caldas, 
Casdona, Cervera, Figueras, Gerona, Granollers, Igualada, Lerida, 
Manresa, Mataro, Oliana, Olot, Puigcerda, Reus, Rosas, Solsona, Taga- 
manent, Tarragona, Tarrasa, Tarrega, Tortosa, Vails, Vich, and Villa- 
franca del Panades. 

Arras, a mint of Charles the Simple and of Philip Augustus, of the 
Comtes d'Artois, of the Kings of France in the 1 5th c., and of those of 
Spain from Philip II. to Philip IV. as Comtes d'A., and of Louis XIII. 
and XIV. A moneyer named Bertrand de Creuze was working here in 
12 12, and the well-known one of Philippe d' Alsace, Count of Flanders, 
struck money at A. among many other places for his employer. Aras O. 

Arta, Majorca, a seigniorial mint of Giovanni II. Orsini, of whom 
there is a billon tornese \\-\thJoAs Despotvs, and on rev. De Aria Castrv. 

Arx Fogarach, a Transylvanian mint under the independent waiwodes 
or princes. A.F. 

Ascoli, a mint of the mediaeval republic (i3th-i4th c.), of Lladislas, 
King of Naples (1406-10), of the Carrara family (1410-20), and of the 
Popes from Martin V. (1426-31) to Alexander VI. (1492-1503). Fran- 
cesco Sforza, afterward Duke of Milan by his marriage with Bianca 
Visconti, struck a denaro here. Nothing higher than the grosso seems 
to have been struck. There is a baiocco struck under the Roman republic 
of 1798-99 with F. Sforti. on obv. De Ascvlo, Ascholo, or Escvlo. 

Asperden, Aspermont, or Aspern, Rhen. Prussia, the place of origin of 

Catalogue of Eiiropean Mints 75 

a grosch of Walram von Falkenberg, G.M. of Teutonic Order, with 
Monet a Walranus Asperensis. 

Asti, in the Milanese territory, successively a republic under imperial 
authority (i2th-i4th c.), and a dependency of the Dukes of Orleans 
(1408-98), of Louis XII. of France, of Charles V. of Germany, and of the 
Dukes of Savoy. Of these rulers, if not of the Dukes of Milan of the 
Visconti family, Asti was doubtless one of the mints, as most of the coins 
indicate local fabrication. Astensis. 

Astorga, Prov. of Leon, Spain, a Visigothic mint. Astorica. 

Atri {Atri Picena], Naples, a mint of the feudal dukes (i 5th c.). 

Attendant, Pruss. Westphalia, an early mint of the Archb. of Cologne, 
with pieces reading Attendrvm. 

Audenarde, or Oudenarde, Belgium, the place of origin of a patard of 
Charles V. struck for Brabant, and of the money issued during the 
Spanish siege in 1582 :$ and lo-stuiver pieces generally countermarked. 

Augsburgh {Augusta Vindelicoruni), Bavaria, the mint of the Dukes 
and Kings of Bavaria, of the Bishops of Augsburgh, and of the Emperors, 
and the probable place of coinage bearing the name and titles of the 
great Swabian house of Fugger. There are thalers of Ferdinand III., 
1642, with a view of the city, and of Francis I., 1745, belonging to this 
place. The very remarkable volume of portraits of the Fugger family is 
well known. Comp. Weissenhorn. 

Aunelas (Omellas), Herault, an early seigniorial fief of the Vicomtes 
de Beziers, of the Seigneurs de Montpellier, and of the House of Orange, 
apparently dependent by way of homage on the Counts of Melgueil. 
Very little money seems to be known. Low values only. Omelladis. 

Aurich, Hanover, the place of origin for money struck by Prussia for 
East Friesland. There is before us a marien-groschen coined here by 
Frederic II., 1753, for that province. 

Auroie, Belgium, a mint of the early Bishops of Liege. There is a 
groot of Adolf van Marck, Bishop, 1313-1344. 

Austrian Mints (minor) : St. Andreas (S. Andrati\ Auersperg, 
Beraun, Bilitz, Brixen, Buchheim, Budweis, Cilly, Eger, Ems, Eule, 
Formbach, Freystadt, Friedland, Friesach, Gitschin, Gratz, Grieven, 
Gurk, Hall, Iglau ; (ISTRIA) Jaegendorf, Joachimsthal, Khevenhiiller, 
Kinsky ; (CARNIOLA or KRAIN) Krumauv, Kiittenburg, Laudestrost, 
Leipa, Lieding, Lienz, Linz, Lobkowitz ; (MORAVIA or MAEHREN) 
Melnik, Neuenkirchen, Neustadt, Ortenburg, Paar, Plan, Sinzendorf, 
Sprintzenstein ; (STYRIA or STEIERMARK) Trautson, Troppau, Tuln, St. 
Veit, Villach, Voelkermarkt, Withering, Windischgratz, Znaim. 

Autun, Saone-et-Loire, the seat of an obscure episcopal 9th-i3th c. 
mint, supposed to have been authorised by Carloman between 879 and 
884, and confirmed by Charles the Simple on his visit to A. in 900. But 
the right was, it appears, constantly traversed by the Comtes d' Autun and 
others. Edua, Hedua, or Eduens, Civitas. The only pieces with the 
name of Carloman appear to be later imitations. 

Auxerre, Dept. of Yonne, a mint of the Dukes of Burgundy, of the 
Counts of Nevers, and of the Counts of A. The money of Auxerre is 
cited in many ancient documents. The office of mint-master was here, 
as elsewhere, hereditary in 1204. The Count of Nevers was striking 
money at Auxerre in 1231. Some pieces have Senones Civitas, and on 
rev. Avtesiodr Ci., suggesting a monetary convention with the Archb. 
of Sens. The mint is said to have been closed in 1267. 

Auxonne, a mint in the diocese of Besan^on, employed by the Counts 

76 The Coins of Europe 

and Dukes of Burgundy, I4th c. A good deal of friction and trouble 
arose by reason of the pretensions of the Archbishop to the sole control 
of this and other places of coinage. Au.vona, comes Auxone, Auxona 
castorro, etc. 

Avallon, Yonne, a mint of the Counts of Auxerre and Tonnerre, where 
the Carlovingian and Auxerrois types were introduced in succession. 
Probably the coinage did not survive the I3th c., but a real, ascribed to 
the latter half of the I5th, reads S.G. Hovdavt Monnoier UAvalon. 

Avenches, canton of Vaud, a Swiss mint under the Merovingian 
princes. Aventtcum. 

Avigliana, a mint of the Counts of Savoy, 1297-1405. 

Avignon (Abinw), a place of Merovingian coinage and an autonomous 
civic mint, where the picciolo in billon was struck with Avioncnsis partly 
on one side and partly on the other. Subsequently a place of coinage of 
the Popes from Clement VI. (1342-52) to Innocent XII. (1691-1700). 
Clement VIII. (1592-1605) struck a double and a quadruple scudo d'oro 
here ; Innocent X. (1644-55) also had a quadruple scudo ; Gregory XV. 
(1621-23) struck a. piastra ; and in Cat. Rossi, p. 25, several examples of a 
billon piece occur, with the name mistura a makeshift term for mixed 
metal. One of the scarcest pieces coined here is a gpld scudo of 
Innocent VIII. (1484-92). Rossi, 1880, No. 5716, 560 lire. See it 
figured in the 8th plate accompanying Catalogue. 

Avioth, Uept. of Meuse, a mint of the Comte de Chiny, i4th c. 
Plaques and pi. are known. Moneta Aviotensis. 

Baar, a free barony formerly belonging to the great feudal family of 
Brederode. There is a silver daalder or thaler, with Moneta Nova 
Argentea I. Ba. of Dietrich van Bronkhorst and Batenborg, Heer van 

Babenhausen, a mint of Lichtenberg, 1587-1632. 

Bacharach, Prussia, a place of coinage in the 1 4th c. for the Counts of 
Moers, who struck here the gulden and the grosch. It was the ancient 
seat of the Counts Palatine of the Rhine, and their mint. A gold ducat 
of Ludwig IV. (1436-99) was struck herein more than one variety in 1437. 

Badajos, a mint of the Moorish Kings. 

fiaden, the sole mint of the margraviat and duchy down to 1572 ; but 
the output was not large. At the end of the I5th c. there was a monetary 
convention with Wiirtemburg for the supply of florins, etc. The earliest 
copper pieces date only from 1766. 

Batten Minis (minor) : Bischofsheim, Bischofsheim-am-Tauber, 
Bodmaun, Bruchsal, Carlsruhe, Durlach, Eberstein, Emmendingen, 
Gengenbach, Heidelberg, Hochberg, Klettgau, Koenigshofen, Langen- 
steinbach (near Durlach), Lauda, Offenburg, Pforzheim, Radolfszell, 
Reichenau, Schwazach, Thiengen or Tungen, Tottnau or Taettnau, 
Usenberg, Villingen, Waldshut, Weinheim, Wiesloch. 

Badonvillers, Lorraine, a private mint of Francis II., Duke of 
Lorraine (1625-32), who, on his abdication in the former year, reserved 
the right of coinage on his own domain. See Cat. Robert, 1886, No. 
1 542. Ba. 

Bagnols. See Beancaire. 

Bamberg, with Villach and Grieven in Carinthia, the place of coinage 
of the Bishops (iith-i8th c.). The earliest pieces are deniers of Bishop 
Rupercht (1075-84). The gold coinage commenced in 1354. Franz. 
Ludwig, from 1794 to 1798, during the French occupation, struck silver 

Catalogiie of European Mints 77 

money coined 'from the church plate, as at Eichstadt, etc. Bainberg or 

Bannassac, Gevaudan, a mint of the Kings of Austrasia, 6th c, and of 
those of Aquitaine, 7th c. A triens of Charibert, brother of Dagobert 
I., reads Bannaciaco Fiit. on rev. One of Childebert II., King of 
Austrasia, 575, has Gabalorvui. A two-handled chalice usually appears 
on the products of this mint. , 

Banya-Nagy, Hungary, a mint of the Princes of Transylvania, i6th- 
i;th c. 

Bar, a mint of the Counts and Dukes of Bar, I4th-i5th c. The 
coinage of this and other mints seems to be only indicated by the titles 
and names and by two bars juxtaposed. 

Barcelona, Arragon, a Visigothic mint (Barcinona\ and the seat of 
coinage of the independent Counts prior to the union with the Kingdom 
under Alfonso II. (1163-96) Barkinot. The original currency appears 
to have been imitations of the Carlovingian denier and the gold money 
introduced by the Arabs. There is a marabotin of- Raymond Berenger 

I. (1018-35) with Arabic legends and Raimimd'vs Comes. It was subse- 
quently a mint of the Kings of Arragon, as Counts of B. iith-i5th c., and 
an occasional one of the Kings of Spain. We should draw attention to 
a very rare gold piece ascribed in the Rossi Cat., No. 5839, to Ramiro 

II. of Arragon, 1134; it reads Arago. Rex Ra. Siege-money was 
struck here during the French occupation, 1640-52, and during the Penin- 
sular War, 1 809- 1 3. B. or Ba. 

Bardi, in the Parmesan territory, a seigniorial mint of the Landi 
family, 1 6th- 1 7th c. The scudo and grosso in silver, and the quattrino in 
copper, appear to have been struck here. 

Bari, Apulia, a mint of the Norman Dukes of Apulia, iith-i2th c. 

Bar-le-Dnc, France, Dept. of Meuse, a mint of the Counts and Dukes 
of Bar. 

B arietta, Terra di Bari, Naples, a place of coinage of Charles I. of 
Anjou, 1266-78. 

Basle, a Merovingian and Carlovingian mint, one of the bishops, 1087- 
1373, 1556-1789, and of the canton down to the establishment of an 
uniform coinage for Switzerland. Basel. Basilea, B-A. 

Bastogne, Luxemburgh, a mint of Henry IV., Count of Luxemburgh 
(1280-88). Deniers and gros only. Bastonia. 

Batenborg, Gelderland, a seat of coinage of the powerful and illustrious 
house of Brederode, Seigneurs or Heeren of Bronkhorst, etc., i6th c. 
Some of the coins bear, as usual, the imperial titles conjointly and 
Batenborgen, Batenborg, or Batenbo. A half gulden has Moneta Nova 
Argentea Batenborgen, and a goudgulden of 1578 reads Mo. No. Avrea. 
Dni. Herm. The. [Hermann Theodor van Bronkhorst]. A daalder of 
the same personage, 1577, adds to the ordinary title that of Seigneur 
of Stein. Comp. Gronsfeld. 

Baugency, near Blois, the supposed source of an obole of Thibaut le 
Tricheur, Count of B. Chartres and Tours, about 938, with Tetiabdvs Cm. 
/., and on rev. Balcvnti Civia. 

Bavarian Mints (minor) : Alsenz, Allenbach, Amberg, Amweiler, 
Aschafifenburg, Auerbach, Bergzabern, Billigheim, Brettach, Castell, 
Cham, Ekersmuhlen, Erlangen, Forchheim, Freisingen, Fiirth, Gerold- 
shofen, Geyersworth, Grunstadt, Giinsburg, Gundelbingen, Haag, Hachen- 
bach, Hals, Hamelburg, Hassfurt, Heidingsfeld, Herrenwoerth, Hersbruck, 
Hirschberg, Hochstaedt, Hoff, Hohenlandsberg, Ingoldstadt, Kadolzburg, 

78 The Coins of Europe 

Kalmiintz, Karlstadt, Kaufbeuren, Kemnath, Kitzingen, Landshut, Lan- 
genzenn, Lauenstein, Lauff, Lauingen, Lohr, Ludwigstadt, Memmingen, 
Mittenberg, Mosbach, Nabburg, Neuburg, Neumarkt, Neustadt-am- 
Aisch, Neustadt-am-Hardt, Neustadt-am-Saale, Nordlingen, Ober- 
schwarzach, Pappenheim, Pfreimbt (1487), Reichenhall, Reichertshofen, 
Roth, Rothenburg-am-Tauber, Rothenfels, Schauenstein, SchillingsfUrst, 
Schongau, Schweinfurt, Sternstein, Stockau, Straubing, Saint -Theres, 
Voeringen, Voltach, Wachenheim, Weissenstadt, Wemdingen, Woerstadt, 

Bayetix, a supposed mint of the autonomous Dukes of Normandy. 

Bayonne, a place where, in 1377, an ordinance of Edward III. accorded 
to John of Gaunt the right of striking money in all metals, provided that 
it was distinguished from that of England and Aquitaine. No specimens 
appear to be known. A piece of 12 sols of Louis XV. of France, 1772, 
was struck here. 

Beancaire, the mint of the Archbp. of Aries from the beginning of 
the 1 3th to the end of the I5th c., and an unauthorised place of coinage 
during the war and disorder of the League, 1586. The Seigneur de 
Damville, Constable of Montmorency, also struck money (pieces of 6- 
blanques = 24 deniers), to pay the troops of the insurgents, at Villeneuve 
and Bagnols. 

Bcaulieu, near Loches, Vicomte" of Turenne, a mint of the ancient 
viscounts and the seat of an abbey. In 1190 Raimond II., V. de T., 
when he left France for the Holy Land granted the abbot the right of 
striking money at B. with a tithe of the profits. A supposed place of 
coinage of the Counts of Anjou, loth-nth c. 

Beaumont, Hainault, a seigniorial mint of Baudouin d'Avesnes, I3th c., 
where were struck gros au cavalier or rijder-grooten with B. LfAvenis 
Dns. Bellimontis. See Cat. Robert, 1886, No. 259, where an inedited 
variety is figured. It may be mentioned that at B.-le-Roger in Normandy 
there was probably no coinage. 

Beauvais, Dept. of Oise, a Carlovingian and Capetian mint under the 
bishops, who from the beginning of the nth c. enjoyed the temporalities. 
Roger de Blois, 1001-22, also struck money at Nogent-sur-Eure, which 
was part of his domain. A denier and obole of nerve", Bishop of Pon- 
thieu, with the name of Hugh Capet associated, and Belvacus Ci-vitas, 
belong here. The mint did not survive beyond 1312-15. 

Bechevilain, Lyons, a chateau of the archbp., 1373, where it appears 
that he had a mint, and counterfeited the regal types during four years. 

Beckuni, Pruss. Westphalia, a place of coinage, I4th c., with two wild 
sows courant. 

Belgiojoso, Lombardy, probably the place of origin of a scudo of 
silver and a gold zecchino of the Prince of B., Antonio da Barbiano, 
unless indeed these pieces were struck at Vienna. The die of the scudo 
has the appearance of an Italian origin. 

Belgrade, capital of the kingdom of Serbia or Servia, and the seat of 
the national coinage since 1867. 

Bellac, La Marche, a mint of Hugues, Comte de la Marche, established 
in 12 1 1. Comp. Grandmont. 

Bellinzona or Bellenz, Switzerland, canton of Ticino, the reputed place 
of coinage of certain silver pieces of an episcopal type (1503-40), and a 
common mint for the cantons of Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden. 

Belmont, Switzerland, canton of Vaud, the former capital of a princi- 
pality, and presumably its mint. There is a gold sequin of Antonio 

Catalogue of European Mints 79 

Pignatelli (1733), with Antonivs Pignatelli and a bust on obv., and on 
rev. S r R. I. Princ. Belmontis. 1733, an d a shield. 

Beneventum, the place of coinage of the solidi and trientes of gold 
and of the silver pieces struck by the Lombard dukes from the 6th to the 
9th c. Some of the earlier of these bear, as elsewhere, the portraits of 
Roman emperors. and Victoria Aug., etc., while others (of the Lombard 
series) couple the imperial monogram with the ducal titles. In 848 the 
duchy was divided into two portions, Beneventum and Salerno. Bene- 

Bentheim, Hanover, the mint of the ancient Counts of Bentheim- 
Bentheim, whose territory adjoined the Dutch province of Overijssel. 
Schulman, xiv. 432, notices a thaler of Ernst Wilhelm, Count of Ben- 
theim, Tecklenbourg, Steinfurt, and Limbourg. 

Berg or s' Heerenberg, Lat. Mans, Westphalia, a barony, then a 
county, and eventually a duchy. It was united to Juliers and Cleves, and 
successively merged, with those and the other lordships appertaining, in 
the dukedom of Saxony and that of Prussia under the electoral house of 
Brandenburgh. This signiory and a great deal of surrounding territory 
were erected in 1806 by Napoleon I. into a grand-duchy in favour of 
Murat, and again constituted part of the kingdom of Westphalia under 
Jerdme Napoleon. There are coins of both, and quite a plentiful series 
of the latter. The early seigneurs of B. struck money here as elsewhere : 
comp. Dieren, Hedel, and Miihlheim. A thaler of William IV. (1546-86) 
exhibits the shields of s' Heerenberg, Hedel, and Polanen. On one 
from the Dieren mint, 1 578, the mark is a pomegranate. The Dukes of 
Saxony long retained on their coinage the titles of Dukes of Juliers, Cleves, 
and Berg. See further in Blanchet, ii. 103, note, and Cat. of Denom. 
Mining Pieces. 

Bergamo, N. Italy, a seat of republican coinage in the Middle Ages 
under imperial control or sanction. On its union with the Venetian 
Republic in the i$th c. it adopted the types and currency of its masters. 

Bergen-op-Zoom struck, after the Spaniards had raised the siege in 
1588, a gold piece with Bergen. 

Bergerac, Dordogne, a mint of Henry, Earl of Derby and Lincoln, 
pursuant to a grant of Edward III., June I, 1347, and of Edward himself. 
Henry struck gros and \ gros, blancs, and esterlins, with Hen. Comes. 
Lane, on obv., and on rev. Dns. Bracaivaci or Bragairac. He was 
created Duke of Lancaster in 1351, and some of his coins have H. Dux 
Lancast. Civitas Bragie. 

Bergheim, Alsace, the source of a bracteate of the I4th c. with B-E., 
and a mint of the duchy of Juliers under Raynald IV. 

Bergues-Saint- Winoc, Dept. of Nord, France, formerly in Flanders, 
an abbatial mint, nth c., and also the source of communal mailles with 

Berlin, a mint in the I2th c., and in or about 1280 one of the Mar- 
graves of Brandenburgh, Dukes of Prussia. The urban coinage, which 
commenced in 1369, represents the standing figure of the Margraf, and 
on rev. the arms of Berlin a bear passant to r. There seems to have 
been a late coinage of bracteates here, and from 1621 to 1666 Berlin struck 
pfennigen and hellers in billon ; it does not appear to have become an 
important mint till the i8th c. There is a grosch of Joachim and 
Albrecht, Margraves of Brandenburgh, 1575, belonging here. 

Bernburg or Anhalt-Bernburg, probably the principal mint of the 
principality, and, since 1806, duchy. The coins are in all metals, and 

8o The Coins of Europe 

usually display a bear passant on the wall of a fortress. The gold money 
is rare. There are the ruins at Wilhelmhof of an ancient castle which 
may have been a mint ; it dates from 906. The ducal residence is at 
Ballenstadt. The Coethen branch had a mint at C. in the I3th c. There 
is a piece in silver of So-kreutzer struck for A.-B. in 1592 during a siege. 

Berncastel, a mint of Richard of Volrathi, Archbishop of Troves 
(1511-31). A raderalbus of 1516 reads : Moncta Nova Berncaslele. 

Berne, the mint of the city itself from 1218 by virtue of a concession 
from Frederic II., of the canton, and probably of some of the minor 
members of the Confederation. The gold pieces of 32, 16, 8, and 4 francs, 
1800, for general circulation, came from this mint. An dcu of Louis XVI., 
1792, is countermarked with 40 batzen for Berne ; the same course was 
taken for other cantons. 

Beromiinster, formerly in the grand-duchy of Baden, now in the 
Swiss canton of Aargau, an ancient abbey, which appears to have struck 
money within its precincts. See Michaelsgulden in Cat. of Denom. 

Besalu, Navarre, a place of coinage, of which no monuments are 
known, but of which in 1072 Bernard, Comte de Besalu, gave a tithe of 
the profits to the church of Sainte-Marie. Gold, as well as silver, is 

Besan^on (Bisuntium Civi., Vesontium, or Crisopolis\ chiefly an 
archiepiscopal and municipal mint, but also a place of coinage for the 
house of Burgundy in the persons of Philip le Bel and of Jean de Chalon, 
Seigneur d'Arlay, Governor of the county of Burgundy, Mayor and Viscount 
of B. (1291-1315). The civic currency seems to have commenced in 1534 
under Charles V., whose name, titles, and portrait occur on pieces about 
1535 and as late as 1665. A denier of Jean de Chalon has Johs. De 
Cabulon [Rev.] Dns. De Arlato. The archiepiscopal money dates from 
the gth c. to the i6th, and the original mint was situated at the Nigra 
Porta. The right was limited to the city, but the See claimed the 
monopoly for the diocese ; and we find the Archduchess Margaret in 
1507 paying an indemnity for a breach of this title. The power to strike 
money in all metals was conferred in 1357. The types of B. were copied 
at Messerano in Italy. 

Besnt!, Loire Inferieure, a very ancient site, and perhaps the Besniaco, 
which occurs on a Merovingian triens, recently found near Roche-sur- 

Bethune, France, Pas de Calais, formerly part of Flanders, the seat of 
a limited coinage by the seigneurs, originally advocates or lay adminis- 
trators of the abbey of Saint Waast, near Arras, of the small billon pieces 
called mailles, with the distinctive marks of Betv, Betune, or Betunia. 
Mathilde, heiress of Bethune, married Gui, Count of Flanders, in 1249. 

Beziers, Dept. of Herault, the Roman Biterrce Septimanorum. A 
Visigothic mint, and a very ancient place of coinage of the Vicomtes de 
B., subsequently by marriage of the V. de Carcassonne, as well as an 
episcopal mint. This was also one of the places of coinage of the 
Constable of Montmorency, Henri, Seigneur de Damville, in 1586. He 
struck here pieces of 6 blanques, but employed it only during a few 
months, shutting it on the agreement of the mint at Montpellier to pay 
him 1 5,000 ecus. 

Bicht, Holland, the place of origin of certain mites of Jan van der 
Douck, 1 5th c., reading Johns Vander Dock, and Moneta Nova Bich. 

Bielfeld, Lippe, Rhenish Prussia, with Biickeburg and Oldendorf, was 
the place of coinage of the early Counts of Schauenburg- Lippe, i6th-i7th 

Catalogue of European Mints 81 

c. The Counts continued to strike money down to the end of the i8th c. 
A \ thaler of 1761 reads Wilhelmus Dei Graf. Reg 1 in Schaumb. on 
obv., and on rev. Nobilissim Dom : ac. Com : in Lipp. <& St. Also a 
mint of the Bishops of Munster, the Counts of Ravensberg, and the Dukes 
of Juliers, etc., I4th-i6th c. Bilevelde. 

Biella, Piedmont, a Savoyard mint, 1640-42. 

Bingen, Hesse-Darmstadt, a place of coinage of the Archbishops of 
Mayence or Maintz in the I4th and i$th c. 

Blenod-les-Toul, Dept. of Meurthe, France, the place of origin of a 
very rare denier of Jean d'Arzilieres, Bishop of Toul (1309-20), described 
in Cat. Robert, 1886, No. ion. It is a copy of a sterling of John I., 
Duke of Brabant. 

Blois, a mint of Eudes and Charles the Simple, and after their time 
of imitations of the royal types by the early Counts of Blois. Subse- 
quently the latter struck deniers with a degenerate portrait, having before 
it a small wolfs head, blez signifying a wolf, and with Blesis or Blesianvs 
Castro. The county of Blois was sold in 1361 with that of Dunois to the 
Duke of Orleans. But as far back as 1328 Charles II. de Valois, nephew 
of Philip le Bel, purchased of Gui I. de Chatillon, Count of B., the right 
of coinage at B., and probably within the lordship, for 15,000 livres 

Blomberg, Lippe, a mint of Bernhardt II., Count of Lippe, 1229-65 ; 
there is an esterling with Blomenberic; and we meet with billon pieces 
of the i yth c. 

Bockholt, Prussia, a mint, probably of a limited character, and mainly 
for copper money. The stiiber and the pfenning were current. A piece 
of 105 pf. was struck in 1762, and in 1690 had appeared the 2oth part of 
a reichsthaler in copper. 

Bois-le-Duc, or s' Hertogenbosch, the seat of a royal and civic coin- 
age, probably of limited extent, from the i6th c. We have the //Vzr</and 
the gigot, both in copper, and with the arms of the town. A well- 
executed Hard of Philip II., 1581, and a quarter patagon of Albert and 
Isabella, 1617, as well as the Hard of various dates with their titles, are 
assignable hither. It is not unlikely that the early forgery of guenars, 
found at Vucht in the neighbourhood, was perpetrated at Bois-le-Duc. 

Boitzenburgi a mint of the Counts of Schwerin in the I3th c., and of 
the Dukes of Mecklenburgh in the I7th-i8th c. 

Bologna, the seat of republican coinage subject to the imperial 
authority (i2th-i4th c.), subsequently of the money issued by the Pepoli 
family (1337-50), by Giovanni Visconti, Archbishop of Milan (1350-54), of 
the popes from 1360 to 1401, of the Bentivoglii from 1401 to 1402, of the 
popes from 1403 to 1409, of a republican government from 1416 to 1419, 
of the popes from 1431 to 1878, with the exception of a short interval in 
1797 and 1848. There is a silver scudo, a piece of 2 carlini, etc., of the 
former date, and 3 baiocchi of the Roman republic of the latter. The 
most remarkable coin in the whole succession of pieces minted here is the 
zecchino of 1323, with papal emblems and the full-length figure of St. 
Peter. It was the earliest apostolic or Roman coin which appeared at 
Bologna. Cat. Rossi, 1880, No. 374. It sold for 130 lire. We must 
also particularly note in the Bolognese series, besides the Pepoli and 
Bentivoglio coins, the triple scudo of gold of Clement VII. (1523-34), by 
Domenicani of Bologna, dated 1529, and struck during the famine ; the 
silver scudo of Gregory XIII. (1572-85), Anno VIII., being the first 
piece of the kind struck, and the set of gold, silver, and copper, issued by 


82 The Coins of Europe 

Vettore Emmanuele as King of Italy, 1860 ; the 20, 10, and 5 lire in 
gold ; the lira and 2 lire in silver ; the 40 and 20 centesimi in copper with 
a silver centre; and the soldo in copper (dated 1861). An early peculi- 
arity of the coins, which was followed elsewhere, is the separation of the 
last letter of the name Bononia from the rest, and its assignment to the 
centre of the piece; we see it in a danaro of the nth c., with the name 
of the Emperor Henry V. (i 106-25) on obv. and Bononi A. on rev. Comp. 

Bolsivcrd, a mint of the Counts of West Friesland, 1038-90. There 
is a double groat struck here, with the date 1478. Sch., Cat. vii. 239. 

Jjommel, one of the mints of the Dukes of Burgundy as Dukes of 
Gueldres, I5th c. Also one for a local coinage, and for money struck 
during a siege by the Spaniards, 1599 (a J gulden, a stuiver or sol, and 
a dute or doit). The piece exists in silver and tin, both on a square 
flan ; the second is in silver mint mark, a pomegranate ; and the last 
in copper. There are two varieties of a piece of 2 stuivers and a ^ 

Bandar oi, near Pithiviers, a seigneurie ceded by Philip le Bel to Hugues 
de Bonville in exchange for Chapelle-la-Reine, with the right of coinage. 

Bonn, Prussia, a mint of the Kings of Austrasia (Bo.\ and possibly 
the Bona which appears on the reverse of a denier of the Emperor Henry 
II., 1002-24. Some coins bear Beata Verona Vinces. Also a seat of 
coinage of some of the earlier Bishops of Cologne, I4th c. During the 
siege by Ernst of Bavaria and the Spaniards in 1583, a thaler, with the 
i and j, bearing the arms of the See of Cologne, was issued. 

Borbeck, Rhenish Prussia, a place of coinage of the Abbey of Essen 
(1459-89). Comp. Essen. 

Bordeaux, one of the chief centres of the Visigothic kingdom and of 
the independent duchy of Gascony. It was a mint at least from the 8th- 
c. The most ancient pieces appear to be those bearing Leutario and 
Burdegal; their attribution is uncertain. Others read Lodoicus, sup- 
posed to indicate Louis IV. or the Young, 936-54. B. was a prominent 
seat of the Anglo-Gallic coinage, as well as of the Kings of France as 
Dukes of Aquitaine, and an occasional one of the later French monarchs. 
In 1186, Richard Coeurde Lion gave to the chapter of St. Andre at Bor- 
deaux a third of the revenue of his mint there ; the right was bought by 
the Crown only in 1709. 

Borgo di San Scpolcro or Sabourg, near San Remo, the apparent place 
of origin of certain money of the I7th c., struck here by the authority of 
the Abbot of Saint Honorat de Lerins, on the coast of Provence, pursuant 
to a grant of the sovereignty of Borgo by the Comte de Ventimiglia as far 
back as 954. There may have been other and earlier examples; but only 
pieces of 1669 and 1671 appear to be known, with Monast. Lerincnse. 
P\rinceps\ Sepvl. and svb innbra sedi, etc. The coinage was suppressed 
in 1686. 

Borgonuowo della Roccfietta, a place of coinage of the Spinola family, 

Borgo San Stefano, a place of coinage of the Doria family, 1668. 

Borgo-Taro, Parma, a mint of the princely family of Landi, i6th c. 
There are quattrini in copper of Federico, the fifth prince, with D. Fed. 
Land. V. Tari. Comp. Bardi and Coinpiano. 

Borne, Overijssel, a seigniorial mint of the I4th c. with Dns. Born. 
or H. van Borne. 

Catalogue of European Mints 83 

Bornstat,& seigniorial fief united to Saxony in 1290. Probably the, 
or a, mint of the Counts of Mansfeldt a Bornstat, 1 6th- 1 8th c. Circa 1510- 
circd 1670. There are bracteates and deniers with Brene or Bwenen, 
and later pieces of 3 pfennigen with B. 

Bortheim, near Reckheim, Belgium, a supposed mint of the Som- 
breffe family, Seigneurs of Reckheim, I4th-i5th c. Moneta. Nova. DC. 

Bouillon, Basse-Lorraine, a mint of Godefroi IV., Duke of B.-L., 
1043-48. Some at least of his deniers bear the name of his consort 
Beatrix. Associated with this town and duchy is the name of the famous 
Godefroi de Bouillon, to whom coins have been attributed in the Basse- 
Lorraine series. Apparently a mint of the See of Liege in the i6th- 
I7th c. See Cat. Schulman, vii. Nos. 552-55 ; and Cat. Robert, 1886, 
Nos. 207-25, 388, 390. It is doubtful whether the Dues de Bouillon 
struck money here. The possession of the chateau was subject to many 
changes. The duchy itself and all the proprietary rights have long been 
absorbed in the grand -duchy of Luxemburgh. From 1792 to 1816 
Philippe d'Auvergne, Captain R.N., bore the title, and in 1815 struck a 
piece of 5 francs with Philippe D'Attvergne Due Souverain de Boti- 
illon, and his portrait. On the edge is inscribed Domine Salvvin Fac 

Boulogne, a place of coinage of the Carlovingian Princes down to 
Lothaire, and a seigniorial mint of a branch of the Counts of Flanders, 
i ith-i3th c. The domain changed hands two or three times, passing into 
the families of Dammartin and Auvergne. Besides this place of coinage 
the Counts had a mint at Lens-en-Artois, to which are referred deniers of 
Eustache I. (1046-49) and Eustache II. (1049-95) with Lesni Castel, or 
Lesnensis. One of the Counts of B. preserved his title after his accession 
to the throne of Portugal as Alfonso III. in 1248. Urbs. Bolonie, Bo- 
lungne, Boninge, etc. Deniers only. 

Bourges, a mint of Charles le Chauve, 1840-75, of whom there is a 
denier with Bitvricas on rev., and of the Vicomtes de B. down to not, 
when the fief was sold to the Crown for 60,000 sols d'or. The Vicomtes 
seem to have struck no money in their own name, but to have issued the 
Carlovingian types in that of the King. 

Bouvigne, Namur, a seat of coinage of Guillaume I., Count of N., 


Bouiiviller, Alsace, a mint of the Counts of Hanau for their Alsa- 
tian domains. 

Bozzolo, Venetian Lombardy, 16 m. W.S.W. of Mantua, a mint of the 
Gonzaga family, Princes of Bozzolo (i5th-i6th c.) and Dukes of Sabbi- 
onetta. See Cat. Rossi, 4593, and comp. Sabbionetta and San Martina 
deir Argine. 

Bracara, or Braga, Galicia, a mint of the Suevic Goths, 411-30, 
457-584. Br. or Civitas Braga. 

Brackel, or Brakel, Pruss. Westphalia, the seat of an urban coinage 
by a concession of the Bishop of Paderborn, I4th c. Moneta in Br., rev. 
Brakele. Civitas. 

Brandenberg, Saxony, a feudal mint in the I3th c. Bracteates with 
a double-headed eagle and a bat. 

Brandenburg Mints : Augermtinde, Baerwalde, Beeskow, Berlin, 
Bernau, Brandenburgh, Cologne, Cottbus, Crossen, Ciistrin (ceded by 
Poland to the Order of Livonia, 1259), Driesen (previously to 1317 a 
Polish mint), Drossen, Frankfort -am -Oder, Freienwalde, Fiirstenwalde, 

84 The Coins of Europe 

Guben, Havelberg, Koenigsberg-in-Neumark, Koepnik, Kyritz, Landsberg- 
am-Warte, Lebus, Luckau, Lychen (1302), Mittenwalde, Morin (i4th c.), 
Miincheberg (1369), Neustadt-Eberswalde(i369), Perleberg-am-Stepenitz, 
Prenzlow, Rathenow-am-Havel, Alt-Ruppin, Neu-Ruppin, Schwedt, Som- 
merfeld, Sorau, Spandow, Sparr, Spremberg, Strassburg or Brodnitzo, 
Wrietzen, Zossen. 

Brandenburgh, now part of Prussia, formerly an independent mar- 
graviat, of which part of Prussia was an appanage : an episcopal mint in 
the nth c. and an urban one in the. I4th. Chiefly for low values and 
billon money. The town entered into a convention with Berlin as early 
as 1322. The more important period commenced about 1500. The mar- 
graves had altogether from time to time about 40 mints. In 1722 a large 
coinage of copper groschen for B. took place in England, probably at 
Birmingham. There is an undated kipper scchsgroscher of Georg 
Wilhelm (1619-40) belonging here. A piece of 18 groschen of Friedrich 
Wilhelm, 1604-8, describes him as Supremus Du.v in Prussia. This 
was 17 years before the erection of Prussia into a kingdom. We ought 
to draw attention to the curious early dated groschen of this State from 
1500 to 1550. One of Joachim has Anno Domini, 150x3; and a second 
of 1506 Mone 1 . Nova Argenta. An'. 1506. 

Brandenburgh-Anspach. See Anspach. 

Brassac, Puy-de-D6me, a supposed place of coinage of Pierre I. or II. 
de Brosse (1287-1356), by reason of an obole of the Clermont type, with 
Petrus de Brocia and Brasau. 

Braunau, the source, during the siege by the Austrians, 1743, f a 
thaler, of a piece of 7 sols, and of tin money of i, 3, 15, and 30 
kreutzer, with Brannav and the arms of Saxony. 

Breda, the place of origin of certain siege-money in 1579 and 1625: in 
the former case of a piece of two florins on a square flan, and of one of 
20 stuivers, both in silver ; in the latter of pieces of 60, 40, and 20 stuivers 
silver, and 2 and i stuivers in copper. 

Brekerfcld, Prussian Westphalia, a mint of the Counts de la Marck. 

Bremen, the seat of a civic and episcopal coinage, including bracteates 
to a comparatively late date. A double grosch of Henry of Schwar- 
zenburg, 1463-96, reads Mon. Nova Bremesis. 

Brescello, or Bersello, Govt. of Reggio, a mint of the Este family, 
Dukes of Reggio, i6th c. There is a rare scudo without date, with 
Omnis nobilitas A Deo Est, and on rev. the effigy and name of St. 

Brescia, the place of origin of imperial money, i Ith-I2th c. ; of autono- 
mous coinage, I3th-i4th c. ; of the currency struck in the name of the 
Malatesta family, I5th c. In the early years of that c. the city and 
territory were acquired by Venice ; but no special coinage was provided 
by the republic. 

Breslau (Wratislav), Silesia, a mint of the Dukes of S. from the I3th 
to the 1 4th c., and of the Kings of Hungary, the prince-bishops, and the 
town down to the I7th or i8th. The Kings of Prussia employed it after 
1750. There is a long series of episcopal pieces in gold and silver, 
including a ducat of 1592, with the titles of the bishop and emperor, and a 
3-ducat piece of 1632, in which the bishop is styled Prince of Sweden. 
During the Thirty Years' War (1622-48) small uniface copper coins and 
larger money in the same metal were issued for local use : the former 
are dated 1621 and 1622, the latter sometimes have 1645 stamped in ; 

Catalogue of European Mints 85 

and all bear W. for Wratislav. The silver three-thaler of 1621, and the 
~1\ groschen of 1645, both money of necessity, were perhaps struck here. 

Brieg. See Leignitz-Brieg. 

Briesach, doubtless the place of mintage of two varieties of square 
silver pieces of 40 batzen struck during the siege by the Swedes, 1633. 

Briton, or Brillon, Prussian Westphalia, a mint of the Archbp. of 
Cologne. Briglon Civ it as. 

Brindisi, a mint of the Norman Dukes of Apulia and Kings of Sicily, 
iith-i2th c., and of the Emperors of Germany (i 2th- 1 3th c.). Silver, 
billon, and copper were struck here. Among the last were the follaro 
and its divisions. 

Brioude, Haute -Loire, an unimportant mint in the loth-nth c. 
Deniers with Brivites or Bitirites. 

Brixen, Austria, a seat of episcopal coinage from the loth c., and of 
that of the Duke of Kaernthen or Carinthia. The Emperor Charles IV. 
authorised Barnabo Visconti of Milan to strike money here. Arms a 
lamb. The coinage lasted down to the end of the last c. 

Broech, Limburg, Brabant, probably the seat of a limited coinage of 
the feudal lords, of whom there was a rather long succession. 

Bromberg, or Bydgost, a Polish mint, 1650. Bidgostiens. 

Brosse-Huriel, Bourbonnais, the seat of a seigniorial coinage, I3th- 
I4th c., principally copied from the types of Chartres, Dreux, Limoges, 
and Brittany. De Uriaco, Brucie, Dns. Hur. or Hurce., Vicccomes 
Brucie, etc. These coins were struck both at Brosse and at Huriel. 
See Brassac. 

Bruges (Bruggia), a mint of Charles le Chauve, of Charles the Simple, 
of the Counts of Flanders from the I2th c., of the Dukes of Burgundy, of 
Charles V. of Germany, etc., down to the i8th c. There is a schelling of 
Maria Theresa, 1750, struck here : m.m. a lis or a small lion. 

Briigg, or Bruck, cant, of Aargau, a place of coinage in the 1 3th c. No 
coins known. 

Brtmswick, the seat of urban coinage from 1345, although the brae- 

Brunswick : J thaler, palm-tree type. 

teates with a lion may very well be prior to the grant of Duke Magnus in 
that year. The earliest thalers belong to the close of the I5th c. There 
is a rare one of 1636 with Mone. Nova. Reip. Bnmsvicensis. Seejutius- 
locser in Cat. of Denom. Brunswick may be regarded as the general 
mint of the plentiful coinage of the branch of B. Wolfenbiittel, although 
some of the Dukes have employed Wolfenbiittel itself. 

Brunswick Mints (minor) : Bevern, Blankenburg, Catlenburg, 
Dannenberg, Gandersheim, Gittelde, Grubenhagen, Harburg, Henrich- 
stadt, Helmstadt, Herzberg, Hitzacker, Lauterberg, Moisburg, Salzder- 
helden, Scharnebeck, Walkenried, Weende, Winsen. 

86 The Coins of Europe 

Brussels, an early Brabantine mint (m.m. a bridge or tower, afterward 
an angel's head) and the seat of coinage of the Dukes of Brabant and 
the successive rulers of this part of the Low Countries. See Cat. Robert, 
1886, No. 134, for a notice of an early denier struck here in the name of 
the chapter of St. Gudule. There is a variety of siege-pieces during the 
i6th and iyth c. ; some of those in gold are doubtful ; and one of 1579 is 
usually suspected. B. was perhaps the mint of the interesting series of 
revolutionary money struck for the eleven revolted provinces in 1790, con- 
sisting of the 14 (and probably, though we have not seen it, 7) florins in 
gold, and in silver 3 florins, i florin (of two types), 10 sols (do.), and in 
copper the Hard and double Hard. The engraver is said to have been 
Van Berckel. From 1816 to 1831, prior to the partition of the Nether- 
lands, Brussels was one of the mints of Willem I. of the house of Orange- 

Bucharest, Wallachia, probably one of the seats of coinage of the 
hospodars and Kings of Roumania. 

Biickeburg, the capital of Schaumburg-Lippe, and probably the seat 
of its coinage. 

Buda, or Buda-Pesth, metropolis of Hungary, a seat of the Hungarian 
coinage during the independence of this part of the Austrian dominions. 
Its earliest productions were coins on the Byzantine model, and very early 
pieces in copper exist. The German and Austrian emperors have 
always issued special money of the Virgin and Child type for Hungary. 
In Overijssel, in the Low Countries, the type of the gold ducat with the 
name of S. Vladislaus and the Virgin and Child was adopted at an early 
period with a very slight or even no alteration. 

Bunde (PLimburg), a seigniorial mint of the I5th c., where billon 
pieces, bearing a shield crowned with a branch, and reading lohans De 
Bvnde, or lohs. de Broegh, were struck. Comp. Broech. 

Burgdorf, canton of Berne. Bv. or Bvrgdorf. See Kyburg. 

Burg Friedberg, Hesse -Darmstadt, a feudal burgraviat, and after- 
wards viscounty, which had a concession from Charles V. in 1541 to 
strike money in gold and silver. The albus was current herein 1591, 
Johan Eberhard being then viscount. The coinage continued inter- 
mittently till 1804. 

Burgos, a mint of the Kings of Castile and Leon, I3th-i4th c. There 
are cornadi of John of Gaunt as King of C. and L., with lohannis Rex 
on obv. and a bust, and on rev. Castele. E. Lcgionis. B. 

Busca, Sardinia, the source of coins of the Marchese Manfredi 
Lancia, 1299. 

Caderousse, Vaucluse, the place where, if at all, gold and silver money 
would probably have been struck by the Vicomtes de Cadenet, according 
to a homage by Agnes, Vicomtesse de C., to the Countess of Provence 
in 1245, when the former claims the right of such coinage. 

Cadiz, a Spanish mint. C. crowned. 

Cagliari, Sardinia, a mint of the Spanish Kings of Sicily, and of Spain 
and Sardinia, of Charles VI. of Germany, and of the Dukes of Savoy, 
down to 1721 ; subsequently of the Kings of Sardinia down to 1812, when 
it appears to have been closed. There is also a grosso of the Gherardesca 
family, I3th c., struck here. 

Cahors, formerly cap. of Cahourcin or Haut Quercy, now Dept. of 
Lot, a very ancient episcopal mint, of which at more than one period, 
12 1 2, 1224, etc., the bishop temporarily ceded the right to the town for 

Catalogue of European Mints 87 

the silver currency for a pecuniary consideration, and the deniers and 
oboles bear, in lieu of Episcopus Caturcensis, Civitas Caturci. The 
earliest coins appear to be of Bishop Geraud about 1090 ; one of his 
deniers bears : Geraldus Eps. and Caturcius. The payment to the See in 
1224 for the municipal privilege of striking the silver for six years was 600 
sols, the bishop evidently retaining the billon, from which the maximum 
profit was derived. 

Calais, an Anglo-Gallic mint, 1347-1450. But no money of Richard 
II. and Henry IV. seems to be known. Edward III., after the fall of 
C. in 1347, by ordinances of 1348-49 appointed a director of his mint, but 
finally left it to the discretion of the commandant to strike what pieces 
and types seemed most convenient to the wants of the locality and the 
taste of the inhabitants, his friends and subjects. In 1371 an arrange- 
ment was made to coin gold nobles = 6 sols 8 deniers, 45 to the li-vre 
according to the standard of the Tower of London ; \ and \ nobles = 40 
and 20 esterlins ; grds = 4 esterlins ; \ gros, esterlins (1200 to the livre\ 
mailles or \ esterlins, and ferlings or \ esterlins. A gros of Edward III. 
describes him as Comes Merket or Comte de la Marche. Villa Calesie 
or Calisie. 

Calcar, CleVes, a mint of the early dukes. 

Calmar, an early Swedish, mint. Kalmrni. 

Cambrai, a seigniorial, capitular, and episcopal mint, and subse- 
quently one of the successive foreign rulers of Brabant. There is an 
esterling of Willem van Hainault, 1292-96, and a series of later pieces in 
all metals down to the I7th c. of the bishop and chapter. During the 
siege by the Spaniards in 1581, the town struck a gulden or daalder, and 
pieces of I, 2, 5, and 10 patards ; and in 1595, during a second siege, i, 2, 
5, 10, and 20 patards, etc. The 2o-patard piece of 1595, on a square flan, 
is inscribed Henrtco Protectori in gratitude to Henry IV. of France. See 
Saint-Gery. Castri in Cameracesio, C A M R in the cantons of a cross, 
Moneta Capilvli, etc. There is a remarkable double inouton d'or struck 
by the chapter, sede vacante, between 1368 and 1378. 

Camerino, States of the Church, formerly an independent common- 
wealth (i4th-i5th c.) and (i5th-i6th c.) a sovereign fief of the Da Varano 
family, which coined money here in all the three metals. A gold zecchino 
of Gio. Maria da Varano (1521-27) sold at the Rossi sale, 1880, No. 729, 
for 750 lire. The property passed to the Church in 1538, and shortly 
after was erected into a duchy by the Farnese family. There is a grosso 
belonging here of Ottavio Farnese (1547-78) with Octavivs F. Camer. 
Dvx. It became a papal mint again in 1670. Cammereno, Camerina, 
Camertivm. Dvx. 

Campen, a mint at which local currency and convention-money were 
struck from the I5th c. to the I7th. See Convention-money in Catalogue 
of Denominations. Siege-money was struck here in 1578; 42, 21, loi 
stuivers, etc. ; and again in 1672, when the town was invested by the 
Archbishop of Cologne and the Bishop of Munster. 

Campi, Naples, a seat of the feudal family of Centurione-Scotti e Serra, 
1654-69, who struck money in their own name. 

Campobasso, Naples, apparently a place of seigniorial coinage in the 
1 5th c. There is a tornese in billon of Nicolo di Monforte (1450-62) with 
Nicola Com., and on rev. Campibassi. 

Candia, a temporary mint of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem 
between their abandonment of Rhodes and settlement at Malta. Also 
the seat of a Venetian currency during the occupation of the island by the 

88 The Coins of Europe 

republic. But the Venetian rule was very imperfect and desultory, and 
was chiefly limited to the ports and the settlement at Colonia Venetorum. 
The republic struck pieces of 60, 30, and 1 5 tornesi, soldini, soldi, gazzette, 
and during 1650 siege-money in bronze or copper of 5 and 10 lire. One 
piece bears the name of the Venetian governor, Grimani. These latter 
are very rare. 

Capua, a mint of the Norman Princes of Apulia. Civitas Capvana. 
The place of origin of a small copper piece of Anfusus, father or son, circd 
A.D. 836, with An. P. Ri. [Anfusus Princeps\ in the angles of the division 
on obv., and on rev. a horseman. 

Carcassonne, Dept. of Aude, a countship established by Charlemagne, 
and in 872 under the government of the Counts of Toulouse. The 
earliest coins belong to the nth c., and are of the Tolosan type. Also 
an episcopal mint, and one occasionally employed by the Bishop of 
Girone. In 1067 the domain and the monetary rights were sold to the 
Count of Barcelona for 1 100 ounces of gold ; but the new seigneur con- 
ferred on the former lord the title of Viscount and feudal possession of 
all but the town and its precincts. In a document of 1125-26 the locality 
at Beziers where the money was struck is described as " turris mone- 
taria vetus." The mint appears to have been abandoned at that time, and 
to have been reopened about 1 1 50, in which year mention occurs of the 
money of B. being current throughout the lordship of Agde. 

Carin, Austrian Illyria, and the place which gave its name to 
Carinthia, a mint of the early seigneurs of Stein or Steyn. A coin of 
Arnould, I4th c., has Dns. Stein, and Karinie for the mint. 

Carlovingian Mints. In the Edict of Pitres, 864, the following mints 
are all that occur : The Palace (see Moneta palatina in Cat. of Denom.), 
Quentovic near Etaples, Rouen, Reims, Sens, Paris, Orleans, Chalons- 
sur-Saone, Melle, and Narbonne. Quentovic is here mentioned as 
already an ancient place of coinage. The number greatly increased at a 
subsequent date, and comprised under successive reigns down to the 
Bourbon era, when the system became more centralised, nearly every 
place of importance in the kingdom or empire, and many at present of 
no note, if they have not in a few cases disappeared or baffled identi- 
fication. Among the seats of coinage of Pepin le Bref and his successors 
to the close of the loth c. may be cited : Aries, Besancon, Cambrai, 
Chartres, Chalons-sur-Saone, Le Mans, Mayence, Meaux, Maestricht, 
Narbonne, Paris, Quentovic, Reims, Soissons, Strasburgh, Troyes, 
Verdun, Clermont-Ferrand, Lyons, Aix-la-Chapelle, Avranches, Angou- 
leme, Avignon, Beneventum, Bingen, Bonn, Durstede, Dinant, Florence, 
Lucca, Limoges, Laon, Treviso, Uze"s, Pisa, Parma, Rome, Rennes, Tours, 
Barcelona, Bourges, Bordeaux, Chur, Marseilles, etc. 

Cannagnola, Piedmont, a place of coinage of the Bishops of Lausanne 
at an early period, and a mint of the Marquises of Saluzzo, I5th-i6th c. 
Money was struck here in all metals. One of the gems of the Rossi collec- 
tion (Cat. 1880, No. 771) was a gold lo-scudi piece from the Montenuovo 
cabinet with Lvdovicvs Marchio et Margarita de Fois. M.S. and the 
portraits of both facing each other. This coin fetched 2300 lire. Mar- 
guerita herself struck in 1516 a silver scudo or medaglia with her por- 
trait and the legend Margarita de Fvxo Marchionisa Salvciar, Qr'c. 

Carpentras, 15 m. N.E. of Avignon, a mint of the popes during the 
suspension of coinage at Rome. There is money in all metals between 
1294 and 1342. 

Catalogue of European Mints 89 

Carrega, Naples, a concession granted to the Doria family of Genoa ; 
but no coins are known. 

Casale, a mint of the lords of Casale of the Palaeologos family (1380- 
1464), of the Marquises of Monteferrato (1464-1533), of the Emperor 
Charles V. (1533-36), and of the Gonzage, Dukes of Mantua (1540-1697). 
Some very rare and important examples in gold, and several pieces interest- 
ing for the costumes, proceeded from this mint. In 1628 a piece of 12 reales 
was struck during the siege by Gongales, and in 1629-30, during that by 
Ambrogio Spinola, pieces of ^, i, 5, 10, and 20 florins, some being of more 
than one type. A quattrino of 1706, struck at Casale, has on obv. the 
type of the Virgin and Child with the curious legend Divae Virginis 

Cassel, a mint of the Counts, afterward Landgraves, of Hesse-Cassel. 
The earliest pieces have Comes, the later, Landgravi Hassie. Money in 
all metals was struck here after 1 503, when the right was obtained from 
the Emperor to strike gold. Count Philip (1509-67) entered into the 
monetary alliance of the Rhenish provinces, and placed on his coinage 
the arms of Mayence, Treves, Cologne, the Palatinate, and Hesse. 

Castelbon, Navarre, a place of coinage authorised in favour of the 
Vicomte de C. in 1374 by the Duke of Anjou, the money to be of the 
royal standard and similar to that of Lescun. Not known. 

Castel Durante. See Urbino. 

Castelnau, near Montpellier, the seat of a mint established by two 
ordinances of James I. of Arragon (1213-76) in 1273, for the coinage of 
deniers and oboles of fine silver, each d. to be = 12 d. of Melgueil, and 
each ob. to be = 6 ob. of M. The regulations were ratified by his son 
and successor in 1277. 

Castelnuovo-di-Garfagnana, Barga, Italy, the probable place of coin- 
age of a special grossetto struck in 1606 by Cesare d'Este, Duke of 
Modena, in commemoration of his recovery of the town and territory. 
The piece has on rev. St Peter standing and Prin. Garfignanae. 

Castelsardo, formerly Castel-Arragonese, Sardinia, a seigniorial fief of 
the Doria family, 1436-48. 

Castiglione dei Gatti, States of the Church, a feudal seat of the Pepoli 
family, who struck money elsewhere and perhaps also here. 

Castiglione del Lago, States of the Church, a mint of Ferdinand II., 
Grand-Duke of Tuscany, 1620-70. On a piece of 1643 occurs Cats. 

Castiglione delle Stimere, Lombardy, a mint of the Gonzaga family 
(1580-1723). Coins in all metals were struck here. 

Castro, States of the Church, a mint of the Farnese family as Dukes 
of Castro (1545-47). There is a gold zecchino of Pier Luigi Farnese with 
P. Loisivs F. Dvx Cast., and other pieces in all metals. 

Cattaro, Dalmatia, a mediaeval mint of the kingdom of Servia 
posterior to the incorporation in the nth c. of Bosnia and great part 
of Dalmatia. S. Tryphon, Cthren or Catarensi. St. Tryphon was the 
patron of C., and early coins of Bosnia with his name and that of Cattaro 
were doubtless struck here for that province after its subjugation by 
Servia. A probable place of coinage of the colonial series struck for 
Dalmatia by the Venetians from the I4th to the I7th c. The grossetto 
and \ grossetto, the quattrino, the follaro, etc., were current in the pro- 
vince. There are also a franc and 5 -franc piece of base metal coined 
here by the French defenders during the war (1812-13). 

Celles-sur-Cher, the seat of a seigniorial coinage, uth-i4th c., in 

go The Coins of Europe 

common with Mehun-sur-Yevre. Types similar to those of Blois and 
Chartres. The coinage bears evidence of the monetary unity. 

Chalon-sitr-Saone, a mint of Charles le Chauve (864), of the Counts or 
Dukes of Burgundy, of Hugues IV., Duke of Burgundy (1218-78), and of 
the feudal counts, ioth-i3th c. The fief was united to Burgundy in 1237. 
Cabilo Civis. A m.m. of the early Dukes of Burgundy was a B. 

Chalons-siir-Marne, a place of Austrasian coinage, and subsequently 
an episcopal mint, established by a concession from Charles le Chauve 
in 865, the year after the Edict of Pitres, through the good offices of his 
queen, Irmintrude. The act was confirmed in 877 and (by a papal bull) 
in 1107. The productions of this mint, the low values only, were current 
not only within the diocese but elsewhere, by reason of their superiority 
of quality. In 1131 the Bishop of Verdun directed on this express account 
the sole currency of the Chalons coinage in his own jurisdiction for fifteen 
years, possibly receiving consideration from his brother prelate. Ca., 
Cathalavni, Catalavnis, or Catalani. 

Chambe'ry, Savoy, a mint of the Counts of S. from the I3th c. 

Charenton, Bourbonnais, a seigniorial fief, 1 2th- 1 3th c., amalgamated 
with Sancerre. Deniers copied from the Nevers, Besan^on, La Marche, 
and Viennois types. Ciarentonis, D. Char. Dns. Carenton, etc. After 
the union of Sancerre, the coins read Charet. [on rev.] I\ohannes\ C\pmes\ 
DC Sancerre. Another, of Etienne III., 1280, has Ste. de Cancere, and 
on rev. De Charento Mon. 

Charleville, Ardennes, a mint of the seigneurs of Chateau-Renaud in 
the 1 7th c. Charlev. or Carolopoli Cus. 

Chartres, the seat of an early coinage with the regal title on obv. and 
the name of the city on rev. A denier of this type bears Carlvs Rex and 
Carnotis Civitas, with the temple as an adjunct. Thibaut I. Le Tricheur, 
Count of Blois, Chartres, and Tours, and his successors, appropriated the 
emoluments of the mint, and struck deniers of a Carlovingian character 
similar to the early Tours type with the rude, bust and pieces resembling 
the baronial coinage of Blois, with Curtis Cii'itas. The independent 
series must have concluded with Charles II. de Valois, 1325-46, 
second of the royal line of counts, who signed himself K. Kom, and who 
surrendered his rights to the Crown in or about 1346. As early as 1305 
Charles had been consulted by Philip le Bel, his uncle, on the subject of 
a correction of abuses in the currency ; but it appears that he was one of 
the offenders. Comp. Blots. 

Chateaubelin, Dept. of Jura, a mint about 1341-50 of Jean de Chalon, 
Comte d'Auxerre and de Tonnerre, who also struck money at Orgelet, 
another place within the Burgundian frontier and the See of Vienne. 
Billon or monnaie noire only. Comp. Orgelet. 

Chateaudun, near Blois, a place of seigniorial coinage, at first probably 
in association with the Counts of Blois, on whom the Viscounts of C. were 
dependent. Dunis Castll:, Dunio Stili, or Castri Duni. One of the 
heiresses of C., Alix de Clermont-Neelle, married Guillaume, second son 
of the Count of Flanders, but retained the monetary right in her own 
hands ; for a document of 1315 speaks of "la monnoie de Chastiau-Dun 
qui est a ma dame de Neelle." It is doubtful whether the independent 
currency survived the escheat of the viscounty to the Crown about 

Chateau-Landon, Seine-et-Marne, a mint of Philip I. and Louis VI., 
Kings of France (1060-1137). 

Chateaumeillant, Dept. of Cher, France, the seat of an early seigniorial 

Catalogue of European Mints 91 

coinage of the Sully family, Iith-i6th c. Melhiares, Mel. Castro, Castri 
Mella, Castri Militum, Castro Mil, etc. Comp. Henrichemont. 

Chatcaii-Renaud, a seigniorial mint of the branch of the Bourbon family 
seated here in the I7th c. In 1629 C. was exchanged with the Crown for 

Chateauroux, Berri, a seigniorial, and presumably at a prior period an 
abbatial, mint, which was well established in 1213, and in which the 
Abbey of Bourg-Dieu de Deols had a traditional pecuniary interest, 
perhaps representing a commuted annuity, at that date. It was closed 
in 1316 in consequence of disagreements between the lord and his vassals 
respecting an alteration, probably a debasement, of the money. 

Chateldon, Puy-de-D6me, the supposed source of certain deniers with 
Castellvm Don. and Lvdovicvs Vivit or Philippics Rex. \ 3th c. 

Chatelet. See Vauvillers. 

Chatel-sur-Moselle, Vosges, the place of origin of an episcopal coinage 
of the 1 3th c., and of (presumably) two or three pieces (deniers and oboles) 
of Henri, Comte de Vaudemont, a scion of the house of Lorraine. See 
Cat. Robert, 1886, No. 1710. The Lorraine types were followed here. 

Chatenoi, Lorraine, between Neufchateau and Mirecourt, a mint of 
Ferri III., Duke of Lorraine, 1251-1303. 

Chieti, Naples, a mint of Alfonso I. of Arragon, King of Naples 
(1443-58), and of Charles VIII. of France (1495). Tne latter struck two 
types of the cavallo here. One has Krolvs Di. G.R. Fr. Si., and on rev. 
Teatina Ciintas. 

Chinon, Touraine, a mint of Thibaut, Count of Tours, c. 938-^. 1040 ; his 
successors received an indemnity or annual allowance in lieu of the 
profits. This annuity successively devolved on the Kings of England 
(during their temporary rule) and France, until it was extinguished. 

Chiusi, Tuscany, a seat of autonomous coinage, i4th c. 

Chivasso, Piedmont, the mint of Saluzzo and of the Marches! di 
Monteferrato (1305-1400) prior to its removal to Casale. 

Christiania or Christiansborg, the capital of Norway, and the place of 
coinage of the Kings of Norway and of Denmark. A gold piece struck 
there to commemorate the death of Frederic IV. and the accession of 
Christian VI. has on obv. the crowned cypher of the two monarchs with 
D G Rex Dan Nor Van Go , and on rev. a view of the city and 
Christiansborg I Guinea D XII Octo 1 730. 

Chur, Switzerland, a Carlovingian mint : one for episcopal coinage 
from the loth c., and subsequently for that of the township. In 1608 the 
feudal lord of Schauenstein-Ehrenfels acquired the privilege of striking at 
this place by virtue of his lands at Haldenstein and Lichtenstein. There 
is a very curious and rare gold florin of 1622 with Man. No. Avr. C. la. 
Cvrre (" Moneta nova aurea civitatis Japodum Curias Rethensis ;; ) and 
the titles of Ferdinand II. There is a grosch of Thomas de Planta with 
the Virgin and Child, and on rev. a quartered shield with Moneta Epi. 

Cilly, Austria, the seat of coinage of the Counts of Cilly, princes of 
the empire, from 1436, and of the Counts of Hardegg-Glatz, a branch of 
the same stock, from 1507. The money of the latter reads Com. In 
Hardecc. Glotz. Et In Machland. 

Ciney, a mint of the See of Lie"ge, i ith c. Ce-vm's. 

Cisterna, Naples, a place where the prince, Giac. del Pozzo, received 
from the Holy See in 1660 the authority to strike money. 

Civita Vecchia, one of the numerous mints of Pius VI. in 1796-97 

92 The Coins of Europe 

during the revolutionary interval. His Holiness struck here the madon- 
nina and sampietrino (5 and i\ baiocchi). 

Clermont-Ferrand, Auvergne, a mint of the Kings of Austrasia, of 
Charles the Simple, of the Counts of Auvergne, and from 1044 of the 
cathedral and chapter of Clermont. Down to 1360 each bishop on his 
election swore to make no change in the money without the consent of 
the chapter. We only hear of deniers and mailles. The m. was = 3 d. 
Ar., Arverna, or Urbs. Averna. After the transfer to the Church in 1044 
the head and name of the Virgin appeared on the money. 

Cleves, capital of the ancient duchy of the same name, and the seat of 
one of the mints, 1 5th- 1 6th c. There is a 6-kreutzer piece of Frederic 
II. of Prussia, 1757, struck here. 

Cluny, an abbatial mint, perhaps from the loth, but certainly from the 
nth c. But the abbots appear to have struck money at an early period 
at Saint Jean d'Angely and'elsewhere, and it has been supposed that they 
also did so at Saint Gengoux, a mint established by Louis VII. in 1166, 
and suppressed by Philip le Hardi in 1281. Cluniaco Cenobio. 

Coblentz, a mint of the Archbishops of Trvees (i4th-i7th c.). There is 
also a denier of Bruno II., Archbishop of Cologne, 1131-37, struck here. 
Conflventia, Covelncnsis, Covcnensis. 

Coburg, a mint of the Counts of Henneberg in the I3th c., of the 
Margraves of Brandenburgh (i4th c.), of the Margraves of Misnia, and 
of the Dukes of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, sprung from the Ernestine branch 
of the ducal house of Saxony. There are small bracteates belonging to 
this town with the device of a negro's or Moor's head. 

Coconato, a place indicated on certain coins of the Counts of Radicate. 
A copper quattrino of the i6th c. has on obv. in field Coco. 

Coerbeck, a mint of the See of Cologne, 1237-61. 

Coesfeld, Westphalia, the apparent place of origin of certain copper 
pieces of 4, 8, and 12 pfenningen for local currency. They bear a bull's 

Coevorden, Overijssel, a signiory or Chatellenic in the I4th c. It was 
originally a separate lordship, but was united with Selwerd by the 
marriage of Herman von Coevorde to Ida, daughter and heiress of 
Hendrik, Seigneur of Selwerd. A groot of this chatellan of the I4th c. 
(1340-50) reads Moneta Selwordensis. But the title to Coevorde was 
vested at a shortly subsequent period in Raynald III., Duke of Gueldres, 
of whom there is a groot of the same type as the one just mentioned with 
Moneta Kovordensis Renold Dni Kovorden. Com p. Selwerd. 

Coimbra, Spain, a Visigothic mint, and one of the early Kings of 
Portugal. Eminio. 

Colberg, Pomerania, struck during the siege by the French in 1807, 
paper pieces of 2, 4, and 8 groschen. 

Colmar, Alsace, a mint established by a concession of the Emperor 
Charles IV. in 1376, and in operation till 1674. There is a rare thaler of 
1527. The figure of St. Martin and the morgenstern, or town-mace, 
occur on most of the coins. A municipal mint in the I7th c. 

Cologne or Coin, a mint of the Kings of Austrasia (Col. V.}, of the 
Emperor Louis IV. or the Young, 899-911, and of Otto I., 936-73. It 
continued to be an important imperial mint down to the nth c., and an 
ecclesiastical one to a much later date. The Florentine gold type was 
copied here. There was also a considerable civic currency in silver and 
copper. The albus and the stick were denominations in those two metals. 
There is a piece of viii. Albus Colnisch, 1635. There are at least two 

Catalogue of European Mints 93 

varieties of the silver piece of 1730 with Signvm Senatoris. At the Rein- 
mann sale, 1891-92, Part ii., No. 6424, a doppelthaler klippe of Cologne 
without date, of the Ursula type, fetched 1350 marks. 

Cclos- Var, or Clausenburg, a Transylvanian mint under the inde- 
pendent waiwodes. C. V. 

Como, an autonomous and imperial mint, 1 2th- 1 4th c. Also a place 
of coinage of the Rusca and Visconti families. There is a danaro of 
Azzo Visconti (1335-39) struck here with Azo Vicecom. on obv., and 
on rev. Cvmanvs. Other pieces bear Cvmis or Cvmarvm. 

Compiano, Parma, a mint of the Landi, Princes of Bardi, etc., i6th c. 
Closed in 1630. 

Compiegne, the place of origin of a denier of Louis VI. (1108-37) with 
Cinnpiene. Doubtless there was a mint at the castle ; and it may have 
been one of the sources of the Carlovingian money from Charles le 
Chauve, including the pieces with Conpendio palatio, and that formerly 
ascribed to Corbeny in the Laonais. See Poey D'Avant, in, 349, 


Cdftflans, Moselle, the name found on certain anonymous episcopal 
coins of the I3th c. 

Coni or Cuneuin, Sardinia, the place of origin of a very rare siege- 
piece in gold, struck in 1641 by the Duke of Savoy, with Civitas Cvnei 
S. Obsessa. 

Constantinople, a mint of the Eastern Empire, 4th-i3th, I3th-i5th c., 
possibly of the Latin emperors of Constantinople, 1204-60, and of the 
Grand Signiors or Sultans of Turkey. Its known products scarcely fall 
within the scope of the present undertaking. No coins which can be con- 
fidently ascribed to Baldwin I. and his successors exist. 

Constanz, grand-duchy of Baden, the place of origin of the greater 
part of the coinage of the prince-bishops down to the present century. 
But compare Cat. Cisternes, 1892, Part i., No. 2055. The most ancient 
money is that of Bishop Ruthard (1018-22). Constansia or Constanciens. 

Copenhagen, the mint of the rulers of Denmark. There is a piece of 
6 pfenningen (German currency) struck here in 1524. Hafnie. Copen- 
hagen, during the siege by the Swedes in 1659, struck with the cypher 
of Frederic III. of Denmark pieces of 6 and 20 ducats in gold and 4 
marks in silver. 

Corbeil, Seine-et-Oise, a very ancient place and seat of coinage. 
There is a denier of Bouchard I., son of Foulques le Bon, Count of 
Anjou, struck here, with Bvchardvs Co, and the name of Raoul, King of 
France, 923-56. 

Corbeny, Laonais. See Compicgne. 

Corbie, Dept. of Somme, an abbatial mint of some importance from 
the nth to the I3th c. At one period the abbots placed the name of the 
sovereign on their money, as Hodo Rex F., and on rev. Set Petri Mot. 
[money of St. Peter] ; but they subsequently abandoned the practice. 
In 1185 Philip Augustus recognised the free currency of this coinage 
subject to the abbey not interfering with the regal money. Cenob. Corbeie, 
Abbas Corbeie, etc. The only document relative to this institution, 
founded in 662 by Clotaire, is the one of 1085 regulating the mint. 

Cordova, a mint of the Caliphs of Damascus and Cordova, ist and 
2nd c. A.D., and of the Visigothic Kings (Corduba Patricia). Some of the 
money of the former carries evidence of having been struck in Africa (at 
Tunis, Fez, etc.) or in Minorca. 

Cotfu, doubtless a mint of the Latin Princes of Achaia, Lords of 

94 The Coins of Europe 

Corfu. A coin of Philip of Tarentum, 1307-13, has on rev. Corfoi 

Corinth, a mint of the Princes of Achaia (1205-1404), established 
there after the Fourth Crusade. There are small silver pieces of the 
denier and obole module bearing Corintinn or Corinti. 

Cornavin, near Geneva, a Savoyard mint, 1448-1530. 

Correggio, near Modena, the seat of the coinage of the feudal counts 
and princes down to the lyth c. (1550-1630). Co. Cor. or Corrigii. 

Corte. the capital of the island of Corsica, the place of origin of 
certain coins in silver and bronze of Theodore, King of Corsica, 1736, and 
of General Pasquale Paoli, president of the republic established here from 
1755 to 1769. The former struck a silver scudo and pieces of 5 and 2 
soldi in copper, as well as siege-pieces of 20 soldi in silver, bearing 
the cap of liberty on the point of a sword and the word Libertas. The 
latter had 20 and 10 soldi in silver and 4 and 2 in copper. 

Cortemiglia, Sardinia, a mint of the Del Carretto family, feudal lords 
in the I4th c. They struck the gold fiorino and the grosso and imperiate 
in silver. A member of this house, Fabrizio del Carretto, was Grand 
Master of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem at Rhodes (1513-21). 

Corunna, a Portuguese mint. Cr-v. 

Corvey, Prussia, in the regency of Minden, the seat of an abbatial 
mint in the 1 5th- 1 8th c. A thaler with the portrait of St. Vitus is cited 
by Sch., xii. 840, and a grosch of Theodor von Berninghausen, 1613, ibid. 
xx. 1127. There is a pfenning of 1704, in which the abbot describes 
himself as a prince of the Holy Roman Empire. Corbeia, Corbir. But 
comp. Horohausen. 

Cosfeld. See Coesfeltt. 

Coucy-le-Chateau, Dept. of Aisne, a seigniorial fief in the loth-nth c., 
and in the I3th (1242-50) in the occupation of the celebrated Kaoul de 
Coucy, who struck deniers with Radulfus and a cross on obv., and 
Cociacus on rev. 

Cracow, Western Galicia, the place of coinage of certain denarii 
during the dissensions in Poland, 1 3th- 1 4th c., with the head of a prince 
on obv., and three figures on rev. supposed to represent the reigning 
duke and his brothers. It was also a mint of Casimir the Great, 1333-70, 
and of the limited coinage of the former republic. It is said that there 
are silver pieces struck here in 1829 with the bust of Napoleon II. as 
King of Poland. 

Creina, a seigniorial fief of the Benzone family, 1 5th c. There is a 
silver soldino of Giorgio Benzone, 1405-14, with Georgivs Benzonvs 
on obv. and a shield of arms, and on rev. Dominvs Cremc Et C. [etc.]. 
At the Remedi sale, 1884, a specimen sold for 100 lire. 

Cremona, a republican mint (nth-i4th c.) with the name of St. 
Imerius or the Emperor, subsequently of the Visconti and Fondulo 
families, and of the house of Sforza-Visconti, Dukes of Milan (i4th-i5th 
c.). There is a siege-piece in copper of 1526, during an investiture by 
Charles V., with Fortitvdo mea in Brae, (an arm holding up a ball), and 
on rev. the figure of St. Imerius and S. Imerivs Epis. 

Cremsier, a mint of the Bishops of Olmiitz, i6th-i9th c. 

Crespy, or Crepy, near Troyes, the source of an early denier, loth or 
nth c., probably of a Count of Champagne, with Trecassi Civi. on obv., 
and the monogram of Charles and Critpeis Citao on rev., and the seat of 
the coinage of Philippe d'Alsace, Count of Valois jure tixoris, Matthieu 
d'Alsace, etc. (1156-1320). The moneyer Simon, who also worked at 

Catalogue of European Mints 95 

Amiens, and perhaps at Roye, put his name on the coins about 1160. 
Crespi or Crispetum. Gui de Chatillon seems to have struck money here 
in 1320 in common with his uncle, and both incurred in that year the 
censure of the Parliament for their neglect of the standard. 

Crest, Dept. of Drome, a mint of the Counts of Valentinois and Diois, 
a fief distinct from the temporalities of the See of Die, and united on 
several occasions to the Crown, finally in 1793, when it was declared 
part of the national domain. The money is of the Poitevin type. Com. 
Valent. Et DCS., etc. 

Creuznach, Westphalia, the place of origin of deniers of Johann II., 
Count of Sponheim (1295-1340), with Mo. Nova. Crvcenac. 

Crevacuore, Piedmont, a mint of the Fieschi family, Signori of Mes- 
serano (i5th-i6th c.). Comp. Messerano. 

Crevecoeur, N. Brabant, a mint of the Heeren or seigneurs of that 
place in the I5th c. 

Cronstadt, Transylvania, the place of mintage of a thaler during the 
siege of 1660. On the reverse occurs : De Profundis ad te clamamus, 
Doniine. Serva nos, quiaperimus. 

Croppcnstadt, Prussian Saxony, a mint of the Counts of Blankenburg 
in the I3th c. 

Cuen^a, a mint of the Moorish Princes. 

Cugnon, or Chassepierre-Cugnon, at present a village in Luxemburgh, 
but in the iyth c. a mint of the Counts of Lowenstein-Wertheim (1611- 
97). There are only doubles tournois. It has been suspected that this 
was at an earlier date the source of numismatic forgeries. There is 
an ecu of Jean-Theodor, 1623, and a thaler of Euchaire Casimir, 1697, 
with a singular array of titles. See Schulman, ix. 447, 578. 

Cuilemborg, Gueldres, probably the mint of the lords of that fief in 
the i6th c. The original seat and title were derived from Pallant, and 

Cuilemborg : 5 penningen, 1591. 

the later representatives of the family describe themselves as of that 
place. Some very remarkable copper coins emanated hence about 1590 
pieces of 5, 4, 3, 2, i, and \ penningen ; there is also silver currency. 
A gold gulden of s' Heerenberg, 1577, quarters on the shield the arms of 
Berg (or s' Heerenberg), Egmond, Moeurs-Sawerden, and Cuilemborg. 

Culm, a mint of the ancient duchy of Massow, Pommern, and of the 
Grand Masters of the Teutonic Order. 

Culmbach, Bavaria, or Upper Franconia, the place of origin of copper 
money struck by the Burgraf of Niirnberg by authority of the Emperor 
Charles IV. in 1361, and of money of necessity struck by Albert, Margraf 
of Brandenburgh-Culmbach, 1552-53, in gold and silver, during the 

96 The Coins of Europe 

pacification of Passau. The pieces bear A\lbert\ M\argraf~\ z\u\ 

Curange, or Cttrengen, near Hasselt, a mint of the prince-bishops of 
Liege, I5th c. A copper Hard of Louis de Bourbon, 1456-82, who on 
one of his coins calls himself Leo Dux, was struck there. 

Daalhcm, a mint of the Counts of Brabant in the I3th c. 

Damme, near Bruges, a temporary mint of Gui de Dampierre, Count 
of Flanders, in 1299, during the French occupation of Bruges. 

Damvillers, a mint of John of Luxemburgh, King of Bohemia, 1342, 
and of Charles IV. as Count of Luxemburgh, 1346-53. 

Danish Mints. See Blanchet, ii. 312, 313. 

Dantzic, a principal mint of the independent Kings of Poland and of 
the Teutonic Order. There is a fine series of the gold and silver coinage 
of the former, and schillings and ducats of the latter. The urban coinage 
consisted of base schillings and copper solidi. During the siege by the 
Prince of Transylvania in 1577, besides silver and several foreign coins 
countermarked with the city arms, a gold ducat appeared with the 
standing figure of the Saviour, and Defende Nos Chrt 'ste Salvator on obv., 
and on rev. Moneta Nova Civitatis Gedanensis. There is a grosch of 
1812 with Dansiger Kupfer Muenze. 

Darmstadt, a mint of the rulers of Hesse-Darmstadt, commencing 
with Charlemagne, of whom there was a denier in the Luni find. 

Daventer, a mint of the Bishops of Utrecht, and of the autonomous 
or foreign rulers of Overijssel, ioth-i6th c. There is a gold denier of 
Conrad of Swabia, bp. 1076-99, and a silver one of the same type. There 
is a variety of the denier struck in the episcopal series, sede vacante, by 
the Provost of Daventer, who managed the temporalities till the new 
prelate was appointed. In 1197 Theodor Dirk was P. In the imperial 
series we have met with nothing prior to Otto I. 936-73 ; these coins are 
imitations of the Cologne deniers, with S. Davnt. la. in retrograde 
lettering, and a cross cantoned with pellets. In 1578 money of necessity 

Groot of Jan van Arkel, Bishop of Utrecht. 1341-64. 

a daalder and a \ d. in silver, and 4, 2, i, and stuivers in copper was 
struck at D. ; and again in 1672, during the siege by the Bp. of Munster 
and the French, square silver pieces were issued. The 1578 series is 
countermarked with an eagle. There is a rare liard of Philip II. struck 
at D. with P. in the centre of obverse. 

Dax, Dept. of Landes, formerly an Anglo -Gallic mint, and one of 
those employed by Edward III. as Duke of Aquitaine. In 1380, Edward 
conceded the right of striking money here in all metals to his son, John 
of Gaunt ; but no specimens seem to survive. Comp. Bayonne. 

Dendermonde. See Termonde. 

Catalogue of European Mints 97 

Deals, Dept. of Indre, a mint of Philip II., Augustus (1080-1 123), who 
probably used the Abbey of Bourg-Dieu for the purpose subsequently to 
his acquisition of Deols in 1188. Compare Chateauroux. 

Derpt, or Dorbat, Livonia, an early Russian mint, and a place of 
episcopal coinage, 1 4th- 1 6th c. Darp or Thar bat. 

Desana, a seigniorial fief of the Tizzoni family, Vicars of the Empire, 
from the beginning of the i6th c. to 1641. A cornabo of Ludovico II., 1510- 
25, reads Lvdovic. Ticio : Co: De : Impe : VI. In 1510 the territory 
appears to have been occupied by Pietro Berard, who struck a silver piece 
here with his title Comes Deciane. This personage held possession till 

Detmold, Lippe, a mint of the Counts, 1604, 1619-20, 1700-1803. The 
earliest pieces (pfenningen) have Ditmal. 

Deutz, a mint of the Archbishops of Cologne, i6th c. There is a 
denier of the administrator of the See under Heinrich von Falkenstein 

Die. See Valence. 

Dieppe, a temporary mint of Henry IV. during the civil disturbances 
connected with the League, 1586 : m.m. 13. 

Dierdorf, Rhenish provinces, a mint of the Count of Wied-Runkel, 
1758, with his crowned cypher, and Graf. Zv. Wied. Rvnkel-Isenbvrg 
Vnd Criechingen. 

Dieren, s' Heerenberg, a mint of the Dukes of Juliers, Cleves, and 
Berg, I4th c. At a later period coins were struck here for the Seigneurs 
of s' Heerenberg, with the mint-mark BB., or Dominus Serge, or Moneta 
Bergensis. There is a long series of this family of numismatic examples, 
some from this, and others from the mints at Hedel, Gendringen, Berg or 
Mons, Stevensweerd, etc. In Schulman's Cat, No. xxiv. 1352-79, occurred 
a remarkable assemblage of the ancient currency of this line, commencing 
with Adam III., 1331-54, Baron von s' Heerenberg, and comprising two 
exceedingly rare pieces : (i) a gold ducat of Oswald II., 1511-46, with a 
shield quartering the arms of s' Heerenberg, Moeurs-Saawerden, and 
Cuilemborg, and struck at Mons ; (2) a daalder in piefort, said to be 
unique, with Sanct. Oswald Rex, and Nvmvs. Argen. 30 Stvfe. The 
current value is on other pieces. Was this the place of origin of a sup- 
posed unique gold gulden of 1577, minutely described by Schulman, 
xv. 295 ? 

Diessenhofen, Switzerland, cant, of Thurgau, an urban mint from 1309, 
and also one of the Counts of Kyburg. 

Dietrichstein, Austria, a seat of the coinage issued by the Counts of 
Weichelstaet, Hollenburg, and Nikolsburg, from i5th or i6th c. Silver 
and billon. There is a thaler of Carl Ludwig, 1766. 

Dieiilouard, Dept. of Meurthe, France, near Nancy, a mint of the 
Emperors and of the Bishops of Toul. Ds. Lovvart. 

Dijon, cap. of the ancient duchy of Burgundy, and the seat of a mint, 
which belonged successively to the Merovingian Princes, the Abbey of 
St. Etienne, the Dukes, and the Abbey of St. Benigne de Dijon. The 
Dukes, however, gradually made themselves independent of the latter, 
and established places of coinage at Auxonne and elsewhere. The 
symbol of four croziers laid, two and two, back to back, on some of the 
coins of D. is attributed to the monks of St. Benigne. Divionensis, or 
Diviona. Dijon was for a short time an Anglo-Gallic mint. 

Dillingen, Bavaria, a mint of the Counts of D., who also struck 
money at Uneride. The See of Augsburgh also_employed it for conven- 


98 The Coins of Europe 

tion-money between himself and the town, and in 1395 schillings and 
pfenningen were struck here in consequence of a monetary treaty between 
the Bishop, the Duke of Austria, the Count of Wiirtemberg, and the 
Counts of Oettingen. 

Dinan, Brittany, a mint of Charles de Blois, about 1341, during his 
contest for the duchy, and of John IV. and V., Dukes of B., 1364- 

Dinant, Namur, doubtless a place of local coinage, as well as an 
occasional one of the Emperors of the West. 

Disentis, Grisons, an abbatial mint, 1466-1729. Ab. Diser. 

Dixmude, or Dixmuyden, Belgium, the seat of an early coinage of 
mailles with Dixm. 

Doeblau, Reuss, the place of origin of a grosch with Mon. Nov. 
Rvthenica Dol. 1 7th c. 

Doemitz, Mecklenburgh, a mint of the Counts of Schwerin, destroyed 
in 1689 by the Duke of Brunswick-Celle, on account of the coinage of 
money of poor or false standard. 

Dogliani, Piedmont, a mint of the Marchesi of Saluzzo, I4th c. 

Dokkum (Docenga), W. Friesland, a Merovingian mint, and after- 
ward one used by the Counts of W. Friesland in the nth c. 

Dole, Dept. of Jura, a mint in the diocese of Besanc.on, employed 
by the Dukes of Burgundy, I4th c. Dola. At the end of the i5th, 
and beginning of the i6th c. it was in the occupation for monetary 
purposes of the Emperor Maximilian and the Archduke Philip. There 
are pieces of Philip II. of Spain, 1589, struck here as Count of 

Dome, a mint of Philip le Hardi, who acquired the place by purchase 
in 1 280 for strategical purposes in connection with Dordogne. The mint 
was at the Mont de Dome or castle, and was still in existence in 1438, 
when the French recovered the position from the English, and was 
employed by Charles VII. 

Donauwbrth, Bavaria, the seat of an early coinage. A silver brac- 
teate belonging to this town is cited by Schulman, xi. 628 ; and there is 
a thaler of 1545 with the bust of Charles V. 

Donnas, Sardinian States, a mint of the Counts of Savoy, 1338- 

Dordrecht, or Dort, a mint of the Counts of Holland in the i3th c., 
and of the Dukes of Burgundy as Counts of Holland in the i5th. It 
was at a later period one of the regular mints for the Dutch Indies, 
and also struck money for the Batavian Republic (1795-1804): m.m. 
a rose. 

Dorsten, Prussia, reg. of Munster, a mint of the Archbp. of 
Cologne, 1 7th c. Hellers in copper, with Nvmvs. Dvrst. or Cvsvs. 

Dortmund, Westphalia, a mint of the emperors and town from the 
loth c. ; and later, of the See of Cologne. Dortmond Mon. Nova Tre- 
monien. There are deniers of Otho III., and of Louis of Bavaria, 1314- 
47, belonging to this place of course, with many others. 

Douai, in Artois, a communal and seigniorial mint from the nth to 
the 1 4th c. The distinguishing type of the branch found on the early 
money may serve to associate with this place certain pieces in the Gaulish 
series similarly marked. Gui de Dampierre, Count of Flanders, 1280- 
1302-3, struck here an esterlin with Moneta Dovvay, and another with 
Dvac. We learn that the municipality exercised at an early date a not 

Catalogue of European Mints 99 

unnecessary surveillance over the money struck by the Chatelain. See 
Cat. Robert, 1886, No. 72. 

Dreux, Eure-et-Loir, a mint of Philip I. and Louis VI. of France, and 
of a seigniorial coinage of the Counts of D., 1137-1365, which followed 
the regal types. One piece of Odo or Eudes II., Count of Chartres, etc., 
1004-37, is an imitation of the money then current in his other Countship 
of Chartres. 

Driburg, Pruss. Westphalia, a seigniorial mint, I3th c., and one of the 
Bishops of Paderborn. Ibvrch Civitas. 

Drontheim (Nidaros, Throndhjeni], an early Norwegian mint, where 
the Archbishop had a right of coinage in 1220. There are coins of 
several of these prelates, I5th-i6th c., with their names and titles, coupled 
with those of the King. 

Duisburg, or Doesborgh, Prussia, a mint of the Emperor Conrad II., 

Dulmen, Pruss. Westphalia, the source of copper coins from 1590 to 
1625, with a trefoil cross. There is a piece of 6 pfenningen with Stadt 
Dulmen, 1622. 

Dun-sur-Meuse (Dvnvm}, diocese of Verdun, the mint where, in or 
about 1354, the date of his concession from the Emperor Charles IV., the 
Sieur d'Aspremont is supposed to have struck money in gold and silver 
according to the terms of instructions delivered to his moneyer, Lambert 
de Namur. No remains are at present known. A mint of the early 
Bishops of Verdun. See Verdun. 

Durbuy, Luxemburgh, a mint of Henry IV., Count of Luxemburgh, 
1280-88. Dvrbvcesis. 

Durstede, Doorsted, or Wijk-bij-Dtirstede, Utrecht (Latin Dorestatus], 
a somewhat prolific Merovingian and Carlovingian mint during a period 
extending from the 6th- 1 2th c. The examples belonging to the earlier 
era vary considerably in style and execution, and some were, no doubt, 
clumsy imitations. A denier of Charlemagne with Carlvs Rex and Set 
Martini Monet a, found here, has been attributed to Tours. The 
moneyers of Durstede, like those of Belgium at a later date, seem to 
have worked at other places in the same province, and to have gone on 
circuit. The names of Adalbertus and Madelinus have come down to 
us. The coins of this place are of very unequal merit, and some may 
be counterfeits by unskilful workmen. 

Diisseldorf, Prussia, a mint of the Dukes of Berg in the I7th c. 

Ebstorf, or Ebsdorf, near Liineburg, one of the earliest mints of the 
Dukes of Saxony, loth-nth c., if indeed it was not actually the first. 
Probably the most ancient examples have yet to be identified. 

Ebusus, or Ivi$a, one of the Baleares, the name found on a special 
Spanish currency from Charles I. (V. of Germany) to Charles II. (1520- 
1 700) with Vniv. Ebvsi Dns. 

Eenaeme, Belgium, the seat of a small coinage of deniers in the i2th c., 
with Egamio. 

Eger, or Egra, Bohemia, the source of a tin kreutzer of 1743, during 
the operations of the siege. 

Eggenberg, or Egenburg, Lower Austria, the seat of an independent 
lordship in the I7th c., though now possessing a very small population 
and no importance. The money of the Counts of Egenburg and Gratz, 
Princes of the Holy Roman Empire, was struck here or at Gratz in the 
1 7th c. (1623-86). There are some rare thalers in the series. 

ioo The Coins of Europe 

Eichstadt, Bavaria, an episcopal mint down to 1796. A thaler of 

Joseph von Steebenburg, Bishop in that year, is said to have been made 
out of the church plate, and to be the last money struck. 

EH, Lorraine, a mint of Thierry, Duke of Lorraine, 984-1024. 

Einbeck, or Eimbeck, Hanover, the probable place of issue of a marien- 
groschen of 1551 (No. 5395 of Knyphausen), of a groschen of 1670, and 
of an undated stadtpfenning. 

Eisenach, Saxe- Weimar, a mint of the Landgraves of Thuringen. 
The early bracteates (i2th c.) represent the landgraf on horseback, with 
sword, buckler, and standard. At a later period a place of coinage for 
the grand-duchy of Saxe- Weimar-Eisenach. Ysena. 

Eisenstadt, Hungary, the probable place of origin of a thaler and 
gulden of Nicolaus von Esterhdzy, 1770. The former has the legend 
Nicol. S.R.I. Princ. Eszterhazy de Galantha Pcrp. Com. in Frak., and 
a portrait. 

Ekaterinenburgh, a Russian mint under Catherine II. 

Elbing, once part of the kingdom of Poland, now part of Western 
Prussia, the seat of the coinage of the Teutonic Order, 1 3th- 1 5th c., and 
of a Polish mint from the i6th-i8th c. A grosch of 1535 is cited by 
Sch., xiv. 635. In 1628 and 1657 the Swedes coined money here : (i) a 
thaler with the titles of Gustavus Adolphus ; and (2) an ort=i8 Polish 
groschen. Elbing struck copper solidi in the i8th c. 

Elburg, Holland, formerly the seat of an ecclesiastical coinage. On 
a dute of 161 8 there is : obv. a gate flanked by two towers, a dog lying at 
the gate ; rev. Moneta Eccles; Elborg 8. Another variety has Ecclesue 

Elgg, Switzerland or Helvetia, canton of Zurich, a Swiss mint under 
the Merovingian princes. Augia Sacra. 

Elincourt, a chateau and mint of the Counts of Saint-Pol, and of the 
house of Luxemburgh-Ligny, I3th-i5th c. The earliest coinage of E. 
was executed on French territory, and imitated the types, and it was in 
order to be beyond the royal French jurisdiction that in 1300 the C. of 
Saint-Pol established a mint at Elincourt. But money was also struck 
at Arleux, and in 1306 he employed a Lucchese moneyer named 
Tadolin to strike deniers and mailles, which might run concurrently 
with the regal coinage of the higher values and in the more precious 
metal. In 1337 we see that the Count engaged to abstain from melting 
the money of the King, and to differentiate his own cross and pile on 
both sides. The later Counts of Ligny, of Saint-Pol, and of the house 
of Luxemburgh, had gold money, which followed the French types and 

Catalogue of European Mints 101 

Elsloo, Brabant, a mint of the Seigneurs of Schoonvorst, in the I4th- 
I5th c. The types of the Counts of Flanders, Dukes of Burgundy, 
were copied here. The coins of Konrad II., who died in 1457, read 
Kons. De Sconvoerst, or Konradvs de Elslae, etc. 

Embdcn, Hanover, a mediaeval mint and the seat of a civic coinage in 
silver and copper in the I7th c. There is a rare seigniorial denier of 
Count Hermann, with Heriman on obv., and on rev. Amvtthon. Also, 
one of the mints of the Counts of East Friesland. 

Embrun, Provence, Dept. of Hautes-Alpes, the mint of the Counts of 
Seyne, 1 2th- 1 3th c., of a branch of the house of Forcalquier, and of the 
Archbishops, 1135-1510. The coins, deniers and oboles only, have 
Comes Ed'ne, or Edne, and the ecclesiastical series, of which only two 
appear to be known, Archieps. or Pastor Ebredunensis. 

Emerita, Portugal, a mint of the Suevic Goths, 430-57, removed at 
the former date from Bracara in Spain, and at the latter restored to B. 
on the loss of Lusitania by that race. 

Emmerich, a mint of the Dukes of Cleves, I4th-i7th c. 

Encre, or Incre, a seigniorial fief in the Pas de Calais, given in 1115 
to Charles, son of Cnut II., King of Denmark, by his cousin-german, the 
Count of Flanders. There is a denier which reads Moneta Caroli, and 
on rev. Incrensis. Charles D 'Encre, or Karolus de Anchord, became 
Count of Flanders in 1119. Prior to his accession he perhaps, rather 
than his father, struck coins at Quentovic, q.v. 

Enkhuisen, N. Holland, probably the source of certain pieces struck 
in the I7th c. Sch., Cat. ix. 99, 100. A ducaton in silver was coined at 
E. during the siege by the French in 1675. This was atone time a place 
of great importance and wealth. 

Ensisheim, Upper Alsace, a seat of coinage of the Landgraves, 1 584- 
1632, where the steel roller was employed in the production of the 

Epinal, Vosges, a mint of the Bishops, perhaps in alliance with the 
town, of the monastery of St. Genric, and of Simon, Duke of Lorraine, 
1115-39, during his temporary possession of it. 

Erfurt, or Erperfiirt, Thuringia, the principal town in what was once 
known as Saxe-Thuringen, of which the Saxe-Thuringenwald preserves 
the recollection. It was the seat of the coinage of the Archbp. of 
Mayence and the Landgraves of Thuringen, 1 4th- 1 8th c. We have 
bracteates of Archbp. Heinrich (1142-53) and a grosch of Landgraf 
Wilhelm I., about 1407. The Burgraves of Kirchberg used this mint on 
the relinquishment of that at Capellendorf. There is a commemorative 
thaler of the Swedish victory near Leipsic in 1631 belonging here. The 
arms are a wheel, and some of the coins have E. 

Erkelenz, Rhenish Prussia, apparently the place of origin of a groot 
or gros of William I., Duke of Gueldres and Juliers, 1393-1402, noticed 
by Sch., xv. 182. 

Essen, Westphalia or Rhenish Prussia, the seat of an abbey of women 
in the i6th-i7th c. A few specimens of the special coinage issued by the 
Lady Abbess have been transmitted to us. There is a piece of 8 
fettmanchen with the name of Anna Salome, Countess of Salm, abbess, 
1657, and a \ thaler, 1671. In May 1892, in a find near Vilvorde, 
Belgium, occurred a grossus of Sophia von Gleichen. 

Esslingen, Wiirtemburg, a mint of the Hohenstaufen dynasty in the 
nth c. 

Etain, Dept. of Meuse, a mint of the Counts of Bar in the I4th c. 

iO2 The Coins of Europe 

' We find it named as one of the places where the quasi-international 
money of 1 342 was to be struck under a treaty for three months between 
Henry IV., Count of B., and John of Luxemburgh, King of Bohemia, the 
respective coinages to run pari passu in the territories of each other. 
These conventions were not unusual in L. and elsewhere. Comp. Luxem- 
burgh and Namur. 

Etampes, France, a Capetian mint under Philippe I., Louis VI., and 
Louis VII. (1060-1180). Deniers and oboles only. 

Eversberg, Pruss. Westphalia, a mint of the Counts of Arnsberg. 

Evora, Spain, a Visigothic mint. Elvora. 

Evora, or Ebora, Portugal, a mint of the Kings of Portugal after 1640. 
Kpatacca of John IV., 1640-56, was struck there. 

Evreux, the place of origin of certain money (gros, blanques, sols 
coronnats, deniers, and doubles parisis) struck about 1350 by Philippe de 
Longueville, brother of Charles le Mauvais, during the captivity of the 
latter. Phvs. Navarre and Comes Ebroicensis. 

Eyndhoven, an early Brabantine seigniorial mint. Sch., Cat. ix. 356. 

Fabriano, Papal States, the place of origin of a quattrino with De 
Fabriano and the name of St. John the Baptist on rev. Also of two 
quattrini struck in the names of Giulio de Medici and Leo X. The 
former, of which there are two varieties, reads Ivl. Car. Medices. He 
governed here under the control of Leo. 

faenza, Italy, formerly a seigniorial fief of the Astorgio-Manfredi, 1448- 
1501, and a place of independent coinage. A very early quattrino of 
copper, described in Cat. Rossi, 1880, No. 1071, has a falcon with out- 
spread wings, and on rev. a head of St. Peter and S. Petrvs. 

Fagnolle, Namur, the seat of a seigniorial coinage of ducats, 1770, 
with the name and titles of the Prince de Ligny. They bear C. Fagno- 

Falkenstetn, Pruss. Saxony, a mint of the Counts in the I2th c. 
There are bracteates with Bvrhart and with Eve and the serpent. 

Fano, in the Papal States, a place of .coinage of the autonomous 
republic, of Pandolfo Malatesta (1384-1427;, and of the Popes down to 
the 1 7th c. 

Fauquemont, or Valkenberg, Brabant, probably the place of mintage 
of Philip le Hardi in 1396-99 during his temporary occupation of the town. 
Sch., ix. 357. Also a seigniorial mint. A double gros of Frederic van 
Moeurs has Moneta Nova ValkV. 

Fauquenbergues, Pas de Calais, a feudal seat of the Chatelains of St. 
Omer, of whom the only known coinage belongs to Eleonore, wife of 
Rasse de Gavre, 1290-1326. On one denier this lady styles herself 
Countess of F., and on another Chatelaine of St. Omer and Lady of F. 
It is the same personage whom we see on a maille figured in the Ordi- 
nance of 1315, holding a trefoil and a falcon. Fauquenberge, or Faucon- 

Fellre, Ven. Lombardy, a place where the Bishops received in 1140 
and 1 179 authority to coin ; but no money is known. 

Feodosia, or Kaffa, a Russian mint under Catherine II. 

Ferrara, the mint of the republic under imperial authority, of the 
ducal house of Este, I5th-i7th c., and of the Popes. 

Ferrero, in the pontifical States, a seat at successive epochs of 
seigniorial, republican, and papal coinage (1220-1799). Only the lower 
values were struck here. A bolognino of Luigi Migliorati (1425-28) with 

Catalogue of European Mints 103 

D.L. De Melior-Atis on obv., and on rev. Vb. Firman, and a danaro 
of Francesco Sforza (1434-46) with Co. F. Viceco. belong here. 

Ferte-Chauderon, Nivernais, a place which is repeatedly stated to 
have possessed the right of coinage in the 1 3th- 1 4th c., under the Counts 
of Nevers. No specimen known. 

Finale, Sardinian States, a mint of the Carretto family. 

Fivelgo, Holland, on the R. Fivel, the name found on one of the 
numberless imitations of the gros tournois, with Tvronvs Civis. and 
Moneta Fivloge. 

Flemish Mints. Besides those more particularly specified we may 
enumerate : Aire (a lion passant and Ariensis\ Axel, Bondues (Bvnt- 
bve), Bourbourg (Brovborg\ Cassel, and Eenaeme (Egamto or 

Flensburg, Schleswig, the place of a local coinage, I4th c., with 
Moneta Holsascie. Low values only penningen and wit-penningen. 

Florence, a Carlovingian mint under Charlemagne as King of the 
Franks and Lombards, and a seat of republican coinage, first under the 
ordinary form and subsequently under gonfalonieri of the Medici and 
other families (1200-1315). The earliest gonfaloniere appears to have 
been Baldo Ridolfi in 1304. The Medici do not occur till 1483, when 
Giorgio de Medici was standard-bearer. This was the original birth- 
place of the fiorino both in gold and silver, the latter having followed the 
less precious metal about 1250. There is the moiety of it, which is far rarer 
than the whole, and a variety of types. Each gonfaloniere placed his own 
arms on the piece coined during his term of office. Of the silver florin 
there is a rare type sometimes known as the grosso della volpe. Another, 
struck in 1307, received the name of popolino. It is the piece of which 
Boccaccio speaks in his third novel as having been gilt by some one, who 
had to pay a fine of 500 gold florins, and tried to pass off this spurious 
one. From about 1530 to 1859, Florence, with Leghorn and Pisa, pro- 
duced the coinages of the Dukes and Grand : Dukes of Tuscany, of the 
houses of Medici and Lorraine, and that of the short-lived kingdom of 
Etruria. There are in this group many examples of fine work by 
Benvenuto Cellini, and others. The gold coins, except the ordinary 
florin, are rare. There is a rare piece of 4 grossi= a double julio, 
struck of a type similar to the ordinary grosso with the longer legend. 
Remedi Cat, 1884, No. 1282, 15 lire. During the French occupation of 
Lorraine, the Duke Nicole- Francois struck coins at Florence with 
Moneta Nova Florent. Cusa., 1635. 

Florennes, Prov. of Namur, a place of coinage of Gaucher de 
Chatillon, Count of Porcien. 

Flushing, Zeeland, perhaps the place of origin of the money struck to 
commemorate the installation of Maurice of Nassau, 1590, as Marquis of 
Flushing or Vlissingen. 

Fontenay-Le-Comte, or Figeac, a mint of Edward I. of England as 
Duke of Aquitaine. 

Forcalquier, or Sisteron, Basses-Alpes, formerly part of the county 
and kingdom of Provence, the seat of a municipal mint, whose products 
circulated concurrently with the money of the Counts of Provence in the 
1 2th c. 

Fosdino-uo, Modena, a seigniorial fief of the Malaspina-Centurioni 
family, iyth c. 

Fosses, in the prov. of Lidge, a seat of coinage granted in 974 by Otto 
II. to Notger, Bishop of Lie"ge (972-1008). 

IO4 The Coins of Europe 

Fossombrone, Urbino, a seigniorial fief of the Da Montefeltro family, 
1 5th c. De Foros-Embronio. Com p. Urbino. 

Fougtres, a mint of John V., Duke of Brittany, 1399-1442. 

Franchimont, Namur, a mint of the prince-bishops of Liege, iyth c. 

Franco - Spanish Mints during French occupation of Cataluna, 
Lorraine, etc. (1640-59) : Agramon, Arbeca, Balaguer, Banolas, Barcelona, 
Bellpuig (Villa Pvlcrip), Berga, Besalu, Bisbal, Caldas, Cardona, 
Cervera, Figueras, Gerona, Granollers, Igualada, Lerida, Manresa, 
Matara, Oliana, Olot, Puigcerda (Podicerita], Reus, Rosas, Solsona 
(Coelsona), Tagamanent, Tarragona, Tarrasa, Tarrega, Tortosa, Vails, 
Vich (Civitas Vicen.}, Villafranca del Panades. 

Franeker, W. Friesland, near Leeuwarden, the reputed place of origin 
of coins reading Frankere and Frankeren. 

Frankenberg, Hesse-Cassel, a mint employed in the I3th c. by Sophia, 
Duchess of Brabant, and her son Henry. 

Frankenthal, the source in 1623, during the siege by the General 
Verdugo, of money of necessity : i and 4 thalers ; i, 2, and 4 florins ; 7 
and 15 batzen. 

Frankfort-on-Main, a royal or imperial mint as early as the nth c. 
But in 1425 the city began to acquire monetary rights with certain 
limitations. In 1428 it received the imperial authority to strike its own 
money. The earliest pieces display a castle with three towers and the 
word Fera-Fort. F. remained the seat of an autonomous or semi- 
autonomous coinage in all metals on an extensive scale down to 1863. 
Some of the pieces contain views of the city, and a series of thalers and 
double thalers of 1860-63 have either a prospect of Frankfort or figures 
(bust or full-length) of a lady, probably intended for a goddess of liberty, 
but once said to be a portrait of the engraver's mistress. After all, both 
statements may be correct. The convention-thaler of Friedberg, 1804, 
was struck here. 

Frank fort-on-the-Oder, an occasional place of coinage. 

Franquemont, near Goumois, Burgundy, a chateau built in 1305, and 
situated in what was known down to 1789 as Franche-Montagne. In 
1437 the domain passed to Nicolas de Gilley, Seigneur de Marnoz, for 
300 tcus au soleil, and in 1588 the place was erected into a barony by 
Charles V. of Germany in favour of another N. de Gilley, who temporarily 
struck money with N. Gillei Numisma in imitation of the imperial and 
regal types (1540-54). 

Fraustadt, or Wschoiva, Posen, a Polish mint in the 1 4th- 1 5th and 
1 6th- 1 7th c. Stanislas Jagellon (1386-1434) employed it. There is a 
copper uniface denier, 1609, belonging here. It seems also to have 
been an early Russian mint. 

Freiengen, the seat of an independent bishopric. There is a rare 
thaler of 1709 with the portrait of the Bishop. 

French Mints under the Capetian dynasty, I4th c. In 1306 the regal 
places of coinage were only eight in number, shewing an enormous reduc- 
tion since the improvement or change in the monetary system, but also 
the result of a redistribution of territory and of the rise of a large feudal 
currency. The mints above referred to were Paris, Rouen, Troyes, 
Tournai, Toulouse, Saint-Pourcain, Montpellier, and Montreuil-Bonnin 
( Monsteriolu tn) . 

French Mints under the Valois dynasty, 1328-1400. The number of 
mints was now vastly increased, and the quality of the money of lower 
values equally debased. As far back as the time of Philip le Bel (1285- 

Catalogue of European Mints 105 

1314) the people had bestowed on their sovereign the byname of Le 
faux monnoyeur. 

French Mints under the regency of the Ditke of Bedford (1422- 53) : 
Amiens, Arras, Auxerre, Chalons, Dijon, Macon, Le Mans, Nevers, Paris, 
Rouen, Saint- Lo, Saint-Quentin, and Troyes. 

French Mints under the Bourbons. The number remained much the 
same under Henry IV. and Louis XIII. Louis XIV. added to the places 
of coinage, but in 1772 Louis XV. suppressed thirteen. 

French Mints tinder Charles X., Cardinal de Bourbon, 1589-98 : 
Paris, Rouen, Lyons, Bayonne, Riom, Dijon, Troyes, Amiens, Bourges, 
Nantes, and Dinan. At the two last-named places the Due de Mercoeur 
struck money in the name of Charles, eight years after his death, in 1590. 
The coins are not very uncommon, though nearly always poor. 

French Mints under the First Republic, etc. The R. at first closed 
several, but reopened some. Napoleon created new ones, both within 
and outside the normal French frontier, which were suppressed in 
1814. In 1848 there were only three Paris, Bordeaux, and Strasburgh. 
In 1853 and 1857 Lille, Lyons, Marseilles, and Rouen were temporarily 
reopened to carry out more expeditiously the new copper currency. 

Freyberg, capital of the Erzgebirge mining district, a mint of the 
Ernestine branch of the Dukes of Saxony. 

Fribourg, Baden [Switzerland], a mint established in 1120 under 
imperial authority. There is money of the Counts of F. and of the town 
from the I4th c. Fribvrg Brisgavd or in Bris. 

Friedberg. See Burg-Friedberg. 

Friedland, a mint of Albertus von Waldstein or Wallenstein, 1626-34. 
Comp. Giistrotu. Wallenstein describes himself on his thalers as Duke 
of Mecklenburgh, Friedland, and Sagan, and Count of Rostock and 

Friesach, Diocese of Salzburg, a common mint of the See and of the 
Dukes of Carinthia. 

Frinco, Piedmont, a seigniorial fief of the Mazzetti family, i6th c. 
There is a copper sesino with (on rev.) Mon. Ord. M. DD., and Minerva 
seated to 1. 

Froberg, Alsace, the mint of the ancient Counts of F.-Montjoye, 
whose chateau, built in the I3th c., was destroyed in 1635. Here were 
doubtless struck the few pieces of money which have occurred with 
Frober or Frobe. One coin reads Mo. No. Frobe 1554, and on rev. 
Ferdinan. Re., and is supposed to be a specimen of the currency decried in 
that year in common with that of Vauvillers and Franquemont. 

Fugger, Suabia. See Augsburgh. 

Fulda, Hesse-Cassel, the place of coinage of the ancient abbots from 
the nth c., and of the abbot -bishops down to 1796. Adalbert III. 
(d. 1814) coined from the church plate in 1796, during the French occupa- 
tion, thalers of two types and a thaler ; one of the former has a fine 
portrait. The See was secularised in 1802, and the sovereign and terri- 
torial rights became vested in Hesse-Cassel. There is a \ thaler of 
1828 before us, in which the Duke is described as Landgraf of Hesse 
and Grand-Duke of Fulda. 

Fuligno, or Foligno, Spoleto, a seigniorial fief of the Trinci family, 
1 5th c., and probably their mint, as it was of the popes from Eugenius IV. 
to Pius VI. De. Fvligineo, or Fvligneo. A quattrino was struck here, 
or at least bears the name of the place, during the ephemeral Roman 
Republic (1798-99). 

io6 The Coins of Europe 

Fumes, W. Flanders, a mint of Maximilian, Arch-Duke of Austria and 
Count of Flanders, transferred from Bruges in 1489. 

Furstenburg, Germany, now divided between Baden, Wiirtemburg, 
etc. ; the presumed seat of the coinage of the independent princes down 
to 1806. 

Gadebusch, Mecklenburgh-Schwerin, a mint of the Dukes of Mecklen- 
burgh, 1542-1622. 

Gacsbeek, Brabant, prov. of Lennick-Saint-Martin, one of the mints of 
the Dukes of Brabant ; and it may be the place indicated under the form 
of Quaecbccke on money of Arnould D'Orey, Lord of Rummen (1331-64). 

Gaeta, Naples, an autonomous mint in the nth-i2th c., and sub- 
sequently one of the Norman Dukes of Apulia, I2th-i4th c. Civitas 
Gaieta. It was subsequently a temporary place of coinage of Pius IX. 
during the Roman Revolution of 1848-49. We have met with the 
zecchino and scudo (in two varieties) struck in copper, 25 and 12^ soldi, 
20 baiocchi in silver, and 3, 2, and I baiocchi in copper. G. crowned 
with the holy gate, tiara, and keys. 

Gangelt, Prussia, in the regency of Achen, the place of coinage of a 
groschen of Thierry von Heinsberg. 

Gap, Hautes-Alpes, an episcopal mint, iith-i3th c. Vapiensis, or 

Gaveren and Elsloo, Belgium, names mentioned on coins of the I4th- 
1 5th c., struck by Adrian, Seigneur of G. and E. Some read Adrianvs 
De Gaveren Do. 

Gazzoldo, or Gazuolo, 12 m. W.N.W. of Mantua, the apparent place 
of coinage of a quattrino of Pope Sixtus V. (1585-90), with portrait to 1. 
on obv., and Sixtus. V. P. Ma., and on rev. St. Francis kneeling to 1., 
and Co. Gazzo. In Cat. Remedi, 1884, No. 1436, notice is given of a 
sesino of the Ippolito family (1591), with a figure of St. Francis kneeling 
to 1. on rev. 

Gembloux, Belgium, Prov. of Namur, the seat of an abbey. There 
are early deniers. 

Gendringcn, Berg, a mint of the Seigneurs or Counts of B., I4th- 
I7th c. 

Geneva, Genf, a Merovingian mint, a place of coinage for the bishops, 
uth-i5th c., for the counts, and for the city and canton. The earliest 
episcopal money is of 1017. A denier of Bp. Friedrich (1031-73) reads 
on obv. Geneva Civitas, and on rev. Frederics. Eps. The seigniorial 
money was struck at Annecy in and after 1356 ; it usually reads Comes 
Gebennensis. There was a regular issue of small gold pieces from the 
middle of the i6th c. and of pistoles in the i8th, and of silver and billon 
money down to the establishment of an uniform system a [few years ago. 
Like some of the other cantons, it produced in the last and present 
century large pieces both in gold and silver the triple pistole of 1771 
and the lo-franc piece in silver of 1851. There are copper pieces struck 
here in 1590 during the war with Savoy, reading Monnaie pour les 
soldats de Geneve; 12, 6, and i sols. 

Genoa, an imperial mint under the Hohenstaufen dynasty, and the 
place of coinage of the bishops and the republic. Some of the earliest 
types of the danaro are of small module. From the I2th c., while under 
imperial suzerainty, Genoa produced a copious and sumptuous succession 
of money in gold and silver. The former coinage consisted of the 
genovino d'oro, its divisions and its multiples, which in the I7th c. 

Catalogue of European Mints 107 

reached the maximum of 20 gen. The doge Campofregoso (144?) 
struck a piece of 10 gold scudi. From the I5th to the i8th c. various 
types of the scudo or scuto, and of pieces of 2 and 4, appeared. A large 
gold piece of 96 lire was issued in 1803. The Rossi Catalogue appears' 
to ascribe all the gold genovini with the name of Conrad to the I2th c., 
whereas many certainly are 200 or 300 years later. There was also a 
profusion of money in silver, billon, and copper; and there are six periods 
of interruption of the autonomous coinage during the occupation by 
Charles VI. of France (1396-1406), by the Dukes of Milan (1421-36, 
1464-66, 1488-94), by Charles VII. of France (1458-61), and by Louis XII. 
of France (1500-12). The French introduced some peculiar types, as 
we have noted elsewhere. Louis XII. had a scudo d'oro borrowed from 
the French ecu an soldi. During the revolutionary or transitional period 
(1797-1814) there is a coinage of pieces of 12 lire in gold, of a scudo of 
8 lire, with the half, and of 10 soldi in silver, of a franc and \ franc with 
the name of Napoleon I., 1813, and of 4 and 2 soldi in billon, 4 danari 
in copper, etc. (1797). 

Gera, Reuss, a place of coinage of the Abbesses, I3th c. (bracteates), 
of the Bailli of Weida (i4th c.), etc. Gerana. 

Gerdingen, Limbourg, Brabant, an early seigniorial mint, probably 
only for strictly local coinage of copper or billon. Joanna, Lady of Stein 
and Gerdingen, struck money here down to 1450. 

Gernrode or Garrelsweer, W. Friesland, a mint of Egbert II., Count 
of W. F., 1068-90. Geruiewrc or Gerewere. 

Gerona, Navarre, the place of origin of a denier of the Carlovingian 
period and type, with Gervnda. But it appears that there was in the 
loth-nth c. a local mint, of the profits of which the bishop was entitled 
to a third. 

Gertrudenberg, N. Holland, near Breda, a place of coinage of the Counts 
of Holland, I4th c. A \ groot of Willem IV. (1337-45) was struck here. 

Gesecke, Prussia, distr. of Arnsberg, a mint of the See of Cologne. 

Gez, Savoy, a Savoyard mint, 1581-88. 

Gheitt, a mint of the Counts of Flanders in the 13th and following 
centuries. Schulman, Cat. v., No. 239, cites a half groat of Louis of 
Crecy, 1322-46, struck there, as also a double vuurijzer of Philip le Bel 
(1488-89). On a clinkaert or chaise of Philip le Bon, struck here in 1426, 
he styles himself Heres Hollandiae. Ghent was a busy mint during a 
long period. Attention may be drawn to the mites in various multiples 
belonging to the last quarter of the i6th c. The civic pieces usually 
have Ganda in the exergue. The English rose-noble and its half were 
imitated here. In a half of 1583 the legend is Mon. Avrea Metropol. 
Ganda Flan., and on the rev. Nisi. Dns. Cvstod. Civi. Frvstra. See a 
curious reference to the counterfeit coin (a contemporary forgery) of 
Jeanne, Countess of Flanders, in Sch., Cat. ix. 386. 

Ghistelles, W. Flanders, near Ostend, the seat of a special coinage for 
that province under Charles le Bon (1119-27), with his titles and 
Ghistl. mo. 

Gien-in-Berri, a fief belonging to the See of Auxerre. The brother-in- 
law of Bishop Hugues was the ancestor of the Sires de Donzy, who ceded 
it in 1197 to Philip Augustus for 3000 silver marks of the Troyes standard. 
Angevin types. Giemis Cas. 

Gimborn, Westphalia, probably the place of origin of two silver coins 
struck by Ludwig, Count of Walmoden-Gimborn, in 1802. See a note 
in Schulthess, ii. 356. 

io8 The Coins of Europe 

Gliickstadt, Holstein, formerly a place of coinage of this branch of the 
house of Holstein, and subsequently or concurrently a Danish mint. 
A T 1 ^ thaler of Frederic III. was struck here in 1668. Civitas Glvct- 
stadiensis. The coinage seems to have commenced under Christian IV. 
about 1620. 

Gnezen, or Znin, Posen, a Polish mint in the 1 3th- 1 4th c. It is 
mentioned elsewhere that the Poles about this time still employed skins 
as currency. Gnesdim. 

Gnichc, or Gnessin, near Bayonne, a mint of Edward I. and III. of 
England as Dukes of Aquitaine, and of John of Gaunt. 

Goldberg, Silesia, the place of origin of certain uniface pfennigen, or 
rather perhaps 3-pf. pieces, during the Thirty Years' War. Two before us 
have the dates 1622 and 1623, and G.B. divided by a soaring eagle. 
This money belongs to the same class and type as that issued about this 
time at Breslau, etc. 

Gorinchen, or Gorcum, the place of origin of a copper coin of John of 
Bavaria, Count of Holland, 1418-25. The English rose-noble was first 
copied here. There is an undated copper duit of the Aux. in Nom. 
Dom. type, with Gore, in Holl. 

Goritz, or Goers, on the Isonzo, Austria, a mint of the early Counts 
of Goritz, I5th-i6th c., if not of the ancient Counts of the Tyrol, I3th c. 
Some of the later money (1450-1500) bears Conies Goricie De Lvonz., 
Lvonze, or Moneta De Lvonza and Gori. Conies. The types were 
imitated from those of Aquileia. Charles VI., Maria Theresa, etc., struck 
copper money for this province. 

Gorodetz, an early Russian mint. 

Gorze, Dept. of the Moselle, an abbey and seigniorial fief, connected 
with the ducal house of Lorraine, and in the persons of Charles de 
Rdmoncourt, abbe" in 1607, and of Charles de Lorraine, 1643, the source 
of an important series of coins in gold and silver, which may have 
probably been struck at Metz, of which the See acquired the abbey in 
1659. There is a testoon of Charles of Lorraine, abbot (1608-48). Gorze 
was united to the French Crown in 1663. 

Goslar, Hanover, a place of coinage in the i6th c. There is a 
mariengroschen of 1553. The coin called a gosseler may have owed its 
name to this place, which was formerly and long of considerable 

Gotha, during the blockade by Augustus, Elector of Saxony, struck a 
gold ducat and silver pieces of I and 2 thalers, and a grosch. 

Gottingen, Hanover, a mint in the i6th-i7th c. A mariengroschen of 
1529 belongs here. A thaler of 1659 with the titles of Leopold I. on rev., 
and on obv. Moneta Nova Gottingensis^ sold at the Reinmann sale, 
1891-92, Part ii., 6592, for 675 marks. 

Granada, a mint of the Almohades (516-668) and of the Moorish 
Kings. There are coins indicating that they were struck within the walls 
of the Alhambra, the seat, as elsewhere in early times, of the whole 
official machinery. Also a place of coinage of the later Kings of Spain. 
Ferdinand VII. struck here the proclamation-money for the province, 
dated nth September 1808, in gold and silver; there is a double gold 
escudo of this series (m.m. a pomegranate) ; also a duro (money of neces- 
sity), same year. G. GNA. 

Grandmont, La Marche, apparently at the beginning of the I3th c. 
the seat of the coinage of Hugues, Comte de la Marche, who is said in 
1208 to have given the church of G. the duty of assaying his money. 

Catalogue of Eiiropean Mints 109 

Grave, N. Brabant, on the Maese, the source of boetdragers struck by 
Thierri, son of Gerard, Count of Homes, about 1350, as guardian of 
Jan. IV., Seigneur of Cuyck ; with Theodoricvs Dei. Gra. Dns. Parviensis 
[Seigneur of Pervez]. 

Greierz, or Gruyere, Switzerland, the place of origin of a sol of 1552, 
struck in the name of the feudal prince and count. 

Greifswald, Pomerania, struck during the siege by the Swedes in 1631 
pieces in tin of i, 2, 3, and 4 florins. 

Greiz, Reuss, a mint of the Counts of Reuss, 1621-79. 

Grenoble, Dauphiny, a seat of municipal and episcopal coinage, and 
by a convention between Guignes VIII., Comte d'Albon, 1319-33, of 
money bearing the names of the bishop and the dauphin. Granopolis, or 

Groningen, the seat of a very early coinage for the Bishops of Utrecht 
(nth c.), for the city, and for that part of North Holland ; the copper 

Groningen : braspenning, 1593. 

money dating back to 1505, and that in silver also bearing the date in 
many cases as early as 1455. In the latter metal there were the jager, 
the kromstaert, the ordinary groot, the piece of eight stuivers, etc. The 
dated convention-money with East Friesland, 1507, was perhaps struck 
here. Some very curious siege-money appeared in 1577 with Ordinaris 
pcnninck Voor de Hofman Hendrick van Leer. There was more than 
one variety. A second example before us is struck on one side only, and 
bears the double-headed eagle surmounted by a G, and round it Necessitate. 
4. Feb. 1577. An oord or double Hard was coined here in 1591 and 1594 
during the sieges by Maurice of Nassau. In 1672, during the siege by 
the Bishop of Munster, square pieces of 50, 25, \7\, and 6j stuivers were 
struck. Of the two former there are several varieties, one of those of 50 
having a view of the town and ramparts, and of the 25 stuivers a portrait of 
the Duke of Holstein-Plon, commander-in-chief of the Netherland forces. 
Gronsfeld, probably the mint of the Brederoden, Seigneurs of Bronk- 
horst, Barons of Gronsfeld, a leading Brabantine family from the I4th to 
the 1 8th c. There is a thaler of Johann Frantz, 1693, with a shield of 
nine quarters. A daalder or thaler of Justus Maximilian describes him 
as Count of Bronkhorst and Gronsfeld, Seigneur of Ebersteiri, Batenborg, 
Alpen, and Honnepel. A J thaler of William van Bronkhorst, 1559, 
bear the titles of Bronkhorst, Stein, and Batenborg. It was the head of 
this house, Hendrick van Brederode, who was deputed in 1566 to convey 
to the Duchess of Parma the demands of the Netherlands ; and there is 
this other very interesting feature in connection with the family, that the 
exact amount is known for which their ancestor purchased the original 
signiory, instead of receiving it, as usual, in fee from the Crown. The 
Brederoden raised troops at their own cost for the maintenance of the 
struggle against Spain, and formally protested against the establishment 
of the Inquisition in the Low Countries. 

1 1 o The Coins of Europe 

Gruitrode, Belgium, the place of origin of certain billon deniers of the 
1 5th c. struck in the name of the military commandant. 

Grunthal, a Polish mint under Augustus III., 1752-56. Copper 

Guardiagrele, Naples, in the Abruzzi, the place of origin of a bolo- 
gnino of Lladislaus, King of Naples (1391-1405), with Gvar. in the field 
on obv., and on rev. S. Leo. Papa, and a bust of the pontiff. 

Guastalla, Duchy of Parma, on the Po, probably the seat of coinage 
of the money destined by the Dukes of Mantua of the house of Gonzaga 
for currency in this independent county, which was, however, from an 
early period an appanage of the dukedom. 

Gubbio, States of the Church, a place of coinage of the Montefeltro 
family (1404-44), of the Dukes of Urbino (1444-1631), and of the popes 
(1646-1798). De. Evgvbia. Evgvbii. or Evgvbivm. The Holy See 
appears to have struck only copper here baiocchi Gubbii. 

Guben, a Polish mint under Augustus III., 1752-56. Copper groschen. 

Guebivillcr, Alsace, the place of the common coinage of the abbeys of 
Murbach and Lure, pursuant to a concession of Charles V. of Germany, 
March 7, 1544. Thalers and florins of 60 kreutzer, with the divisions. 
Guillaume-Leopold, Bp. of Strasburgh, used this mint from 1659 to 1662. 

Guerande, a mint of John IV., Duke of Brittany, 1364-99. 

Guingamp, Brittany, a temporary mint of Philip Augustus of France 
during his occupation of that duchy (May-October, 1206), and one of the 
Counts of Penthievre, a branch of the ducal house of B. A denier of 
Alain de Goello, 1205-12, reads Alen Comes and Gvimgamp. 

Giinzburg, circle of Suabia, a mint of Louis Constantin de Rohan, 
Bishop of Strasburgh, 1760-73, and of the Emperor Leopold II. as Duke 
of Luxem burgh, 1790-92. 

Gurre, an early Danish mint. Castel. Gorge. 

Giistrow, Mecklenburgh, a mint of the undivided duchy in the 1 5th- 1 7th 
c., and probably one of the places of origin of the very interesting series 
of coins in gold and silver of Albertus von Waldstein, better known as 
WALLENSTEIN, from 1626 to 1632. 

Gy, 14 m. from Besanc,on, a place of which a casual notice occurs at 
the end of the I4th c., when the burgesses of B. insisted on their right, 
under the diploma of the Emperor Henry IV., 1190, to restrain the 
archbishop from striking elsewhere, and the primate sought to establish 
an independent mint at Gy. 

Haarlem, the source of certain square daalders and \ daalders struck 
during the siege in 1572-73. Some are countermarked with a lion, three 
stars on a crescent, a death's head and a lion, etc. 

Haguenau, Alsace, a mint from the I2th to the I7th c. The early 
money consists of deniers with Hage-Noive. In and after 1374 gold and 
silver types appeared, and that with the rose was imitated in Italy. There 
is a 2-kreutzer piece of the town with the titles of Ferdinand II. (1620-37). 
Cat. Cisternes, 1892, Part iii., No. 2192. 

Halberstadt, Prussian Saxony, a place of coinage of early bracteates 
of the bishops and the advocates or lay administrators of the See ; there 
is one of Bishop Ulric (1149-60). From the I4th c. (1363) the mint was 
in the joint hands of the town and the chapter. There is money, all of 
the lower values, from the I2th to the i7th c. We may note a grosch 
of 1 540 of the St. Stephen type. 

Halen, a Brabantine mint of the i4th c. Some of the pieces struck 

Catalogue of European Mints 1 1 1 

here have Moneta Hallensis. It was a place of coinage of John III., 
Duke of Brabant, 1312-55. 

Hall, Wiirtemburg, an imperial mint down to 1385, and also a place 
of coinage for urban pfennigen in the I3th c. There are dated pieces 
from 1515. Three pfennigen = i kreutzer. The arms are a hand and 
a cross. There was a coinage down to 1798. Sivebisch Hal, or Hallac 

Halle, Prussian Saxony, an occasional place of coinage of the Emperors 
of Germany in the i8th c. 

Hallenberg, Prussian Westphalia, a mint of the See of Paderborn, 
1 3th c. Deniers with Civitas Halnbrig, or Halnbrgnsis. 

Hamaland-Wigman, a Danish feudal countship in the Middle Ages. 
A denier belonging to it is cited by Sch., xi. 898. The coin termed a 
iviegman was probably christened from the place or signiory. 

Hamburgh, a seat of the archbishops, who in the loth-nth c. struck 
money by imperial authority at Bremen, Stadun, Gerleviswert, and else- 
where. The urban coinage nominally dates from the permission given 
by the Duke of Holstein in 1325, although the attribution of certain 
bracteates of the previous century to this place, bearing the gateway and 
towers, is doubtless correct. In 1305 there was a convention with Lubeck 
for the coinage of pfennigen. The right of coining gold was received in 
1435. The albus, the schilling, and thaler, and their fractions and multi- 
ples in billon or silver, and the ducat in gold, were current, as well as a 
copper series, from 1574 to 1605. Some of the pieces bearing the name 
of the town have the arms of the Von Hovel family either with or without 
those of the municipality, and this circumstance may account for the 

Schilling of Hamburgh. 

presence of the castle. There is a rare ducat of 1497 and a double schilling 
of 1524 with the Virgin and Child type one abandoned in 1572. 

Hamm, Westphalia, the seat of a small local coinage in copper during 
the i7th and i8th c. A piece of 6 pfenningen, 1614, is the earliest which 
we have seen. 

Hanau-Miinzenberg, Hesse-Cassel, a mint of the independent Counts 
from the i6th c. down to about 1730. A \ thaler of 1624 is in Sch., xiv. 
472, also a kreutzer of 1669, No. 473. 

Hanover, or Aldstadt, the seat of a mint in the I3th c. There are 
bracteates with the lion of the Counts of Lauenrode and the counts 
palatine of the Rhine. Hanover struck convention-money in 1481-82 
and 1501 in concert with the Dukes of Brunswick- Luneburg, the Bishop 
of Hildesheim, and several towns. Hanovers. The usual marks are a 
trefoil, and a trefoil with three annulets or eyelets. There are marien- 
groschen of 1552. 

Hanover (Electorate] Mints : Alfeld, Altenau, St. Andreasberg, 
St. Antonius, Bardewick, Bassum, Bodenwerder, Bruchhausen, Bursfeld, 
Buxtehude, Celle, Clausthal, Dassel, Diepholz, Duderstadt, Elbingerode, 
Eldazsen, Estebriigge, Freudenberg, Gerode, Halseliinne, Hoya, St. 

1 1 2 7Yie Coins of Europe 

Jacob, Lauenrode, Meppen, Miinden, Miindburg, Neustadt (near Ruben- 
berg), Nienburg, Osterode, Otterndorf, Peim, Reinhausen, Richenberg, 
Stade, Steuerwald, Verden, Wienhausen, Woelpe, Wunstorf. 

Hapsal, or Gapsal, Esthonia, a mint of Schleswig-Holstein and the 
See of Oesel, I4th-i6th c. Hapsal. 

Harderwijk, Gueldres, a mint of the Counts and Dukes of Gueldres, 
and of the Bishops of Utrecht, 1 4th- 1 6th c. There is a groot of 
Arnould van Homes, Bishop of Utrecht, 1371-79, with Hdeivig. A 
thaler or gulden of Willem II., Duke of Gueldres, 1538-43, describes him 
as Duke of Juliers, Gueldres, CleVes, and Berg, Count of Mark, Zutphen, 
and Ravensberg, and Seigneur of Ravenstein. There is an interesting 
denier of Eleanor, daughter of Edward II. of England, and guardian 
of her son, Raynald IV., Duke of Gueldres, with the English leopard, 
belonging here. Later, this place was a mint of the Batavian Republic 
and for the Dutch East Indies. 

Hasselt, N. Brabant, near Lille, a mint of the mediaeval Seigneurs of 
Laon and of the Bishops of Lidge, and a place of feudal and general 
coinage from the I2th or I3th to the i6th or i7th c. Copper money was 
struck here. 

Hasselt, Overijssel, a mint of the Bishops of Utrecht and of the 
Spanish rulers of the Netherlands. There is a i philippus of 1563 and 
similar pieces down to 1 593 struck here in the latter series. 

Hattingen, a town in the dukedom of Cldves and county of Mark, 
near the Roer, only known at present from coins struck there. It 
was the mint of Engelbert I. and II., Counts de la Marck, I4th c. 
A small piece of Adolf, Count of Cleves, 1417-48, reads on rev. Moneta 

Hatton-Chatel, Verdun, a mint of the early Bishops of Verdun. 
Hadoniscastrv. See Verdun. 

Hedel, a mint of the Seigneurs of Berg or s' Heerenberg, in the i6th c. 

Heinsberg, Brabant, the seat of an independent lordship and duchy 
from the 1 3th- 1 5th c., and the source, no doubt, of a considerable series 
of billon and silver bearing the name. Comp. Gangelt. 

Helmershausen, Saxe- Weimar, an early mint of the Bishops of 
Paderborn and the Archbp. of Cologne. 

Hcndrickcn, Loos, Flanders, a mint of Jean, Comte de Loos, 1256-80. 

Henneberg, Saxe-Meiningen, the probable place of origin of some of 
the coins of the Counts of Henneberg. But comp. Ilmenau. 

Henrichemont, previously called Boisbelle, Dept. of Cher, France, the 
princely fief of Maximilien de Bethune, Due de Sully, the Minister of 
Henry IV. of France, after whom it was named. The principality con- 
sisted of several properties, which had been independent and autonomous 
from the Middle Ages, and struck money Chateaumeillant, Borne, 
Boisbelle, Orval, etc. The right of Sully was recognised by Louis XIV. 
in 1644. In 1654 the Duke had a mint with a regular staff. 

Heresburg, a mint of the Abbey of Corvei or Corvey, Prussia, loth- 
I2th c. 

Herford, Westphalia, an early seat of local coinage and of convention- 
money between the Abbess and the town. There is a mariengroschen 
without date with Man. Domi. Et Cii'i. Herv. : and a piece of 12 
pfennigen, 1 670, reads Stadt Herford. 

Hermanstadt, a special mint of the Prince of Transylvania, while the 
town was beleaguered by the Turks in 161 1. A piece, denominated Grossus 

Catalogue of European Mints 1 1 3 

Regni TransyL, in silver, was struck here, as well as one of 5 groschen, 
in 1613 ; both money of necessity. 

Hersfeld, or Hirschfeld, Hesse-Cassel, on the Fulda, formerly the seat 
of an abbey, which in the 1 2th- 1 3th c. issued bracteates. There is one of 
the Bishop Johann, 1200-15, with the abbot seated. 

Herstal, or Heristal, near Liege, a Brabantine mint in the Middle 
Ages and down to 1324. Pepin le Gros, grandson of the founder of the 
Carlovingian family, was known as Pepin van Heristal. Comp. Sch., 
xv. 1076-77. The money of the feudal lords of Herstal was struck here. 
Henry I. calls himself both Dominus and Comes. 

Hertogen-rode, Rhenish Prussia, a mint of the Dukes of Limburg 
(i3th c.), of Renaud or Reynald, Duke of Gueldres, under a charter from 
the Emperor Rodolph of Hapsburg in 1282, where it is described as 
Rode, and subsequently, on the incorporation of Limburg with his 
dominions in 1288, of John I., Duke of Brabant (1272-94). The Duke 
of Gueldres above mentioned transferred his coinage from Limburg. 
The place was otherwise known as Rolditc (Rode-le-Duc). 

Hesse -Darmstadt Mints (minor) : Alsfeld, Assenheim, Biedenkopf, 
Biidingen, Burg-Milchling, Biitzbach, Dieburg, Erbach, Griinberg, 
Hatzfeld, Herbstein, Isenburg, Lichtenborg, Lorsch (abbey), Neustadt, 
Nidda, Niederolm, Niederwesel, Offenbach, Ranstett, Rhens, Raedelheim, 
Rothenberg, Seligenstatt, Siedel, Wetterau, Wimpfen. 

Hessian Mints (minor) : Eschwege, Frankenberg, Fritzlar, Geln- 
hausen, Geismar, Minzenberg, Neustedt, Oldendorf, Breitungen, 
Rauschenberg, Vacha, Volkmersen, Wolfhagen. 

Heukelom, Vianen, the name of a seigniorial fief in the Low Countries 
in the Middle Ages. A denier of Jan van Arkel, described as unique, 
occurs in Sch., xi. 819. Possibly it was struck in the locality. Comp. 

Heusdcn, Brabant, a supposed mint of the Heeren of H. in the I2th c. 
See an interesting note in Schulman, xiv. 305. 

Hildburghausen, Central Germany, the presumed mint of the Dukes 
of Saxe-Hildburghausen down to the union with Saxe-Meiningen. 

Hildesheim, Hanover, formerly and at two successive epochs a place 
of considerable importance and a seat of coinage. A siege -piece in 

copper of 1658 belongs to this town. A grosch of 1699 reads 
Hildeshei : Stadt ; Geldt. The money of the Bishops was struck here in 


1 1 4 The Coins of Europe 

the 1 7th and i8th c. There was also a civic coinage. A mariengroschen 
of 1544 is mentioned by Sch., xx. 1183, as not known to Knyphausen. 
Probably the most remarkable piece minted here, as it doubtless was, 
was the four ducats in gold with the remarkable portrait of Charles V., 

Hjorring, Jutland, a Danish mint in the I2th c. Heringa. 

Hochst, "Hesse-Darmstadt, the place of coinage of the Archbishops of 

Hoerdt, Has Rhin, a mint of the Counts de la Marck and of the Dukes 
of Cldves, 1 5th- 1 6th c. Man. Nov. Hverde. 

Hohenlohc, Honlve, Wiirtemberg, the seat of an ancient principality 
in Middle Franconia, of which the name occurs on a numerous and 
interesting series of silver and copper coins, but of which the princes had 
mints at no fewer than eleven places from the I4th to the igth c. : 
Neuenstein, Weickersheim, Forchtenberg, Gnadenthal, Langenburg, 
Kirchheim, Meinhard, Waldenburg, Unter-Steinbach, Schillingsfiirst, and 

Hohnstein, Meissen, Saxony, the probable source of a thaler of 1570 
with the name of the feudal lord. Sch., xv. 1967. 

Holstein Mints: Itzehoe, Neustadt, Oldesloe, Ploen (1731), Ranzau 
(1650-68), Rendsburg, Steinbach (1600-20). 

Hamburg, Hesse, a mint of Sophia, Duchess of Brabant and 
Countess of Hesse, and of her son Henry, i3th c. (Moneta in Hon.}, of 
the counts palatine, of the Duke of Zweibriicken (1464), and of the 
landgraviat. The coinage was not numerous. 

Haarn, N. Holland, on the Zuyder Zee, a busy mint in the i7th and 
1 8th c., principally for the coinage of money destined for the Dutch East 

Horde, one of the mints of the Dukes of Cleves, i5th c. 

Horn, Lippe, a mint of the Counts, I3th-I4th c. 

Homes. See IVecrt and Wellcm. 

Horohausen, Prussia, a mint of the Abbey of Corvey in Minden, 
ioth-i2th c. The Emperors granted the abbey the right of coinage here 
as well as at Meppen and Hernburg. 

Horsens, Jutland, a Danish mint, I2th c. Hors. 

Hotter, Prussia, in the regency of Minden, a seat of coinage in the 
i6th c. A mariengroschen of 1552 was struck there. 

Huhlhitizcn, Gelderland. See Toul. 

Huissen, near Arnheim, one of the mints of the Dukes of CleVes, I7th c. 

Hungarian Mints (minor) : Enyedinum, Felsoebanya, Goelnitz, 
Kaschau, Pecs, Rosnau, Szomolnok, Telkibanya, Ujbanya, Vissegrad, 

Hungen, Hesse-Darmstadt, a mint of the elder branch of the house 
of Solms, which struck money here, as did the younger at Lich, Laubach, 
and Roedlingen, i6th-i8th c. A grosch of Ernst II., 1613, is cited by 
Schulman, xiv. 539. 

Huriel. See Brossc. 

Huy, or Hoye, Belgium, a mint of the prince-bishops of Liege in the 
1 2th and I3th c. The mint-mark a lion. It was also an imperial mint. 

Ichora, an early Russian mint. 

Ilmenau, Saxe-Meiningen, a mining district within the ancient feudal 
county of Henneberg. There is a mining thaler of 1693 struck here, as 
well as other pieces. 

Catalogue of European Mints 1 1 5 

Imola, Forli, a place of coinage of the Riario family pursuant to a 
papal grant of 1477. The right extended to any place within the county 

Incisa, Tuscany, the place apparently intended on an imperiale of 
the I4th c. with Marchionv. Acise on obv. There is a second place of 
the same name in the Sardinian States of Terra-firma. 

Innspriick, a mint of the Dukes and Arch -Dukes of Austria, I5th- 
i6th c. 

Ionian Isles. See Scio. The Venetian money struck for Corfu, etc., 
was probably coined at home, and the same remark applies to the 
English currency. 

Iserlohn, Pruss. Westphalia, a mint of the Counts de la Marck, I3th- 
i4th c. Deniers bear Iserhlon Civits. 

Isny, Wurtemburg, the seat of a local coinage in the i6th c. There is 
a batz struck here in 1516. Isne, or Isny. At the Reinmann sale, Part 
ii., Nos. 6774-75, two Isny thalers of 1538 and 1554 sold for 600 and 505 
marks. See them described at large in Schulthess, ii. 550, 551. 

Issoudun, Berri, a mint of the Seigneurs of Deols, of Philip Augustus, 
and from 1188 to 1195 of Richard Coeur-de-Lion of England. Exoldvn 
Castro, or Exoldvni. 

Iverdun, canton of Vaud, a Swiss mint under the Merovingian 
princes. Ebmdunum. 

Iviqa. See Ebusus. 

Ivoy, now Carignan, Ardennes, a mint, 1 3th- 1 4th c., of the Counts of 
Cluny. Moneta Nova Yve, or Yvodin, or Monnaie D Ivoix. 

Ivrea, Piedmont, the place of origin of a republican obolo of the I4th 
c. Cat. Rossi, 1880, No. 1691. 

Jaca, or Jacca, Arragon, an ancient town and the seat of a mint. 

Jaegerndorf, Austria, a mint of Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, 
and of the Margraves of Brandenburg. Moneta Carnoviensis. 

Jassy, Moldavia, probably one of the seats of coinage of Roumania. 

Javouls, near Mende, Dept. of Lozere, a Merovingian and episcopal 
mint. The See was transferred at the end of the loth c. to Mende in 

Jena, or lena, Prussian Saxony, a seat of coinage for early bracteates 
and pfennigen with a lion's head or a bunch of grapes, 1 3th- 1 5th c. 

Jever, Oldenburgh, a mint of the feudal lords in the nth c., and one 
of the Counts of Oldenburgh and East Friesland, 1 5th- 1 6th and I7th c. 
At a later period the Princes of Anhalt-Zerbst and the Czars of Russia 
employed it. 

Joachimsthal, a mining district in Bohemia, a mint of the Counts of 
Schlitz, who are said to have struck here the Joachimsthaler, or piece 
with the standing figure of that saint, as early as 1518. The word thaler 
is sometimes derived from this source. 

Jougne, princ. of Orange, a mint of the house of O., I5th c. A gros 
of Louis de Chalon, 1418-70, with Gros. Mont. D. lonke, is referred 

Jugon, Brittany, a mint of John IV., Duke of B., 1364-99. 

Jttltch, or Juliers, a mint of the Dukes of Juliers, subsequently Dukes 
of Juliers, Cleves, and Berg. Ivliac. There were several others, men- 
tioned elsewhere. There are 4-stuiver pieces of William the Rich, Duke 
of Juliers and Berg, 1583 and 1587, with a swan as a mint-mark. This 

1 1 6 The Coins of Eiirope 

place struck money of necessity during successive sieges in 1543, 1610, 
and 1621. 

Jupille, Lie"ge, Belgium, the place to which deniers of the I2th c. with 
Amannd V. are referred. 

Kachin, an early Russian mint. 

Kaschau, a Transylvanian mint under the independent waiwodes. 
C. or C.-M. 

Kaufbeuren, Bavaria, the source of a grosch of 1535. 

Kempten, Bavaria, an abbatial mint in the I3th c. for bracteates, and 
subsequently for thalers and florins of gold (i6th-i7th c.) ; also the seat 
of an urban mint from 1501, or earlier. In that year the town struck 
money for Ulm. The bracteate series bear Princeps Campidvnh., or 
Hildegardis Regina ; the town pieces usually have Campidone. 

Kessenich, Limburgh, the seat of the coinage of Jan I. de Wilde, 
Seigneur of Brunshorn, consort of the Lady of Kessenich. The money 
has Kesse. 

Kief, or Kiev, on the Dnieper, the first known capital of Muscovy, and 
the seat of the ancient Archbishopric of St. Sophia, was doubtless the 
place of coinage not only of certain silver coins of Byzantine type, but of 
a limited gold coinage emanating from the archiepiscopal See. Exist- 
ing specimens of the money appear to belong to the loth c., and bear 

Grand-duchy of Kief: denarius, loth c. 

Christian types and primitive legends. They closely resemble the 
Servian and Bulgarian currency of the Iith-i2th c. Comp. Moscow and 
Nijny- Novgorod. 

Kiel, Holstein, one of the mints of the Counts of H. (Moneta 
Kilensis}. Others were Oldesloe (Odesto) Rendsburg, Flensburg, Neu- 
stadt, Rangau, Ploen, Steinbach, and Itzehoe. The last is distinguished 
by the words, Cimtas Etsccho, and by three towers ; the rev. usually 
reading Moneta Holsacie. 

Kinroy, Limburgh, the seat of the coinage of Jan II., Seigneur of 

Klarcntsa, Glarentza, or Chiarcnsa (anc. Cyllene), in the Morea, and 
probably the mint of the Princes of Achaia, of the Villehardouin family, 
of the Kings of Naples, of the house of Anjou, etc., down to the i6th c. 
This principality was originally given to Geoffrey de Villehardouin about 
1 205 at the partition of the lower empire after the Fourth Crusade. 

Knijphausen, Oldenburg, the mint of the independent seigneurs or 
heeren of that place down to the present century. 

Koepnik, Brandenburgh, a mint of the Margraviat of B., I2th c. 

Kolpina, an early Russian mint. 

Kolyma, a Russian mint under Catherine II. 

Konigsberg, Prussia, a place of coinage of Frederic II. of Prussia 

Catalogue of European Mints 1 1 7 

Kremnitz, or Kormocz Banya, Transylvania, a mint of the early Kings 
of Hungary, 1 6th- 1 7th c., and of the Waiwodes or Princes of Transylvania 
or Stebenburgen in the I7th c. There is a \ thaler of Lladislaus I., 1506, 
with his titles and a shield of eight quarters on obv., and on rev. S. Lladis- 
laus on horseback, from this place of coinage. 

Kroeben, Posen, a Polish mint in the I3th c. 

Kroepelin, Mecklenburgh - Schwerin, perhaps, with Marlov, the 
earliest mint of the Dukes of M., as both are cited in an instrument 
of 1325. 

Kroppenstadt, a mint of the Abbey of Corvey in Minden, Prussia. 

Krossen, Poland, apparently the source of a grosch of Joachim and 
Albrecht, Margraves of Brandenburgh, 1512. 

Kuinre, W. Friesland, probably the mint of the Seigneurs of Kuinre 
in the I3th c. Sch., Cat. ix. 218-21 ; xv. 749-54. The earliest appear to 
have borne no name of ruler or lord, and have only Moneta Kvenri. On 
a denier of John, early I4th c., he styles himself Miles de Cuinre. There 
were the denier and gros. We have not met with higher values or with 

Kyburg, Canton of Zurich, a seat of seigniorial coinage from 1328. 
The Counts also struck money with their arms at Diessenhofen, Burg- 
dorf, and Wanzin. 

Laibach, Carniola, a mint of the Dukes of Carniola or Krain, and of 
the Emperors of Austria for the province. 

Landau, Alsace, issued money of necessity in 1702. Blanchet. Also 
during the siege of 1713 pieces of 2 florins 8 kreutzer, the \ and the \. 

Landegg, Hesse, a mint of the Abbey of Corvey, in Minden, Prussia, 
1 3th c. 

Landskrone, a Danish mint, i6th c. Lans. Kr. There are coins of 
1525, struck by Soren Norby, with the lamb of Gothland, or with three 
lions, and the reading Severin S. Norby. 

Langres, Haute -Marne, a mint of the Bishops, in accord with the 
Carlovingian princes and the Dukes of Burgundy, from the gth to the 
1 3th c. Lingonis Urbs or Civitas. 

Laon, a Carlovingian mint of early origin, and probably of episcopal 
ownership, although, as usual, the name of the sovereign is added, doubt- 
less to impart authority and weight to the coinage. Bishop Gaudric 
(1106-12), however, acquired very bad repute by suffering his Flemish 
mint-master Thierri to bring bad metal from his own country, and place 
the bishop's name and crozier on pieces of such low alloy that nothing 
worse, it was said, had ever been seen. This state of things was not 
peculiar to Gaudric or to Laon. It was a general abuse ; and we per- 
ceive that a normal stratagem on the part of minor feudatories, secular 
and clerical alike, was to melt down the regal money and recoin it with 
a plentiful admixture of alloy. Laudunensis. 

Laon, a mint of the Kings of Austrasia. La Clav. 

L Argentine, Viviers, the name of the place where the Bishop of V. 
received from Philip le Bel, in 1293, permission to strike money. It is 
described as a chateau, but, as elsewhere, was perhaps the tower where 
the mint lay. 

Laroche, Luxemburgh, a mint of Wenceslas II., Duke of L., 1383-88. 

La Rochelle, an Anglo-Gallic mint and one of Charles VII. of France, 
both before and after his accession in 1422, as Duke of Aquitaine ; of 

1 1 8 The Coins of E^lrope 

Charles de France, brother of Louis XI., 1469-71 ; of Henry III. of 
Valois, 1576; of Louis XV., 1731-42; and of the later French rulers, 
m.m. a ship. 

La Tour d Glaire, Ardennes, a mint of the Seigneurs of Chateau- 
Renaud or Renault, in the I7th c. This and Charleville, equally with 
Bouillon, imitated other types. Both Nicolas Briot and Daniel Goffin 
were employed here and at Charleville, etc., as engravers. 

Lauenburg, Pomerania, apparently the place of origin of a \ thaler 
of Frederic VI. of Denmark, 1830. 

Lausanne, a Merovingian mint, and from the Qth to the I4th c. a 
place of coinage for the See and town. Some pieces bear on obv. Sedes 
Lavsane, and on rev. Civitas ; others, Bcata Virgo. The former arose 
from the traditional belief that this place was the site of the ancient 
Civitas Equestris. The types were copied by the feudal Lords of Vaud. 
See Nyon and Thierrens. 

Lavagna, a mint of the Fieschi family, i6th c. Cotn. Lavanie. 

La Vanctte, Barony of Les Hayons, Luxemburgh, the mint in the I7th 
c. of Lambert d'Oyenbrugge de Duras, brigadier in the French army, 
1624. A variety of coins proceeded from this place, chiefly imitations or 
contrefac.ons of Niirnberg, Frankfort, Hamburg, Bouillon, Holland, etc.; 
and the engraver, Daniel Goffin, was employed here. A demi-patagon 
bears Lambertiis De Duras B\ard\ Suprennis Hayoncn. From the dis- 
appearance of what must have been a considerable coinage it may be 
inferred that the mint was suppressed. 

Lecce, Naples, a Neapolitan mint, 1495-99. 

Lecco, Lombardy, a mint of a branch of the Medici, 1431. Co. Le-vci. 

L'Ecluse, or Sltiys. See Slu'ys. 

Lcctoure, Dept. of Ger, a mint of the Vicomtes de L., Lomagne, and 
D'Auvilars, who represented the Comtes d'Armagnac, of the Bishops, 
and of Edward III. of England as Duke of Aquitaine. The town in 
ancient times was divided into three quarters: the Bishop's, the Viscount's, 
the King's or Duke's. Lactora Civ., Cii'itas Efi. or Santigino. 

Lceuardcn, W. Friesland, a mint for the province in the i6th c. 
There is a silver piece of 28 stuivers, 1580, with Mo. No. Ord. Frist. s. 
Lcwwar. Cvsa., and a second of about the same date of the Daventer 
type, punched with L., probably for this place. We do not know whether 
the 2O-ducat piece of 1601 with the arms of W. Friesland on obv. and the 
legend Antiqva Virtvte et Fide, and on rev. the legend Concordia 
Frisicc Libertas, with four shields (for the four divisions of the prov.) 
united by a riband, may not be assigned here. 

Leeucn, Gelderland, the reputed source of a denier with Lewe and a 
head facing. 

Leghorn, a mint of the Medicean Dukes of Florence or Etrtiria. 

Lciningen, Baden, Alt or Old, the place of origin of some of the 
money struck and issued by the early Counts after 1608, the date of the 
original monetary concession, though other towns (Hardenberg, Dachs- 
burg, Westerburg, etc.) shared the coinage. There are pieces with Lein. 
Et. Dags. Com. in Lein. Et. Rixing. 

Lcipsic, Saxony, the place of origin of bracteates in the I2th c., and 
the general mint of the Dukes of Saxony of the Ernestine branch from 
the 15th c. There is a bracteate with Marchio. Otto. De. Lipi. Some 
pieces have Lipcens, others, S. L. for Signuin Lipsiense. On some of the 
currency the Dukes of Saxony bear the title of Margraves of Misnia or 
Meissen. There is a rare piece struck during the siege by the Saxons 

Catalogue of European Mints 1 1 9 

in 1549. The thaler of Augustus III. of Poland, 1754, was minted 

Lc Mans. See Mans. 

Lemberg, Austrian Poland, a mint of the Kings of Poland of the 
Jagellon dynasty, I4th-i5th c. 

Lemgo, Lippe, a mint of the Emperors, of the Counts of Lippe, and of 
the Bishops of Paderborn. Lemgoens, or Lemego Civitas. The deniers of 
Cologne were imitated here with the mark Colonia. 

Lens-en- Artois. See Boulogne. 

Leopoldstadt, Hungary, the source of siege-money (poltura) during 
the troubles and disorders of 1704-7. 

Lepanto, a mint of Philip, Prince of Taranto, I4th c. 

Le Puy, France, Dept. of Haute-Loire, the place of coinage of a 
denier with Podiensis. See Cat. Robert, No. 2267. 

Lescun, a barony in Beam, the seat of a local coinage in or about 
1374 ; but no specimens are known or at least identified. 

Les Hayons, Luxemburgh, Dept. of Noire-Fontaine. See La Vanette. 

Lesina, Dalmatia, the place mentioned on a Venetian colonial bag- 
attino of the I5th c. with 5. Stephanvs Pont. Lesinensis. A Venetian 
mint in 1549. 

Leucha. See Toul. 

Leuchtenberg, Bavaria, a landgraviat and doubtless independent mint 
in the i6th c., but under imperial sanction. The money is of rather 
peculiar and archaic type. There is a batz of 1535 of Johann VI. with 
lohan Langra In Levcht. 

Leyden, not an ordinary mint; but in 1574 an issue took place of 
pieces of 5, 10, and 20 stuivers, made from the leaves of Books of Hours. 
Sch., Cat. ix. 1190-91. In the course of that and the preceding year 
several pieces in silver and copper, including a liard of the hospital of St. 
Catherine, were struck. 

Liege, the mint of the imperial coins of the Hohenstaufen dynasty 
struck for Flanders in the loth and nth centuries, and one of the long 
series of prince-bishops down to the present century. Comp. Moresnet. 

Liegnitz, a mint of the Dukes of Silesia in the I3th c., and of succes- 
sive rulers, including the Counts of Brieg and Dukes of Liegnitz-Brieg, 
down to the end of the I7th c. The writer has a 6-groschen piece struck 
by George Wilhelm, 1673. The Dukes also struck at Reichenstein. 
The town acquired the right of coinage in 1425 from the King of Poland. 
There are uniface hellers or pfennigen in 1622 with L. 

Ligny, originally a fief detached from the county of Bar in 1231 as 
the dowry of Marguerite, daughter of Henri II., on her marriage to the 
Duke of Limbourg. Coins in gold, silver, and billon were struck here 
in considerable proportions in the I4th c., including some of the money 
of John of Luxemburgh, King of Bohemia. From letters of indemnity of 
1376 we learn that at that time the dies for the coins struck by successive 
C. of L. in the I4th c. agnels, francs a cheval, ecus d'or, nobles, gros, 
and deniers were in the hands of a goldsmith named Guesclin le Char- 
pentier. Moneta De Lineio. 

Lille, one of the Flemish towns which struck the maille at a very 
early period with LI. It is mentioned as a place of coinage under 
Baudouin V., Count of Flanders, 1036-67. Insvlae, quasi L Isle, occurs 
on some pieces. The ecu de Navarre of Louis XV., 1718, was from this 
mint, which was employed both by that king and Louis XVI. Pieces of 
5, 10, and 20 sols in copper were struck by the French governor, M. de 

I2O The Coins of Europe 

Boufflers, during the siege by the Allies in 1708, with his arms on the 

Limbourg, near Diirkheim, Bavaria, the place of origin of a curious 
denier (Sch., xiv. 487) struck in the name of Emich, Count of Leiningen 
(whose capital was at Diirkheim), as Advocate of the Abbey of Limbourg. 

Limbourg, Brabant, the seat of coinage from a very early period of 
the money of the Seigneurs of Limbourg and of the Dukes of Brabant. 
There are deniers or esterlings of John I., Duke of Brabant, 1261-94, 
from this mint, and probably the money of his mother Adela, during her 
regency (1261-69), ' s assignable hither. Linborgh or Limborc. 

Limoges, a mint of Dagobert I. (628-38), of Eudes, King of Paris or 
France (887-98), of the Vicomtes de Limoges and Dukes of Brittany as 
V. de L., and of the Valois and Bourbon Kings of France. There is a 
piece of 30 sols of Louis XVI., 1791, struck here. See Barbarin and 
Lemona in Cat. of Denom. A gold sol of Dagobert I. with his bust, one 
of the earliest pieces of such a type, was found at Merton, Surrey, some 
years ago, in the hands of poor people, and was eventually sold to the 
national collection at Paris for 180. It had probably belonged at one 
time to the daughter of Dagobert, who died and was buried at Merton. 
There is a piefort of Jean III., Vicomte de Limoges, with Turonus 
Lemovic. By the Treaty of Bretigny, 1360, this mint was ceded to the 
King of England, and in 1365 Michel Beze struck for the Black Prince 
various denominations in silver and billon. 

Lindau, Bavaria, the seat of a coinage in the nth c. There are 
imperial bracteates, semi-bracteates, and deniers down to the I3th c., 
with the arms of the town, the linden-tree, or a cinquefoil of it, and on 
those of Frederic II. (1220-1250) the Guelph lion. 

Littnich, Prussia, a civic mint, where the French gros tournois was 
imitated. Coins bearing the name occur very rarely. 

Lippe ajid Schanmburg-Lippe Mints. See Blanchct, ii. 68, 69. 

Lisbon, the general place of coinage of the later Portuguese money. 
Philip II. of Spain struck coins here from 1580. But even in the I7th c., 
under Peter II., many pieces were struck at Bahia, Porto Rico, and Rio. 
The money for Brazil down to 1825 was chiefly coined at Rio and Bahia. 
LIS. or Lisboa. 

Lissa, Posen, a mint of the independent Kings of Poland. 

Livcrdun, formerly a fortress belonging to the Bishops of Toul, now 
Dept. of Meurthe, F ranee; a place of coinage of the Bishops, iith-i4th c. 

Loano, Sardinia, Div. of Genoa, a seigniorial fief of the Doria family, 
i6th c. There is a scudo della galera of Gio. Andrea Doria, Prince and 
Count of Loano, 1590-1606. We may also note a luigino with the name 
and titles of Gio. Andrea Doria, Prince of L. 1665, with his portrait and 
coat of arms. 

Laches, Touraine, the source of a denier of the nth c. with Locas 
Castro on either side. 

Lodtve, Herault, the seat of an episcopal coinage, I2th-I4th c., with 
the name of a canonised prelate (Fulcran) on most or all of the deniers. 
The money was long current in the diocese with that of Paris and Tours, 
belonging to the royal series. 

Lodi-in-Crema, N. Italy, the place mentioned on a danaro bearing on 
obv. the name of Frederic II. (1220-50), and on rev. Lavdensis. There 
is also, belonging to this place, a denaretto of Gio. da Vignate, signore, 
1410-13, with Lavde on rev. 

Lodose, an early Swedish mint. L. 

Catalogue of European Mints 121 

Lons-le-Saulnier, Dept. of Jura, formerly part of the Duchy of Bur- 
gundy, an ancient town, whose fortifications are mentioned as having 
been demolished in 1291 ; a Carlovingian and Burgundian mint, and 
subsequently one within the jurisdiction of the See of Besangon. Its 
operations, after some period of suspension, were resumed about 1120, 
and there are coins belonging to this revival with Ledonis. VilL; and in 
the field Be. The Counts of Macon and Vienne also struck money 
here. There is a denier of Hugues IV., Duke of Burgundy, 1218-78, 
belonging to this place. B\urgus\ Ledonis. 

Loo, West Flanders, the source of a denier, I2th c., with an eagle and 
Te Lo. 

Loon, N. Brabant, near Ravenstein, an ancient feudal lordship. 
There are coins of Arnould VIII., 1280-1328. Some of these, at least, 
were most probably struck at Loon itself. Comp. Hassell. 

Loos, near Lille, a French or Brabantine mint in the nth c. and 
later. It issued in the names of its local rulers esterlins, doubles tournois 
in billon, and gros, with their divisions. Comp. Hasselt. 

Loreto, or Loretto, Macerata, Italy, the place mentioned on an autono- 
mous danaro of the i4th c. with De Lavre Tvi., and on rev. Sea. Maria. 

Louvain, S. Brabant, a place of great importance in former times, 
and doubtless that of coinage of the deniers connected with it, as well 
as of the money of the earlier Dukes of Brabant. John III. (1312-55) 
certainly employed this mint, as well as Philip le Hardi after his 
marriage to the heiress of Flanders. 

Liibcck, or Lijbeck, N. Germany, a mint in the earlier half of the I3th 
c., by virtue of the imperial authority given in 1226. Deniers exist with 
the double-headed eagle, the name of the Emperor, and that of the town. 
In 1305 there seems to have been a monetary convention with Ham- 
burgh for the coinage of pfennigen. Gold money, described in a 
document of 1339 as florenus aureus de Florencia, and on the pieces 
reading Flore. Lvbtc., was struck here in evident imitation of the Italian 
type. In 1403 and 1411 there were conventions with Wismar, Ham- 
burgh, Rostock, Stralsund, and Luneburg, for the fabrication of pfen- 
nigen for common use. The earliest thaler was in 1528 ; the mint 
closed in 1801. Lvbica, or Lvbicens. An interesting early dated piece 
is a 5 mark of 1506, with Qvadrans Marce Lvbtcem., 1506. There are | 
or ort thalers of 1622, and \ thalers of 1632. We have for 1706 a silver 
piece marked the ig2nd part of a thaler. The schilling was the money of 
account; there are pieces of 16, 32, and 48 sch. courant. 

Lucca [Flavia], a successive seat of coinage of the Lombard and 
Frankish kings, of the marquisate and dukedom of Tuscany, and of the 
imperial, republican, and seigniorial governments from the 7th to the iQth 
c. Cat. Rossi, 1880, Nos. 1718-70. From 1342 to 1369^6 Pisani family 
held the lordship. The rarest money connected with the city is that of the 
Lombards, and of Hugo, Marquis of Tuscany, and of Hugo II. and 
Giuditta (Judith), Dukes of Tuscany (970-1001) ; there is a denaro of the 
two latter with DvxTvscie and Ugo in a monogram on obv., and on rev. 
Dvx Ivdita, and in the field L-vca. There are pieces (a tessera or token 
of silver and a quattrino) attributed to the rule of Castruccio de' Cas- 
trucconi (1316-28). The coins of the Napoleonic dukedom of Lucca 
and Piombino were probably struck here. On the earlier types the 
Sanctus Vultus, as it is called, in varied or modified form, seems to 
be merely an idealised portrait of one of the emperors. It was intro- 
duced in the I3th c. 


The Coins of Europe 

Lucera, in the Neapolitan territory, 9 miles W.N.W. from Foggia, an 
ancient mint. 

Lucerne, Switzerland, the place of coinage for the canton from 1415. 
Bracteates, plapparts, etc., in early times, and down to the present c. 

a variety of money, in- 
cluding the pieces of 40 
batzen and 4 franken. 

Liide, orLitgde, Prus- 
sian Westphalia, a mint 
of Conrad, Archbp. of 
Cologne, 1238. 

Ludinghausen, Prus- 
sia, the name men- 
tioned in 974 in the 
grant of a mint by 
Otho II. to the Abbot 
of Werden. See Wer- 

Lund, or Liaiden, an 
early Dano - Swedish 
mint. Lvd. 

Lune, Hanover, near 
Luneburg,a mint of the 
Counts de la Marck. 

Liineburg, Bruns- 
wick, the seat of a 
local coinage in the 
1 6th c., as well as of 
the money of the Dukes 
of Brunswick of the 
Liineburg branch. 
There is a doppelschil- 
ling = -jV thaler of 16 
sols, with the head of 
St. John the Baptist. 
The source, during the 
Thirty Years' War, 
1 6 1 8-48, of a gold ducat 
and silver thalers of 
1622, with the name of 
Duke Christian and the 
mottoes : Tout avec 
Dicu, and Gottes Freint 
und Der Paff. Feindt. 

Luneville, France, 
Dept. of Meurthe, a 
mint of the early Dukes 
of Lorraine. Several 
coins of Matthew II. 

Double thaler of Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Liineburg, 1655. ( 1 2 1 8-5 I ) belong here. 


Lusignan, Dept. of Vienne, a seat of coinage in lieu of Limoges, i7th c. 
It was removed hither in 1656-57 from Limoges. 

Luttingen, Palatinate, the place of origin of an esterlin or sterling of 

Catalogue of European Mints 123 

Rupert or Rutrecht I. (1353-90), with Monet. Lvddem,and the portrait of 
the Count facing. On the reverse occurs R-vpertvs Dvx, and a shield 
of the Bavarian palatinate. 

Lttxemburgh, capital of the ancient county, afterward duchy and 
grand-duchy, and a mint of the rulers of this territory from the I2th c. 
Wenceslas I., Emperor, King of Bohemia, and Duke of L. 1353-83, 
entered into a convention with 'the See of Treves, as we see that other 
rulers of L. had done elsewhere, for a common currency, indicated on a 
gros with the arms of the two powers quartered, and the legend 
Wincel\ Dvx Et. Boemvd. Archps. Socii. 1st. Monete. F'ce Lvcebvrg. In 
1795 a piece of 72 asses was struck here during the siege by the French. 

Luzille, a mint of the Emperor Charles IV. as Count of Luxem- 
burgh, 1346-53. 

Lvov, Poland, a mint of Casimir the Great, 1333-70. 

Lyons, the seat of a mint of the Kings of Burgundy and Austrasia, 
Pepin, Charlemagne, Charles de Provence, Charles le Chauve, etc., of 
the German Emperors (as Kings of Burgundy), and of the bishops and 
archbishops down to 1413, as well as of the Counts of Lyons, who, with 
those of Feurs and Roanne, held the territory of the See in the loth 
c. A denier of Conrad I., 911-18, was struck here. The privilege to the 
archbishops dates from 1157, and this coinage lasted probably until the 
royal mint was at length transferred, at the end of the I5th c., hither, pur- 
suant to an ordinance of Charles IV. so far back as 1413-14. Several 
specimens of the money of the Counts of Lyons exist. A denier tournois 
of Henry IV., 1607, and a piece of 3 deniers of Louis XVI., 1791, belong 
here. There is money of necessity of 1 793. Comp. Bechevilain. 

Maccagno, Como, a mint of the Mandelli family, I7th c. There is a 
gold zecchino, with the titles of the Emperor Ferdinard II. on rev., and on 
obv. Mon. N. Ai>. lac. B.C. Mac. Com. 7'a. Q.M.F., and the portrait of 
Giacomo Mandelli. 

Macerata, States of the Church, 21 miles from Ancona, the place of 
coinage of the original feudal lords from the I3th c., and of the popes 
from Boniface IX. to Pius VI. An early grosso bears the standing figure 
of St. Julian. 

Macon, a mint of Philip I. of France (1060-1 103), of the Dukes of Bur- 
gundy, and of the Valois dynasty down to the end of the I5th c., when it 
seems to have been removed to Lyons, whither an ordinance of Charles 
IV., 1413-14, had already directed its transfer. Misconus, Mutiscon, etc. 

Madrid, the mint of the later Kings of United Spain down to the 
present time. The money struck for currency in Mexico, South America, 
and other colonial possessions, with or without the Pillars of Hercules, 
belongs here for the most part ; but many, as the peso of Ferdinand VII., 
1810, coined at Mexico, and that of 1821, coined at Zacatecas, etc., 
formed an exception. M. crowned. Comp. Mexico. 

Maele, between Bruges and Ghent, now an insignificant village, but for- 
merly a feudal fortress, and the seat of Louis of Crecy and his son Louis of 
Maele, Counts of Flanders (1322-84). It was perhaps here, as well as at 
Bruges, Ghent, or Malines, that his extensive coinage in all metals was struck. 

Maesijck, Belgium, Prov. of Limbourg, 14 miles S.W. of Ruremonde, 
a mint of the See of Liege in the i6th c. A \ ernestus of Ernest of 
Bavaria, 1582, belongs here. 

Maestricht, or Vroenhof, one of the seats of the Merovingian coinage 
under the moneyer Adalbertus, who also worked at Utrecht, Durstede, 

124 The Coins of Europe 

etc., and a principal mint of the Bishops of Utrecht in the I2th and of 
those of Liege in the I4th c. Some of their small coins bear the imperial 
name coupled with their own. There is a denier of Raoul of Zeeringhen 
and Frederic Barbarossa. M. was also a mint of the Flemings and 
Spaniards from the I4th to the i6th c. A tuin of John IV., Duke ot 
Brabant, 1414-27, and a philipsdaalder of Philip II. of Spain as King of 
England, 1559, belong here. The Bishops, both of Utrecht and Liege, 
struck money at St. Peter-te-Maestricht. There are pieces of 40, 24, 16, 
8, 2, i, and \ stivers issued during the siege by the Spaniards in 1579, 
and of 100 and 50 st. in silver during that by the French in 1794. The 
higher values of the former series are plated, the others copper. 

Magdeburg, Pruss. Saxony, a royal or imperial mint in the loth c., 
and down to the I5th, of the archbishops and the town separately or con- 
jointly. Bracteates and semi-bracteates succeeded by pfennigen. The 
former bear the name of the town and the bust of St. Maurice. This 
place seems to have been the cradle of the dukedom and kingdom of 
Saxony, the earliest names mentioned in connection with the line having 
been burgraves of M. in the loth c., and having probably had an interest 
in the municipal coinage. 

Maguelonne, Dept. of Herault, a Visigothic town and the seat of a 
bishopric ; it was destroyed in 737, and rebuilt in the i ith c. The See was 
transferred to Montpellier in 1536. M. is now a mere village. A papal 
bull of 1266 censures the Bishop for coining imitations of the Arabic 
dirhem silver pieces of 10 deniers for the use of foreign traders in the 
town or diocese. The ordinary money followed the types of Melgueil, 
known as the inonnaie inelgoricnne. Comp. Substancion-Melgueil. The 
accompanying denier of Maguelonne (end of nth c.) bears on rev. four 

ornaments or symbols, usually termed annulets, but possibly meant for 
eyelets or oilets, as in an early Latin document, quoted by Blanchet, they 
seem to be referred to as oculi. 

Majorca, a mint of the Almohades in Spain (516-668), and of the 
special money struck by the Kings of Spain or of Majorca from the 1 3th to 
the 1 8th c. for the Balearic Isles, with Rex Maioricarvm. This or rather 
the capital, Palma, was the place of origin of siege-pieces of 1821 and 
1823, made current in the name of Ferdinand VII. for 30 sous. 

Malaga, a mint of the Almohades in Spain, 516-668. 

Malines, or Mechlin, one of the three mints employed for his ambitious 
and beautiful coinage by Louis of Maele, Count of Flanders, 1346-84, and 
a place of coinage of the Dukes of Burgundy as Dukes of Brabant. A 
denier noir of Philip le Bon, 1419-67, was struck here : also a double 
patard of 1488. 

Mai mii, a mint of the earlier Kings of Denmark, I4th c. Malmoiens. 

Manfredonia, a place of coinage of the early Kings of Sicily (i3th c.). 
An obolo of Manfred II. has on the obv. in the field MA. 

Mannheim, grand-duchy of Baden, formerly part of the duchy or 
kingdom of Bavaria. Erected into a township in 1606. M. was the mint 

Catalogue of European Mints 


of the grancUduchy of Baden from 1803 to 1826. We have a rare 
Mannheimergulden or f thaler of 1608, with a portrait of Friedrich IV., 

Count Palatine of the Rhine, on obv. and the arms on rev. There is also 
a double grosch of 1792 of the jubilee of Carl Theodor of Bavaria. 

Manopello, Naples, a place where Charles VIII. of France granted to 
Count Pardo Orsini, 1495, the right of coinage. 

Manosquc, Basses -Alpes, Mannesca or Mannasche, a mint of the 
ancient Counts of Forcalquier, 1 2th -i 3th c. There is an early denier, 
evidently attributable here, with Manu .'. Esca and on rev. Moneta, 
perhaps copied from the type of Le Puy. 

Mans, or Le Mans, cap. of the ancient province and countship of 
Maine, twice held by the Crown of England ; a mint of Charles le Chauve, 
if not of Louis le Debonnaire, subsequently of the Bishops under royal 
authority, and from the nth to the i5th c. of the Counts. In 1425, 
Henry VI. of England struck money here gold salutes, grandes and 
petites blanques, and deniers tournois. 

Mansfeld, Prussian Saxony, the seat of the mint of the Counts prior 
to the division of the house into branches. Bracteates of the I3th c. 
with a figure on horseback, holding a standard, which developed in the 
1 6th into the type of St. George and the Dragon. There is a grosch 
of 1574 of this evolutionary character, and from that date a continuous 
series of money in gold and silver all bearing the same symbol. The 
early money exhibits, besides the horseman, the arms of Mansfeld (a 
lozenge) and somewhat later pieces a crowned lion with Mansf. 

Mantes-sur- Seine, the place of origin of a piece struck by Philip I. 
after 1081 with Medantenne. 

Mantua, a place of coinage of certain anonymous bishops (iath c.), 
of the republic ( I3th c.), with Virgilivs on obv., and of the Gonzaga family, 

Mantua : Virgilius type, i3th c. 

Captains, Marquises, and finally Dukes of M., down to the middle of the 
1 8th c. Comp. Casale. The scudo d^oro and the double or doppio were 
coined under Guglielmo Gonzaga (1550-87) and his successors ; and there 
is more than one variety. Ferdinando Gonzaga (1612-26) struck pieces 

126 The Coins of Europe 

of 2, 4, 8, and 12 ducats or scudi, and the double scudo and a piece of 40 
sesini in silver. Carlo Gonzaga (1627-37) introduced the ttngaro, a gold 
type borrowed from the Hungarian series, and continued the silver 
denominations. The portraits of the Dukes on the earlier money are 
executed with great care and skill. During the I7th and i8th c. a 
profusion of soldi and sesini in copper was issued. Notice must be taken of 
an interesting series of money of necessity belonging to the years 1629-30, 
and consisting of a scudo, ^ scudo, and soldo. Of the scudo there are 
three or four varieties : one reading Manlvae below the feet of St. Andrew 
holding cross and pyx on obv. ; a second Man. Obsess. ; while a third one 
differs in having a shield on obv. with Mantve Anno Salvtis. 1629, and 
on rev. 160 [soldi]. The soldo follows this type, which was probably the 
latter. A third scudo is dated 1630. The cast soldo, which was issued 
during the siege of Mantua by Bonaparte, was produced at Milan. 

Marburgh, Marpitrgk, or Marborch, Upper Hesse, a mint of the See 
of Cologne and of the city, I3th-i6th c. Early bracteates of Hesse with 
the lion and Marbvrch^ or Marebvrg, or with two lambs' heads separated 
by a tower and Marsb-vrg, belong here, as well as deniers of Sophia, 
Duchess of Brabant, with Mareborchi, and of her son Henry. Marburgh 
was a mint of the Counts and Landgraves of Hesse from the I4th to 
the 1 7th c. 

Marsal, Lorraine, a mint of the Bishops of Metz, nth c. There is a 
very rare silver plaque of Ademar de Monthil (1327-61), a division of the 
same, and a piece in copper with the same characters and legend. 

Marsberg, Westphalia, the presumed place of coinage of a grosch of 

Marseilles (Afassilia), a seat of coinage for the silver pieces struck by 
Greek settlers in servile imitation of the Phocean type, and successively 
a Merovingian, Carlovingian, Provencal, Arragonese, and French regal 
mint. The Counts of Provence, however, made considerable use of the 
widely prevalent types of Otho emanating from the Pavian mint and of 
the favourite currency of M elgue il (monnaie melgorienne). Civitas Massilie, 
Massilicnsis. The Spanish masters of Provence also struck money at 
Saint- Remy, Nice, and Tarascon. 

MarvJjols, Dept. of Lozere, a mint of the I5th c. (1418). M.m. J 
between the first and second words of the legend. 

Massa- Carrara, Central Italy, an independent signiory and duchy, 
appertaining during some centuries to the Malaspina and Cibo families. 
A somewhat extensive coinage, of which we probably possess imperfect 
remains, seems to have taken place here. Special attention may be 
directed to two items in the Remedi Cat. 1884, Nos. 1750-51 : a double 
scudo d'oro of 1582 and a mezzo-ducatone of 1593, both pieces of remark- 
able rarity, and belonging to the reign of Alberico Cibo Malaspina (1559- 
1623). His successor coined a piece of eight bolognini in silver. This 
series determined with Maria Beatrice, Duchess of Massa, 1792, who 
merely issued soldi and quattrini. The dominion passed to her son the 
Duke of Modena. 

Massa di Marcmma, Tuscany, the place of origin of an autonomous 
grosso of the I4th c. with De Massa. on obv. 

Massa-Lombarda, or Ducale, Polesine of Rovigo, a place of coinage of 
the Este family, i6th c. Only the grosso, double grosso, quartino, and 
quattrino appear to have been struck. The pieces usually have Masse 
Lombarde, Lombard, or Lombar, to distinguish them from the coinages of 
cognominal places. 

Catalogue of Eiiropean Mints 127 

Massegra, the place of origin of a quattrino with Di Becca Ria in 
three lines on rev. Cat. Remedi, 1884, No. 1778. 

Matelica, Italy, 24 m. W.S.W. of Macerata, a place of papal coinage 
under Pius VI. (1775-99). 

Maubeuge, France, Dept. of Nord, formerly part of the county of 
Hainault. It is 11 miles from Avesnes. There is a sterling of John I., 
Count of Hainault, 1289-1314, and of John II. D'Avesnes, struck here. 
It was one of their mints. 

Mauleon, the name (prior to 1736) for Chatillon-sur-Sevre, the seat of 
a seigniorial coinage commencing about 1215, when Savary de Mauleon, 
Seneschal of Poitou, was invested by Jean Sans Terre [John of England], 
Count of P., with the right of striking money of the Poitevin standard. 
The family subsequently merged in that of Thouars. 

Mayence, or Maintz, a Carlovingian mint and one of the archbishops, 
who, however, also struck money at Amoeneberg, Neustadt, Treysa, etc. 
Of the archiepiscopal series some of the earlier are bracteates of superior 
work. The Florentine gold type was imitated here as at Cologne ; the 
lily was perhaps acceptable as an emblem of purity and from the direct 

Mayence : i kreutzer, i8th c. 3 pfenningen, 1760. 

allusion to it in Scripture. In the last century copper pieces from i to 12 
kreutzer, circular, oblong and octagon, were issued, and during the siege by 
the French there was a coinage of necessity of 5, 2, and i sols. The Em- 
peror Maximilian 1 1. accorded the right of coinage of florins to the Convent 
of St. Alban here in 1578, with an ass as the arms and S. Alban. Martyr. 

Meaux, Champagne, Dept. of Seine-et-Marne, a mint of the Frankish 
Kings, 8th c. A denier d'or of Pepin le Bref, struck here, was sold at 
Paris in 1885 for 955 fr. It was also an early episcopal mint, iith-i2th 
c., and at one time at least in concert with the Counts of Troyes. The 
money seems to have obtained credit and a considerable width of currency, 
by virtue of conventions between the Bishop and neighbouring potentates, 
as far back as the commencement of the loth c. The treaty of 1208 with 
the Countess of Champagne gave the latter two-thirds, and the Prelate 
one-third, of the revenue arising from the admittance of the Meaux coin- 
age into her territory. After 1225 the type seems to have been made 
conformable to that of the nouveau provinois published in that year. 
See Cat. Robert, 1886, Nos. 376-80. Meldis Civitas. The convention- 
money between Meaux and Troyes reads Meldis Civita on obv., and 
Trecasi Civi on rev. 

Mccklenburgh Mints: Boitzenburg, Doemitz, Eutin, Gadebusch, 
Gnoien, Grevermuhlen, Gustrow, Kroepelin (1325), Malchin, Marienche, 
Marlow, Parchim, Ratzeburg, Ribnitz, Siilze, Tessin, Warnemunde, 
Wittenburg : (M.-STRELITZ), Friedland, Neubrandenburg, Neustrelitz, 

128 The Coins of Europe 

Meddersheim, Hesse-Homburg, a mint of Adolf, Count Palatine, 

Medcbach, Pruss. Westphalia, the place of coinage of deniers of the 
Archbp. of Cologne, I3th c., with Civitas Medebeka. 

Medola, Lombardy, ? a mint of the Dukes of Mantua, 1593-1626, as 
Marquises of M. Marchio Medvla, or Medv. 

Megen, N. Brabant, on the Maese, the source of a denier of John III., 
Duke of Brabant (1359-1415), with loh. Com. Meg. and on rev. Moneta 

Megyes, a Transylvanian mint under the independent waiwodes. M. 

Mehun-sur-Yevre. See Celle-sur-Cher. 

Meiningen, a mint of the Dukes of Saxe-Meiningen, I7th-i9th c. 

Meissen, Saxony, a mint from the I ith c. of the Emperors, Margraves, 
Bishops, and Burgraves. There appear to be only bracteates of various 
types with Misni., and groschen with Grossvs Nows Misnensis. Some of 
the money of the Margraves of Meissen or Misnia was struck at Leipsic. 
Comp. Magdeburg. 

Meisscnheim, Hesse-Homburg, a mint of various princes in the i5th- 
i6th c. 

Mellc, Poitou, modern Dept. of Deux-Sevres, one of the numerous 
Carlovingian mints, and that of which specimens from various finds are 
least rare, so far as the deniers of Charlemagne are concerned. There is a 
denier of this place struck in gold perhaps the earliest instance of the 
modern practice and of what is termed in France apiece de plaisir. Pic- 
tai>i Civis., and Mctzullo or Metvllo. The discovery of rich silver mines 
in this vicinity is supposed to have led to the establishment of the mint, 
which was also employed by the Counts of Poitou and by Richard I. of 
England. There are deniers with Ricardus Rex and Pictaviensis disposed 
on rev. in three lines. The last independent Count of Poitou was Alphonse, 
brother of Louis IX., 1241-71, of whom there are deniers resembling 
those of Richard. But there are deniers of Philippe de France, son 
of Philip IV., 1311-16. See Salle-Lc-Roi. 

Mende, the Mimatum of Gregory of Tours, cap. of the ancient episcopal 
fief or county palatine of Gevaudan, and the seat of a coinage for the 
county and diocese from the nth or i2th to the I4th c. The deniers, to 
which the currency seems to have limited itself, bear the effigy of the patron 
of the town and cathedral, and the premier Bishop, St. Privatus. The 
resistance of the bishops on repeated occasions to attempted encroach- 
ments on their right shews the profitable character of the latter. Mima 
or Mimas Civitas. 

Meppen, a mint of the Abbey of Corvey in Prussia, ioth-i2th c. 

Mcran, capital of the ancient county of the Tyrol, and the mint of the 
Counts down to the time of Sigismund of Hapsburg, Arch-Duke of Austria, 
Margraf of Elsas, and Count of the Tyrol, who bequeathed his hereditary 
dominions to Maximilian I. in 1496. There are denarii and grossi of 
Meinhard I. and II. 1253-95. 

Meraude or Poilvache, Duchy of Luxemburgh, a mint of the Emperors 
Henry IV., 1280-88, and Charles IV., 1346-53, as Counts of L. Esmer- 
avda or Meravdiensis. 

Merovingian Mints. The tentative catalogues of mints and moneyers 
connected with this epoch and family of coins still remain very imperfect, 
unsatisfactory, and obscure. Among hundreds of localities specified as 
occurring on pieces a limited number is recognisable ; but of the bulk the 

Catalogue of European Mints 129 

identity is open to question or positively incapable of settlement. See 
Blanchet, Manuel ' de Numismatique, 1 890, i. 42-100. The names of known 
places are comparatively very few, and comprise Avignon, Avranches, 
Aachen, or Aix-la-Chapelle, Amboise, Amiens, Angers, Le Puy, Clermont- 
Ferrand, Strasburgh, Arras, Aire, Autun, Orleans, Auxerre, Bayeux, 
Bourges, Brienne, Bordeaux, Chalons -sur-Saone, Cahors, Cambrai, 
Chartres, Le Mans, Dijon, Dorostadt or Durstede, Angouleme, Jumieges, 
Geneva, Grenoble, Lausanne, Limoges, Laon, Lyons, Marsal, Marseilles, 
Macon, Melun, Meaux, Melle, Metz, Mayence, Namur, Nantes, Nevers, 
Paris, Poictiers, Rennes, Segrais, St. Denis, Sens, Souvigny, Soissons, 
Toulouse, Tournai, Troyes, Treves, Maestricht, Toul, Tours, Gap, Vannes, 
Besan5on, Vienne, Vendome, Verdun, Vue, Arthon, Saint - Philbert- 
de-Grandlieu, Le Port-Saint-Pere, etc. Besides these more or less con- 
siderable centres, there were numerous other points where this coinage 
took place, alike in France, Spain, the Netherlands, and Germany, not to 
add England ; in some instances the place of mintage is doubtful, and in 
a few it is not mentioned, and on the whole we support the theory that the 
moneyers adopted the principle of going on circuit, and striking and 
stamping at each stage a certain quota of bullion or bar-metal, according 
to instructions or treaty, for fiscal and other purposes. The description of 
the localities where this monetary system was carried out certainly 
favours the hypothesis that the coinage was the work of functionaries 
constantly or periodically removing from point to point, and making it 
part of their office to enable the tax-payer in a town, village, manor, 
domain, curtilage, or in fact assessed settlement of any kind, to pay his 
quota in a convenient medium. The abundance and variety of the trientes 
seem to tend to a proof that an immense aggregate of these small 
pieces was struck at different times, rather than that any considerable 
output took place at a single juncture or locality. Whatever is to be 
said of the triens in its day, and of the gold florin of Florence and the 
Venetian ducat, when the latter appeared at the dawn of a revival of 
enterprise and commerce, the financial importance and interest of all 
these pieces were very considerable ; and we ought perhaps to add the 
florin tfor and other gold types of Louis IX., a coin which may be 
regarded as contemporaneous with the gold issues of the two Italian 
republics, though perfectly different in fabric and character. In regard 
to the Florentine and Venetian movement, it is obvious that the primary 
considerations were the establishment of a standard and the possession of 
a gold currency politically and religiously associated with the State. 
It was an additional security for trade and a crowning symbol of 
autonomy. About 580 it is supposed that Gontran, King of Burgundy, 
and also Gondovald, who succeeded or displaced him, struck the tremissis 
in Burgundy and Provence, the latter doing so in the name of the Emperor 
Maurice Tiberius, assassinated in 582. Comp. Merovingian Money in 
Cat. of Denom. 

Merseburg, capital of a circle of Prussian Saxony, the seat of a mint 
in 973, and of continuous coinage down to the I7th c. Pieces, at first of 
the bracteate fabric, bear a figure of St. Laurence, or a bishop's head and 
Merseb, or, still later (1622), a cock and MB. 

Messerano, Piedmont, an ancient principality of the Fieschi family, 
which, either here or at Crevacuore, struck a long series of coins in silver, 
billon, and copper from the I5th to the iyth c. The largest denomination 
was the silver tallero, first introduced here by Francesco Filiberto 
Ferrero Fieschi, 1588-1629. 


1 30 The Coins of E^lrope 

Messina, a mint of the Norman Dukes of Apulia and Sicily, uth-i2th 
c. Operata In Vrbe Messana. Subsequently a seat of coinage for the 
Roman (German) emperors and the Spanish or Arragonese masters of 
the island. There is a taro of Martin I. of Arragon, King of Sicily, 
1402-9, struck here with Martin D, Gra. Rex Sicili. [and on rev.] Ac. 
Arag. Cat. Remedi, 1884, No. 1796. 

Metz, Lorraine, a place of coinage of the Kings of Austrasia, and 
especially of Theodobert, who was the first of that line to substitute his own 
portrait for that of a Roman emperor, and the capital, and doubtless mint, 
of some of the successors of Clovis and of the Carlovingian princes. A 
denier of Lothaire (840-55), with Mediomatricorum (Moselle) on reverse, 
belongs here ; it was found at Wijk-bi-Durstede, near Utrecht. From a 
very early date, M. was an episcopal mint, and in 1192 was ceded to the 
burgesses for five years in consideration of a payment of 500 livres of 
Metz, with the power reserved to the Bishop to resume his position for 
1 200 livres, which does not appear to have been exercised till about 1551, 
when the redemption-money was borrowed from the chapter. But the 
mint was ceded soon after to Henry II. of France. Comp. Vic. The 
most ancient episcopal piece may be a denier with the name of St. Peter 
(see Cat. Robert, 1886, No. 433) ; there is money of Bishop Bertram 
(1179-1212). The coinage ceased about 1663. The civic angevine or 
double gros of Metz was copied in the Netherlands by the feudal seigneurs 
of Stevensweerd, Reckheim, and Stein. There is a peculiar coinage con- 
nected with this ancient city in the form of a long series of small pieces 
struck in the names of the Sheriffs or Aldermen (maitres-echevins) from 
1562 to 1663. See Cat. Robert, 808-914, where a large number are figured. 
There is an interesting siege-piece of 1552 with the portrait of Henry II. 
of France and Henrico II. Franc. R. Christianis Opt. Principi and on 
rev. Met. Liber Obsid. Car. V. Imp. et Germ. Oppvg. Franc, a Lot/tor 
Dvce Cms. Foelitis Propvg. 1552. Metz was a place of coinage under 
the Bourbon Kings of France and under the First Republic (with the 
m.m. AA). 

Menlan, or Meullant, Seine-et-Oise, a place of coinage of Hugues II., 
Count of M., nth c. There is a denier with the unusual reading 
Hvgonis Militis and on rev. Mvileini Casta. This Hugues was at that 
time associated with his father and was simply an escuyer or miles. 

Meung-sur- Loire, a place of coinage under Louis XIV. Liards of 
1654 with E. 

Mexico, a city mentioned as the apparent place of origin of the 

Spanish coins marked ?, , or ME. in a monogram, which occurs also on 

the Mexican series itself. A roughly-struck irregularly-shaped silver 
coin before us is marked on the only inscribed side with a cross and the 

date 1611, ?, and Rei. It seems to belong to the colonial series during 

the troubles with Holland about that time. 

Middleburgh, Zeeland, the place of mintage of the siege-money struck 
during the siege by the Spaniards in 1572-3-4. There is a velddaalder 
and the half, and a copper coin, all square. Of the daalder there 
are 2 or 3 varieties. One before us has the date 1574, with the arms of 
Zeeland at the top, and is struck on one side only. And see also Sch., 
xvi. 1084. The copper piece reads Deo Regi Patriae Fidel. Middelb. 
1573. At a later period Middleburgh was one of the Dutch colonial 
mints, and struck money in the name of the Batavian Republic. 

Catalogue of European Mints 131 

Milan, a Lombard and Carlovingian mint in the 8th and Qth c. ; 
subsequently one of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, and in succession the 
seat of coinage of the republic, of the Visconti and Sforza-Visconti 
families, of the French, Spanish, and Austrian rulers or occupiers of 
Lombardy, and of the kingdom under Napoleon I. Like Rome, Ferrara, 
Pesaro, and Venice, Milan enjoyed the advantage of a man of genius in 
some of its numismatic productions : from 1483 to 1500 Leonardo da 
Vinci designed at least one coin for the Duke Lodovico II Moro. Charles 
VI. of Germany (1711-40) issued as Duke of Milan some roughly-struck 
copper pieces of irregular form with his portrait, and we have soldi and 
\ soldi in the same series of his daughter Maria Theresa, of whom there 
is a rare silver scudo as Duchess of Milan, 1779, as well as lower deno- 
minations. There is a Spanish lira and \ lira of Joseph II. of Germany 
struck here on the occasion of his inauguration as Duke of Milan, July 
25, 1781. It is known as the lira del juramento. During the siege of 
Mantua, Bonaparte struck at Milan billon pieces of 10 and 5 soldi ; and 
there is likewise a cast soldo of very thick and coarse fabric belonging to 
the same series. There are several very rare proofs of the coinage of the 
Cisalpine Republic (1800-4) m silver and bronze. Cat. Rossi, 1880, 
Nos. 2641-47. Also some of that of 1848. Francis Joseph of Austria 
continued to employ this mint down to 1859. Mdiola. Mediolanvm. 
Dvx Mediolani or Mil., or M. 

Miletus, a mint of the Norman Counts (nth c.). A doppio follaro of 
Roger I., 1072-1101, belongs here. 

Minden, on the Wesel, Prussian Westphalia, the seat of coinage of 
the bishops. There are bracteates in the series. A piece of 8 grosschen 
was struck during the siege by the Duke of Brunswick in 1634. 

Minorca, a mint of the Almohades in Spain (516-668), and possibly 
with Majorca one of Mohammedan coinage down to about 1260, when 
the Balearic Isles were formed into a kingdom by Arragon. Subsequently, 
under Alfonso V. (1416-58), there was a special coinage for this island 
with Minoricannn. 

Mirandola, Italy, the place of origin of a billon quattrino with S. 
Passid, Mirandvl., and the mint of , the Pico family from 1515 to 1691. 
Money in all metals was struck here ; and from the fact that the earliest 
Pico (Gianfrancesco, 1515-33, a man of learning) issued the double 
zecchino in gold, it is to be perhaps inferred that the coinage began some 
time before his accession to the lordship. The portrait on the early pieces 
exhibits a peculiar form of berretta. 

Mirecourt, Vosges, a mint of Ferri III., Duke of Lorraine, 1251-1303. 

Mitau, capital of Courland, and perhaps the seat of the coinage of 
the independent Dukes of Courland (representing the extinct Teutonic 
Order) after 1561. The money is of Polish type, and does not appear to 
have lasted beyond the end of the same century, although the duchy was 
not extinguished till 1795. We have before us a piece with the bust of 
the Duke on obv. and Mon. Ar. Dvcvm Cv. E. Sem. (silver money of 
the Dukes of Courland and Senigaglia) ; the rev. reads ///. Gros. Ar. Tr. 
Dvci'm Cvr. Et Sen. 1 596. There are also 6-groschen pieces, schillings, 
and thalers, belonging to this series ; but they are all rare. Some add 
Lithuania to the titles. 

Modena, the seat of the coinage of successive forms of government 
from the I2th to the present century. From 1226 to 1294 there was an 
issue of grossi, danari, and bolognini under imperial authority, with De 
Mvtina, or D. Mvtin. on rev. Between 1294 and 1306 Azzo d'Este held 

132 The Coins of Europe 

the lordship ; there is a 'grosso with Marchio, and in the field A Z O. 
From 1306-36 the republican system was renewed so far as the coinage 
was concerned ; but the Este family remained in power, and ruled over 
Modena, Ferrara, and Reggio. For a short time Modena itself was 
under papal jurisdiction, Leo X. having purchased it of the Emperor 
Maximilian for 3000 ducats ; and there are coins struck for this place by 
him and his successor. After some vicissitudes, Modena was eventually, 
with Mirandola and Reggio, vested in the ducal house of Este, which 
reigned here down to 1803, and from 1814 to 1859. It is observable that 
the democratic genius or tone of the Modenese smaller coinage was 
retained long after the firm establishment of the Este family on the 
throne. A testone of Ercole II., 1534-59, reads on rev. Moneta Comimi- 
tatis Mvtine. But in later reigns Nobilitas Estensis, or some other 
motto, was substituted. Alfonso II., 1559-97, struck a gold scudo of 103 
soldi. See Cat. Rossi, 2735-6-6 bis. Cesare d'Este, 1597-1628, had the 
ungaro in gold, a favourite Italian imitation of the type introduced in 
Hungary under Matthias Corvinus. Heavy gold was struck here by 
Cesare d'Este and his successor Francesco I., 1629-58 by the former a 
very rare doppio scudo, and by the latter the multiples of 4, 8, 12, and 
24. These, though very rare, did not produce very high prices rela- 
tively at the Rossi sale (Cat. 1880, Nos. 2753-59). Louis XIV. struck 
here in 1704 pieces in billon of 5, 10, and 15 soldi, with the standing 
figure of St. Gemininus holding the oriflamme inscribed with Avia. 

Modena : 80 sesini in silver, 1728. 

Moers, Rhenish provinces, a mint of the Counts, subsequently (1707) 
Princes, of Moers, from the I4th c. Moirs. 

Moirans, near St. Claude, Jura, an abbatial mint, I2th-i4th c., 
employed by the Abbot of St. Ouen-de-Joux or St. Claude, and the 
subject of legal proceedings in 1373 on the part of the Bailli of Macon, 
who shewed that the money was an illegal imitation of regal types. The 
coinage consisted of gold francs-a-pied, francs d'argent, blanques, etc. 
A franc-a-pied of Guillaume de Beauregard, abbot, 1348-80, reads G. Dei 
Gratia Abas. Santi Ogend\; and there appears to have been more than 
one variety. The mint was suppressed by the Duke of Burgundy in 
1513. Its products are peculiarly rare. 

Mojaisk, a Russian mint subsequently to its acquisition in 1457. 

Molhuysen, a local or municipal mint. There are pieces of 4 thaler 
of 1703 and 1707 in billon. 

Molsheim, Alsace, a mint of Jean IV. de Manderscheldt-Blankenberg> 

Catalogue of European Mints 133 

1569-92, and of Charles de Lorraine, Bps. of Strasburgh, 1593-1607. The 
latter also struck money at Saverne. See Cat. Robert, 1886, No. 1792. 

Monaco, the seat of coinage of the seigniorial houses of Grimaldi and 
Matignon-Grimaldi (1640-1893). But the numismatic series is apparently 
incomplete, and of late years the Prince of Monaco has largely used the 
French money and exclusively the French denominations. Formerly, 
and down to the close of the last century, the scudo, danaro, pezzetta, 
hiigino, etc., were current, but no pieces of high value. In 1838 a pattern 
franc was struck, and from the same die pieces of 20 and 40 francs in gilt 
bronze. There is also a jeton of 2 fr. for the cercle de Monaco without 

Moncalieri, Piedmont, a mint of the Counts and Dukes of Savoy, 

Moncalvo, Piedmont, a mint of the marquisate of Monteferrato, 
I4th-i5th c. There is a rare j grosso in silver of Gio. I. Palaeologo, 

Mons, Hainault, the seat of the earlier as well as later coinage of the 
Counts of Hainault down to the I4th c. There is an esterlin of Jean III. 
D'Avesnes, Count of H., 1280-1304, with Moneta Mantes. The States of 
H. struck here in 1577 siege-money with Pace Et Ivsticia, and from 1579 
to 1587 the Duke of Parma established a Spanish coinage as lieutenant of 
Philip II. in the Netherlands. See Berg. 

Montalcino, Prov. of Sienna, Tuscany, a republic from 1555-59 under 
the protectorate of Henry II. of France, and a place of coinage during 
that period. The pieces bear Henry's name. There is a very rare scudo 
d'oro of 1557 (Rossi, No. 2833, 650 lire). From 1555 to 1559 pieces occur 
with R.P. Sen. Monte Illicino. 

Montalto, Ascoli, a papal mint in the i6th and iSth c. 

Montanaro, Piedmont, an abbatial mint, 1547-82. Only low values. 

Montbeliard, Burgundy, a title assumed in the loth c. by the ancient 
Counts of Elsgau. In 1631, after several changes, the fief was carried 
to the Count of Wiirtemburg by his marriage with the heiress of M., and 
remained subject to W. till 1792-93, although it had been formally ceded 
to France in 1536. The coinage of W. for this signiory consisted of gros, 
kreutzer, liards, and batzen, which date from 1574 to the i8th c. 

Monteferrato. See Casale. 

Montelimart, Dept. of Drome, a seignioral fief and mint of the family 
of Adhemar, Seigneurs de la Garde, I2th-i4th c. The regal and pro- 
venc,al money were imitated here. The domain was united to the Crown 
under Charles VII. and Louis XI. in two separate parcels. 

Montf errant, Auvergne, a place where Philip le Bel in 1290, "pour la 
necessite de ses affaires," sought to set up a mint, but was induced to 
shift it elsewhere on the protest of the Bishop and Chapter of Clermont. 

Mont-Lavi, near Blois, the supposed source of a denier of Gui I. de 
Chatillon, Count of Blois, 1307-42, with G. Co. Blesis., and on rev. Mont. 

Montlucon, Borbonnais, a mint of the Sires de Bourbon and of the 
Dampierre family, i3th c., 1202-14, 1249-69. Deniers of this family bear 
various legends, as Meat. Borbonensis. for Mahaut II., Countess of 
Nevers, Suzeraine of Bourbon-Lancy = jure maritij or lo : D : Castri : 
Villani. for Jean de Chateauvillain, Sire de Bourbon. Monthicon. or 
Dominns Monluconis. 

Montluel, a Savoyard mint, 1 503-30. 

Montpellier, a seigniorial mint, and subsequently (by marriage) one of 

134 The Coins of Europe 

the Kings of Arragon, the Kings of Majorca (a branch of the house of 
A.), and the Bourbon dynasty in France. Montispesulanum. The town 
and signiory were sold to France in 1349 for 120,000 gold e"cus. Comp. 

Montr euil-Bonnin, Poitou, a mint of the Counts of P., I3th c. In 
1267 the mint-master was adjudged to pay a penalty of 1250 livres 
tournois for deficiency of standard. 

Mont Saint Michel, near St. Omer, a mint of the King of France, 
while that of Normandy was in English hands about 1420. 

Monsa, in the Milanese, a seat of seigniorial coinage. Ettore 
Visconti, 1412-13. 

Moresnet, Belgium, Prov. of Liege, where perhaps was struck in 1848 
certain money for the Free Commune of Moresnet under the protection 
of France and Prussia with a curious Janus head of the two monarchs, 
Louis Philippe and Fred. William IV. We have before us two types of 
a 2-franc piece. 

Aforlaijc, Brittany, a place of coinage of the ancient Counts of Beam 
and of the Kings of Navarre from the nth to the I7th c. Beam was 
united (with Navarre) to the Crown in 1607. It appears that at one 
period the office of mint-master to the Counts was hereditary, and that a 
dispute between him and Gaston V. about 1160 was settled by the ordeal 
of iron, the moneyer (Geraud) paying 100 sols and a tithe of his emolu- 
ments (probably for the current year) to the Priory of Sainte-Foy de 
Morlaix. The latter, by a grant of 1077, was entitled to a tithe of the 
whole revenue arising from the coinage. The mint here was situated in 
the Hourquie (Lat. Furcia), the name and site of the present place for 
holding the fairs ; this word explains the legend on some of the coins 
Onor Forcas. 

Moscow, the principal mint of the Grand-Dukes of Muscovy and of 
the Czars of Russia from the i6th c. to 1724. There were at least four 
mints there. Comp. Kief. 

Moiisson, or Pont-a-Monsson, Lorraine, a seat of coinage of the Dukes 
of Bar, I4th c. Two pieces of Henri IV., Duke of B., 1337-44, were 
struck here. Motions. See Cat. Robert, 1886, Nos. 1167 and 1530. It 
seems also to have been a mint of the Abbey of St. Vannes at Verdun ; 
subsequently annexed to the See of Reims. 

Moiizaivc, a chateau and mint of Wenceslas I., first Duke of Luxem- 
burgh, 1353-83. Movzadies. 

Mouzon. See Reims. 

Moyenvic, Dept. of Meurthe, France, the place of coinage of certain 
anonymous episcopal coins of the I3th c. 

Mue, or Le Mue, a town in France, to which is referred a gros tour- 
nois of Philip le Bel (1285-1314) with Mvdencis Civfs. 

Muhlhausen, or Muhlhaus, Alsace, a mint of the Emperors and ot 
the early Landgraves of Thuringen, and a place of coinage down to the 
1 8th c. There is a remarkable piece of Frederic Barbarossa (1155-90) 
belonging here, with Fridericvs Imperator Mvlehvsigensis. Denarivs, 
and the Emperor on horseback. The grosch, pfennig, and heller 
were struck here. Milhvsina. 

Muhlheim, a mint of the Counts and Dukes of Berg, I4th-I5th c., of 
the Dukes of Cleves, I4th c., and of the Dukes of Juliers and Berg, 
1 5th- 1 6th c. Some very early dated pieces were coined here from 

Mtinchen, or Munich, since the i8th c. the capital of United Bavaria, 

Catalogue of European Mints 135 

but originally the seat of government of the Munich branch. It seems 
to have been a mint from the I5th c., and to have produced bracteates 
and pfennings, and subsequently larger pieces. The m.m. was a monk's 
bust in allusion to the name. But the Dukes of Bavaria struck money at 
several other places, either independently or in alliance with their neigh- 
bours. The Counts of Fiirstenberg employed this place of coinage, 
having apparently none of their own. 

Munkdco, a Transylvanian mint under the Waiwode Franz II. 
Racoczy ( 1 703- 1 1 ). M-M. 

Minister, the place of coinage of the bishops, as well as the civic 
mint, during a long series of years. The copper was probably early ; we 

have a piece of 3 pfenningen, 1602. The thaler of 1661, struck after the 
recovery of the town by the bishop, is scarce, as is the florin of 1694 with 
the bishop's title as Seigneur of Borculo. 

Munsterberg-Oels, Prussia, a seigniorial mint in the I7th c. 

Munsterbilsen, Limburgh, an abbatial mint in the Middle Ages, with 
upright figures holding a crucifix and a book, and the legend Scti 

Mifrato, a Corsican mint, 1763-64. 

Murbach and Lure (or Ludre], France, Dept. of Saone, the source of 
a small silver abbatial coin with S. Leod. Egarivs and St. Ludger seated 
on obv., and on rev. Moneta Nova Mvr. et Lvdr. 1624. Probably two 

Musocco, Sardinian States, a mint of the Marchese di Vigevano Tri- 
vulzio (1487-1523). The privilege of coining money was confirmed by 
Louis XII. of France, and the dignity of a marshal was conferred on him 
by that prince. The St. George type was used here on some of the 
grossi ; and they also bear F. Mare., or Marescallvs Fran. 

Musso, the supposed place of origin of a quatlrino of Gio. Gia- 
como de' Medici, Count of Musso, 1528-32, with lo. lac. D. Med. 
M. Musi. 

Mytilene, a mediaeval seigniorial mint of the Gattilusio family, a 
branch or scion of the Palaeologi (1355-1449). There is a copper coin 
with Meteli. on rev., and qvattro B. for value. The tornese and a type of 
the agnello were current here. 

Nagybanya, Transylvania, a mint of the Kings of Hungary (Emperors 
of Germany) and of the Princes of Transylvania, I7th c. There is a 
doppelthaler of Matthias II. struck here. 

Namur, a mint of the Counts of Luxemburgh, I4th c., and the place 
of coinage of the convention-money, or Moneta Sociorum, 1342-45, 
between the Counts of L. and of Bar and the Bp. of Liege. Also a mint 
of the independent Counts of Namur. Nam-uric. 

Nancy, an ordinary mint of the Dukes of Lorraine after its acquisition 


The Coins of Europe 

in 1155. Two deniers of Bertha of Suabia (1176-95), widow of 
Matthieu I., were struck here. The grands ecus of Antoine, 1508-44, 
also probably belong to this mint. The Dukes freely imitated here and 

Teston of Antoine, Duke of Lorraine, 1508-44 : silver. 

elsewhere the regal types and names even so late as the reign of Louis 
XIV. In 1796 a piece, evidently intended as a pattern for a French 

decime, proceeded from the foundry of one Thuillie. A rare specimen 

of the Nancy mint is the grande plaque of Marie de Blois, regent and 
Main-bourse of Lorraine, 1346-48. 

Nantes, a mint of the Dukes of Brittany in the gth c., and an 
occasional one of the Kings of France. A Hard of Louis XVI., 1787, and 
a piece of 25 sols struck during the siege by the Vendeans about 1793, 
belong here. 

Nanteuil-le-Haudoin, 10 miles from Senlis, Seine-et-Oise, a fortified 

Catalogue of European Mints 137 

town or position, a supposed place of coinage of a younger branch of the 
house of Vexin and of origin of certain pieces with Castrvm Nat, or 
Nata \Nantoligum Cos/rum], belonging to the reign of Louis VII., 

Naples, a place of coinage of the Byzantine emperdrs (641-741), and 
later an autonomous mint of some anonymous ruler using the St. Jannarius 
type of \\\&follaro, probably one of the Norman line, struck money here 
till the end of the nth c. The coins of Roger I. and II. of Sicily, or of 
Sicily and Naples, are very Oriental in their complexion, and like the 
Amalfitan gold taro were evidently borrowed from Mohammedan originals. 
The Normans were succeeded by the house of Anjou, which held pos- 
session till the middle of the I5th c., and thenceforward, to the fall of the 
Bourbons in 1860, this city has followed the fortunes of the south of Italy, 
and issued money in the names of the Arragonese, Spanish, German, and 
French occupiers, with occasional intervals of republican reaction. The 
usual Italian types occur in this series. Charles II. of Spain struck a 
\ taro and a gold piece called a scudo riccio, perhaps in reference to the 
gnurled edge. The silver piastra of Joseph Napoleon, 1807, describes 
him as King of the Two Sicilies, Prince of France, and Grand Elector of 
the German Empire. A notable incident in the numismatic annals of 
Naples is the democratic movement of 1648 under Mas. Aniello of Amalfi, 
when they struck the copper piece = 3 tornesi, known as the publica 
del popolo, with the titles of Henry of Lorraine, Duke of Guise, and a 
crowned targe with S.P.Q.N. on obv., and on rev. Pax- Et Libertas, 

Narbonne, a Visigothic mint. Narbona. Probably in the Carlovingian 
era one of Milon, Count of N. There is a denier with Milon, and on rev. 
Pe[ptnus] R[ex\. It is cited among those in operation for the regal 
coinage in the Edict of Pitres, 864. In 1266 the Viscounts of N. and 
the Archbishops concluded an amicable arrangement for a common 
coinage, the former using a key, the latter a mitre, as a symbol. There is 
a long series of this currency limited to petits and doubles tournois of a 
prescribed weight and fineness. The Marechal de Joyeuse struck money 
here in the time of the League. 

Narva, Russia, Dist. of St. Petersburgh, a mint of Charles XI. of 
Sweden, 1660-97, with the name and arms of the town on rev. and a 
crown with C beneath it on obv. and the motto Dominvs Protector 

Nassau Mints (minor) : Beilstein, Dietz (transferred from Beilstein 
in 1692), Dillenburg, Elfeld, Eppstein, Grensau, Hachenbuch, Her- 
born (1681-95), Holzapfel, Idstein, Kircheim, Koenigstein, Limburg 
(transferred to Wiesbaden in 1830), Lorch, Oberlahnstein, Weilburg 


Naumburg, a mint of the bishops and town from the nth to the 1 7th 
c. Lower values. The earlier pieces represent the Bishop seated or 
standing. Nvwemb, Nvemb, NN. or N. The Bishops of Naumburg- 
also struck money at Zeitz (M. Cicen.). 

Nesle, Dept. of Somme, a regal mint with some feudal qualification in 
the nth and I2th c. Nigella, or Niviella Vicus. The "gros de Nesles," 
struck under the Valois and Bourbon Kings (Henry 1 1. -IV.), probably 
owed its name to the Tour de Nesle at Paris. 

Nestwede, an early Danish mint. Noestvede. 

Neubrandenbourg, Mecklenburgh, a mint of the Dukes of M., I5th c., 
with Moneta Brandepo. 

138 The Coins of Europe 

Neufchateaii, Vosges, a seat of coinage of the early Dukes of 
Lorraine, of a series of anonymous pieces, which may be either of 
a municipal or an ecclesiastical character (Cat. Robert, 1886, Nos. 1693- 
1704), and of certain coins struck by Gaucher de Chatillon, Comte de 
Porcien, after his marriage with the widow of Thibaut II., Duke of 
Lorraine, in 1314. Monetary treaties were made between the Duke and 
the Count in 1318 and 1321 with a view to the adjustment of the relative 
standards of the currencies. Moneta Nom Castri. 

Ncufchatel, or Neuenburg, the seat of coinage for the canton, and 
from the I4th to the i6th c. of money struck in the names of the families 
of Hochberg, Longueville, and Orleans-Longueville. It subsequently 
issued batzen and kreutzer with the titles of the Margraves of Branden- 
burg and the Kings of Prussia ; and in 1806, having been erected into a 
principality in favour of Alexander Berthier by Napoleon I., began a 
series of batzen, etc., with the marshal's name and titles down to 1810. 
There is also a pattern 5-franc piece, which does not seem to have been 
published, and which bears no date. 

Ncuss, Prov. of Dusseldorf, Prussia (the Roman Novesium\ the source 
of a double gros without date, bearing the name of the city. 

Nevers, the seat of a seigniorial coinage of varied character from the 
8th to the 1 7th c. The last Duke of N. sold his French domains in 1659 
to Cardinal Mazarin. Nivernis, or Nivernis Cvt. 

Nidaros, a Norwegian mint under Magnus III., 1093-1103, and also 
one of the Archbishop, i6th c. Olaws Dei Gra. Arc. Ep. NicfSen. 
(Archbp. Olaf Engelbrektsson, 1523-37). Comp. Drontheim. 

Nieheim, Pruss. Westphalia, a mint of the See of Paderborn, i3th c. 
Civitas Niehem. 

Nicuvci'ille-lez-Namur, a mint of the Counts of Namur, I4th c., and 
particularly of Guillaume I. (1337-91). 

Nijny- Novgorod, Central Russia, a very early Russian mint, and 
probably in existence concurrently with that at Kief, which dates back to 
the loth c. In 1852 a find or trouvaille was made here of dies similar in 
design to the coins which have come down to us of the Duchy of Kief or 

Nimmhegcn, Gelderland, a mint of the early Counts of Gueldres, I ith 
c., and of a long and varied series of coins, including bracteates, some 
bearing the imperial titles, down to the I7th. The groot, the briquet, the 
stuiver and double stuiver, the peerdeke, the schelling, the daalder of 20, 
28, and 30 stuivers, and gold money, issued from this place. 

Nio (los}, European Turkey, a place of coinage in the I3th c. of 
Ludovico of Savoy, 1284-1302. 

Niort, Dept. of Deux -Sevres, a mint in the loth or perhaps gth c., 
given in 1019 by the Duke of Aquitaine to the Abbey of Cluny : the 
Director was at that time Odilon. This concession was ratified in 

Nismes, an early French mint, though apparently not much employed. 
There is a very rare denier of Louis IX. belonging here ; it is said that 
only two specimens are known. 

Nivelles, Brabant, an abbey, which doubtless struck within its pre- 
cincts the coins bearing its name. The original concession is dated 
1040, and was confirmed in 1209. Nimella. Deniers and mailles. 

Nizza, or Nice, Monteferrato, Piedmont, a mint of the Counts of 
Provence, of the house of Anjou, I3th c., and of the Dukes of Savoy, 1521- 
1636. A siege-piece of Charles II., 1543, occurs in Cat. Rossi with (on rev.) 

Catalogue of European Mints 139 

Nic. A. Tvr.c. Et Gall. DPS. 1543 ; it fetched 220 lire. Its authenticity 
seems to be questionable. 

Nogent-le-Roi, Eure-et-Loir, a seat at the beginning of the nth c. 
of the coinage of Roger, son of Eudes, King of France. There are deniers 
with Regerius Eps, and on rev. Nuicete Cas. Roger was Count of 
Chartres and Bishop of Beauvais. Amaury III. De Montfort also struck 
money here with Nocentis Cat. It is noticeable that the former signalised 
his ecclesiastical rank only. See Beauvais. 

Nogent-le-Rotrou, county of Perche, the seat of a seigniorial coinage, 
similar to that of Chateaudun, from the second half of the I2th c., at one 
time in connection with the monastery of Saint Denis de Nogent. Perti- 
censis. Pierre, son of Jean, Count of Brittany, enjoyed in 1265 the right of 
coinage in the counties of Perche and Chartres. 

Norden, Hanover, a mint of the Counts of East Friesland, I5th c. 

Nordlingcn, Bavaria. See Schulman, xvii. 1195. 

Northeim, Hanover, 12 m. N. by E. of Gottingen, the place of coinage ot 
a mariengroschen of 1554. At the Reinmann sale in 1891-92, Part ii., No. 
6954, a thaler of 1671 with the titles of Leopold I. and on obv. Man: 
Nova : Civit : Northeimans : fetched 600 marks. 

Novara, a seat of republican coinage under imperial sanction, I2th- 
I4th c. and in the I5th c. of the Farnese family. A money of Pier 
Luigi, Duke of Parma (1545-47), bears on rev. Novaria, or Novarice. 
Marchio. Giov. Visconti, Bishop of Novara, 1329-42, struck money 
here as Count of Domodossola. Comes Assole. This mint was closed 
in 1547. 

Novellara, Modena, probably the place of origin of certain coins of 
small values struck by the Counts of Novellara of the house of Gonzaga, 
1 6th- 1 7th c. No., or Novel. 

Novo-Torjok, an early Russian mint. 

Noyon, a bishopric which, with Tournay, was annexed to the 
proprietary domain of the Abbey of St. Medard at Soissons in 531. It 
was a mint of Charles le Chauve and Eudes in the 9th c., and of the 
Bishops and Counts from the lothor nth. A denier of Renaud, 1175- 
88, bears a double crozier significant of the former union of the two 
dioceses ; but the earlier money is not at present known. Naviomus. 

Niirnberg, Bavaria, an important place from a very early period, and 
the source of a long and extensive series of coins in all metals. Much of 
the money was really struck under the authority of the burgraves else- 
where : at Neustadt, Zenn, Swabach, etc. There is a gold ducat of 1507 
with Moneta Vrbis D. Nvrmbcrg and the date, and on rev. a standing 
figure and Sanctvs Lavrencivs. We may also mention the ducat of 
1617 commemorative of the Reformation, reading Ecclesia. Norica. 

Nyon, Cant, of Vaud, Switzerland, a place to which the mint of Louis, 
Seigneur de Vaud, was transferred in 1299, on account of his interference 
with the rights of the Bishop of Lausanne. He compromised the matter 
in 1308. Nyon reverted to the Counts of Savoy under Le Comtc Vert, 
Amadeus VI. 

Obenbach, a mint of the Archbishop of Treves, Werner von Falkenstein 
(1388-1418). A gold ducat reads Moneta Nova Ovenb. 

Oberkirch, Alsace, one of the provisional or necessitous mints of the 
See of Strasburgh about 1682, when the city took possession of the 
coinage within the walls. 

1 40 The Coins of Europe 

Oberwesel, Prussia, 19 miles from Coblentz, a mint of the Archbishops 
of Treves, 1 4th- 1 5th c. Wesalia. 

Odense, an early Danish mint. Odsvn. Odn. Ottois. 

Oettingen, Bavaria, the capital of a once independent countship, after- 
wards a principality, a mint from the I4th to the i6th c. In 1458 the 
Duke of Bavaria forbade the imitation of his coinage by the Count of 
Oettingen. There were other mints at Wemdingen (1395) and Waller- 
stein. Pieces in all metals florins, thalers, kreutzers, batzen, pfennigen 
were struck. There are square coins with Vo., a dog and a St. Andrew's 
cross. Ofing., or Otingensf, usually occur. 

Oldcnburgh, now the capital of a grand-duchy, but in the 1 5th c. was 
a seigniorial fief with an independent Graf or Count. There is a grote of 
Nikolaus, Count of Delmenhorst (1423-47) with Nicolai Domini 
Oldenbor 1 , and a stuber of Johann XIV., 1505, with lohs. Coma 1 , in 
Oldcbor 1 Anno Domini MCCCCCV. This city seems to have been the 
seat of the money of necessity struck by Christian I., King of Denmark, 
during a long series of years (1448-81). A 4-skilling piece of Frederic I. 
of Denmark, 1532, represents the King seated on his throne, the arms of 
O. at his feet. 

Oldcnburgh Mints : Birkenfeld, Jever, Kniphausen, Vechte, Wildes- 

Olmutz, the seat of coinage of the prince-bishops. 

Oppenheim, Hesse-Darmstadt, a mint of the Emperors (i2th c.), of the 
Counts palatine of the Rhine (i3th-i4th c.), and of the town. Oppen- 
hcim, or Oppcnh. 

Opsolo, or Opslo, Sweden, the place of mintage of money of necessity 
struck by Christian II. during the war against Frederic I. of Denmark 
in 1531. 

Orange, 12 m. N. of Avignon, the capital of the former county or 
principality of the same name, and the place of origin of a series of coins, 
at first limited to small silver deniers, from the I2th to the I7th c. The 
earliest pieces bear W. Priccps. Arasc., and on rev. Imp. Fredericus, 
the original concession having been granted by Frederic Barbarossa in 
1178 to Bertrand I. de Baux, first Prince of O., of whom, however, no 
money seems to be at present known. The later coinage in silver and 
gold, with the portraits of the reigning sovereigns of the house of Orange- 
Nassau, is very well executed and very interesting. But gold had been 
introduced under Raymond IV., 1340-93, of whom there are francs-a- 
pied and florins. The types of Lyons, Le Puy, Gap, and Saint-Paul- 
Trois-Chateaux, were copied on the older money. A franc-a-cheval of 
Raymond IV. has been mentioned ; but no example is known. The 
silver e*cus and their divisions, and the gold pistoles of Guillaume de 
Nassau, the Silent, Philippe Guillaume, Maurice, Frederic Henri, Guil- 
laume, and Guillaume Henri (1544-1688), represent the most important 
features in this series. Two douzieme d'e"cu of Guillaume Henri, 1661 and 
1665, differ in the shields ; the former bearing the arms of France, the 
other those of Orange the lions and cornets. Arasc., Aur., Aurastce, 

Orbec, an early Danish mint. Orbeg. 

Orbetello, Tuscany, the place of origin of a few coins (1782-98) of 
Ferdinand IV., King of the Two Sicilies. There is a piece in copper of 
4 quattrini, 1782, with Reali Presidii. Qvattrim '////., 1782, in four lines. 

Ore/lies, Dept. of Nord, near Douay, a seat of municipal or urban 
coinage from the end of the I2th c. (1188). Mailles, with Orcsiet. 

Catalogue of E^lropean Mints 141 

Orciano, near Pesaro, a seigniorial mint of the Marchesi d'O. of the 
Obizzi family, 1790-96. 

Orgelet, Dept. of Jura, arrond. of Lons-le-Saulnier, a mint between 1341 
and 1350 of Jean de Chalon, Comte d'Auxerre et de Tonnerre, who was 
disqualified by the regulations of 1315 from striking money in France. In 
1363 his son was using the mint, and like his father was excommunicated 
by the Primate of Vienne. Billon only. 

Orleans, doubtless a Merovingian mint, as one of the sons of Clovis, 
on the division of the kingdom in 511, made it his capital. It was a 
Carlovingian place of coinage and one of Eudes, 987-98. A piece of 
24 sols of Louis XV., 1767, was struck here, and one of the same value of 
Louis XVI., 1787. 

Ortenburg, Austria, the seat of a coinage of thalers, etc., 1636, of 
Cardinal Wiedmann, Count of O. 

Ortona, Naples, a mint of Joanna II., Queen of Naples, 1414-35 ; of the 
town, 1459-60; and of Charles VIII. of France, 1495. Charles struck a 
cavallo here with (on rev.) Orto?ia Fidelis R\egi\ F\ranciceY\ 

Orvieto, Papal States, a communal mint from 1341 to 1354, and the 
place of origin of a bolognino with Vrbs Vetvs and V. in field between 
three stars on obv., and on rev. Sea. Maria. 

Osnabriick, Hanover, the mint of the bishops and chapter, I2th-i3th c. 
The distinguishing symbol is a wheel. There is a curious series of 
pfennigen and deniers in copper of a later date, with their multiples, apper- 
taining to the See and town, including a piece of 9 pf. A thaler of Leopold 
I., 1693, was struck there ; and money of necessity appeared in 1633. 

Ostend, the home of a denier of the I3th c. with a full-faced bust of 
St. Martin and Ostd. 

Otterndorf, a mint of the duchy of Lauenburgh, 1 7th- 1 8th c. Danish 
money was struck here in 1830. 

Oudewater, S. Holland, besieged and burned by the Spaniards in 
1575, the place of origin of money of necessity in tin issued at that time. 
We have met with a piece of 40 stuivers. 

Oye, Kasteel van, or Castle of Oye, Brabant, an occasional or special 
place of coinage of Marie de Brabant (1371-90). 

Paderborn, Pruss. Westphalia, a seat of urban and episcopal coinage 
from the I3th c., with interruptions, to the i8th. 

Padua, the seat of a tolerably extensive coinage of the republic, I3th- 
I4th c., and of the Carrara family down to the commencement of the 

Padua: Francesco II., 1388-1406. Copper. 

1 5th, when the city and territory were annexed to Venice (1405). The 
aquilino, carrarino, and grosso carrarese in silver, and some exceedingly 

142 The Coins of Europe 

curious copper pieces of at least two types, belong here. The Venetian 
coinage seems to have been executed at headquarters, like that for 
Bergamo, Friuli, etc. The mint was closed in 1405-6. It is proper to 
mention that the copper money above referred to is set down in the 
Rossi Catalogue, 1880, as belonging to the category of tessere or tokens ; 
but this is a doubtful point. 

Palermo, a mint of the Arab emirs of Sicily, loth-nth c., and of the 
kingdom of the Two Sicilies, I7th-I9th c. 

Pallant. See Cidlemborg. 

Palma, cap. of Majorca, and probable place of mintage of certain 
coins mentioned under Majorca. Some of the pieces bear a P. 

Palma-Nuova, Udine, the place of coinage of thick plated pieces of 
50 and 25 centesimi with the Italian titles of Napoleon I., struck during 
the blockade by the Allies in 1814. 

Pamiers, a mint of the ancient Counts of Foix (iith-i4th c.), whose 
domains were amalgamated with Beam. Fnxii. No specimens which 
can be confidently attributed to this place are known ; but certain pieces 
of low standard, struck here about 1420, were suppressed or prohibited 
by the Crown in 1421-22. 

Pampeluna, Navarre, the principal town of this part of Spain in the 
Middle Ages, and probably the seat of coinage of the Counts of Bigorre 
(9th-i4th c.). Henry IV. of France, after his accession to the throne of 
that kingdom, and the annexation of Lower Navarre to the Crown, struck 
coins for special currency there, and the later Bourbon princes have done 
the same thing. 

Parchim, Mecklenburgh, a seigniorial mint, 1 4th- 1 5th c. Moneta 
Parchem R. Civit. Dni. D. Werle. The same person had a second mint 
at Malchin (Moneta Malchinen.*). 

Paris, a mint of the successors of Clovis I. in that portion of his 
dominions after 511, more particularly of Clovis II., of the Kings of 
Neustria, of the Capetian, Valois, and Bourbon Kings of France, and of 
the Napoleon dynasty. A denier of Charles le Chauve was struck here. 
During the First Revolution the Hotel des Monnaies produced for the 
first time the modern type of the franc (in a 5-fr. piece only) and the 
centime ; and Monneron issued his series of medaillcs, or copper tokens, 
in substitution for assignats, of which the worth at one period declined, 
till it required from 15,000 to 25,000 livres in paper to pay for a pair of 
boots. These tokens, for which Monneron had a patent, were for 2 and 
5 sols, and a second firm, Lefevre & Cie, brought out similar ones for 10 
and 20 sols. The earlier coinage of the modern kingdom of Greece pro- 
ceeded from this mint, as also did and does that for the Colonies. Prob- 
ably nearly all the essais or patterns of various dates, in which this 
series is so rich even those for the Franco- Italian pieces were of the 
same origin. 

Parma, the seat of a coinage under imperial authority by virtue of a 
concession from Philip of Suabia, King of the Romans, in 1207. The 
earliest pieces with which we have met are oboli, with the name of Philip 
on obv. and that of the town on rev. Under Frederic II. (1220-50) the 
fabric and style greatly improved. This was subsequently a mint of 
several of the popes, of the Farnese family, and of the more modern 
duchies created by Napoleon I., and in favour of Marie Louise. Some 
of the coins of the Farnesi were struck, however, at Piacenza, and were 
evidently the work of some distinguished artists. Of the money of Marie 
Louise, ex-Empress of the French, as Duchess of Parma and Guastalla, 

Catalogue of European Mints 143 

there are only two dates, 1815 and 1830. Some of the later Farnesi or 
Bourbons struck gold pieces of high values. There is an especially rare 
double scudo of silver of Ottavio Farnese (1547-87), which fetched 370 
lire in the Rossi sale, and a testone of the same Prince struck to com- 
memorate a splendid victory in 1553. A piastra of Turkish type was 
struck for the Levantine trade by the last Duke but one, and was sup- 
pressed, it is said ; only two examples existing. One sold at the Rossi 
sale for 50 lire. 

Passariano, or Passerano, a seigniorial fief of the Radicati, Counts of 
Cocconati, i6th c. The territory was eventually ceded to Savoy. 

Passau, Bavaria, a mint of the bishops in the early part of the i6th 
c., and perhaps of the Counts of Passau and Weisskirchen. There are 
batzen of 1516, 1518, 1522, etc. The thaler was struck down to the i8th 
c. Comp. Schlitz. 

Pau-in-Bearn, one of the mints of the ancient Counts of Beam, 
nth c. Coins of Henry IV., 1589-1610, were struck for Navarre here, 
and perhaps also for Beam. 

Pavia, a mint of the Gothic kings, 5th and 6th c,, of the Lombards 
(whose capital it became), 7th c., and of the emperors, 8th-i3th c. There 
is, belonging to this city, a gold tremissis of one of the Lombard kings, 
7th c. Remedi Cat., 1884, No. 2124. In the I3th c. it was for a short 
time a republic, and afterward became subject to the Visconti family 
(1350-1464). There is a very rare gold siege-piece of 1524, with 1524 
Ces. PP. Ob., struck on the occasion of the blockade by the troops of 
Francis I. We have seen this also in silver. The Lombard kings 
adopted on their denari the Christiana Religio type of Louis le De"bon- 

Pequigny, in the neighbourhood of Amiens, a barony which appears 
from a charter of 1300 to have then enjoyed the right of coinage ; but no 
money is known. 

Pereiaslavi, an early Russian mint. 

Pergola, one of the mints of Pope Pius VI. (1775-99). Only bronze 
or copper money. 

Perigueux, Dordogne, a mint of Philip le Hardi in 1280, and down to 
the 1 5th c., when Charles VII. struck money there and at Dome. 

Peronne, Dept. of Somme, the place of origin of an early denier with 
Perronensis Mo. 

Perpignan, cap. of the ancient Prov. of Roussillon, now dept. of 
Pyrenees, a place of coinage under Arragonese auspices from the com- 
mencement of the I2th c., and of municipal, as well as of regal, money. 
It shared the destinies of Roussillon in being successively under Spanish 
and French masters, each of whom governed the operations of its mint. 
The civic currency seems to date from 1427 ; the denominations author- 
ised by royal ordinances, 1427-1528, mention gros, half gros, deniers, 
doubles, sanars, menuts, etc. But for general circulation we find as early 
as 1349 pieces of higher value and imitations of the French ecu (for, the 
latter with the A of the Paris mint reversed for difference. Perpignan 
was also the seat of a Franco-Spanish coinage in 1642-55, consisting of a 
sol, double sol, and menut, with Perpiniani Ville., or P. in the heart of 
the cross. Another early mark was a double P. The mint seems to have 
been closed in 1659. 

Perugia, a republican mint in the I3th c., and from the time of Leo 
X. to the end of the i8th c. an occasional one of the popes. See Cat. 
Rossi, 1880, No. 3428, for a notice of the scudo struck in twenty-four 

144 The Coins of Europe 

hours during the Revolution, with Repvbblica Romano. Pervgia A. VII., 
and on rev. Scvdo within a wreath. Rossi had a copper proof, said to 
be unique. 

Pesaro, Italy, Prov. of Urbino-e-Pesaro, the place of coinage of the 
money of a branch of the Sforza family, which held the principality in 
the 1 5th- 1 6th c. There is a very finely executed copper sesino of 
Giovanni Sforza (1489-1510). The sovereigns of Urbino, the Borgia, and 
Leo. X., also used this mint. Giovanni Sforza struck silver money here, 
as well as that in bronze or copper. A piece in the former metal has on 
rev. a standing figure of St. Paul and Pavlo Cvstodi. The copper 
coinage is of more than one type. Armand (Mcdailleurs Italiens, ii. 
1 18) mentions a sesino without a reverse, ascribed to Francia. If so, both 
this and the one figured in the text were from the same hand, as well as 
the silver. The coins and medals with the legends Patria Recetita, 
Securitati Pvblicae, etc., appear to be referable to the period of Sforza's 
restoration (1503-10), which would suit Francia. 

Petersheim, near Maestricht, the seat of a coinage of oboles by 
Willem, Seigneur of P. in the beginning of the i4thc., with Wies 1 . De. 

Phalsburg and Lixheim, Meurthe, a principality erected by the 
Emperor Ferdinand II. in 1621 in favour of Henriette, sister of the Duke 
of Lorraine, wife of the Baron d'Ancerville, son of the Cardinal de Guise. 
The mint, presumably established here, struck some very well-executed 
coins in silver and billon with the bust of the Princess. The Lorraine 
types were more or less imitated. 

Piaccnza, a Lombard mint (7th-8th c.), and one of the Emperors 
(i2th-i4th c.), of Giovanni da Vigriate, Lord of P. (1410-13), and of the 
Popes (1513-45). A single piece, a silver grossetto, reading Placentia 
Avgvsta, and on rev. Redemptio Nostra, commemorates a brief interval 
of autonomy in 1 500. The city was subsequently a seat of the coinage 
of the Farnesi, Dukes of Parma, and fell in succession under the power 
of the Empress Maria Theresa, the Duke of Savoy, and the Parmesan 
branch of the Bourbons. 

Pierre-Chatel, Vaud, Savoy, a mint of Louis II. (1302-50). There is 
a double parisis with Lvdovuvs de Sa\baudia\, and on rev. Man. Pet. 
Castri. It appears to have struck money down to 1359. 

Pinerola, Piedmont, the place of coinage of the Princes of Achaia of 
the house of Savoy, 1334-1400. 

Piombino, an urban mint by virtue of an imperial grant, 1 509, and a 
place of coinage of the Appiani and Ludovisi (1594-1699). Pr. Plumb. 
or PL Comp. Lucca. 

Pisa, a republican mint under imperial authority (i2th-i4th c.), of 
Charles VIII. , King of France (1494-95), of a second republican period, 
and of the Medici and their successors in the grand-duchy of Tuscany. 
Some very beautiful coins bear the name of Pisa as the place of origin, 
and there are a few small silver pieces, without the title of any ruler, about 
1714 perhaps municipal currency. These have on obv. the Virgin and 
Svp. O nines Speciosa, and on rev. a cross with Aspice Pisas. There is a 
danaro or mezzo-grosso of the Emperor Henry VII. with Pise on rev., 
which was doubtless struck before his death in August, 1314, at Ron- 
convento, near Sienna. 

Pistoia, Tuscany, a mint of the Lombard Kings, 7th c. 

Pithiviers, or Pluviers, France, Dept. of Loiret, a mint of Philippe I. 
of France, 1060-1 108. 

Catalogue of European Mints 145 

Ploermel, a mint of John IV., Duke of Brittany, 1364-99. 

Podewin, Olmiitz, a castle belonging to the See in 1241, where Conrad 
III. in that year gave the Bishop the privilege of founding a mint. 

Poictiers, a mint of the ancient Counts or Dukes of Aquitaine, of 
Richard I. of England as D. of A., and of the Valois and Bourbon Kings 
of France. 

Poilvache, a mint of the Counts and Dukes of Luxemburgh. A 
denier noir of Marie d'Artois, Dame de Poilvache (1342-52) was struck 
here. Cat. Robert, 1886, 242. Comp. Merande. 

Point d'Ain, a mint of the Counts of Savoy, I4th c. 

Pomeranian Mints : Anclam (formerly Tanglin), Camin, Coeslin, 
Colberg, Damm, Demin, Franzburg, Garz, Gollnow, Greifenberg, Greifs- 
wald, Gutzkow, Pasewalk, Pyritz, Riigen, Riigenwald, Schiewalbein, 
Schlawe, Stargard, Stettin, Stolpe, Treptow-am-Rega, Ukermiinde, 
Usedom, Wolgast, Wollin. 

Pomponesco, Lombardy, a seigniorial fief of the Gonzage, Counts of 
P., 1583-93. Low denominations only. 

Pont-de-Sorgues, Provence, supposed to have been a mint of the 
Counts of Provence and the place of origin of the small silver pieces 
which bear Comes Palaci. and Dux Marchio Pit., with the sun and moon 
in the field. 

Pontoise, a mint of Philip I. and Louis VI. of France (1060-1137). 
Deniers. Pontesive, Pontise, or Pontisar. Cash'. 

Ponzone, Sardinia, the mint of some anonymous marquis. Closed by 
order of Henry VII. in 1310. 

Poperingen, a mint of Philippe d'Alsace after the abandonment of 
Saint Omer about 1128, and of Thierri d'Alsace, Count of Flanders, 

Portia, a seigniorial fief, and perhaps mint, of Prince Annibale 
Alfonso, 1701. 

Portuguese Mints : Bahia, Camora, Ceuta, Corunna, Goa, Gulmarens, 
Lisbon, Miranda, Villa - Rica, Porto, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, 

Posen, or Poznan, a place where in the I3th c. Paul Grzymala, Bishop 
of Posen, struck denarii in conjunction with the Duke of Poland. It con- 
tinued to be a Polish mint till the I5th c. This was perhaps the seat of 
coinage of the grand-duchy of Posen down to the present c. We have 
before us a 3-groschen piece of 1816. 

Prague, Bohemia, the principal seat of the Bohemian coinage from 
the loth to the i8th c. There are deniers of fine silver of the early 
dukes. The prager - grosch = 12 pfennigen, was first struck under 
Wenceslas II. from dies engraved by Florentine artists, whom he had 
invited to his court. It was extensively imitated. There are deniers, 
groschen, and gold ducats of John, the blind king, who fell at Crecy in 
1346, and various coins of Frederic, Count Palatine and King, 1619-20, 
consort of Elizabeth, daughter of James I. of Great Britain, including 
pieces of 24 and 48 kreutzer with two different portraits. Charles VI. 
struck here, we believe, the rare coin, dated 1 740, and with the ordinary 
titles, but of exceptionally thick fabric ; it is sometimes classed with siege- 
money. Braga, Praga, or Civitas Prague. 

Preny, Lorraine, a mint of Matthew II., Duke (1218-51). A denier, 
said to be unique, is described in Cat. Robert, 1886, No. 1208. There is 
also a grande plaque of John I. (1348-89) belonging to this place. 

Preto, Ouro Preto, or Villa Ricca, cap. of the Brazilian prov. of Minas, 


146 The Coins of Europe 

and during some considerable time an active Portuguese mint for colonial 

Prisrend, a fortress in Servia in the Middle Ages, and the place of 
coinage of pieces bearing Prisrenh in Slavonic characters, with a seated or 
standing figure of Christ. 

Provins, Seine-et-Marne, a mint of the Counts of Champagne, and on 
some pieces associated with Sens. Pruins, or Privins Casto. This was 
a seat of long and extensive coinage, but the types are mostly unin- 
teresting and degenerate. The portrait of the earlier coinage becomes 
toward the second half of the I3th c. what was known as the peigne or 
comb, through the ignorance or carelessness of the engraver. A corrupt 
type of the Roman interregnal money, struck in the name of the Senate, 
was executed at P. in the second half of the I2th c., and follows the lines 
of the original, except that its origin is betrayed by the peigne cham- 

Prussian Mints (minor) : Dirschau, Koenigsberg (closed in 1798), 
Malborg, Marienburg, Memel, Oliva, Samland, Schlochau, Thorn. (PROV. 
OF POSEN) Bromberg, Fraustadt, Gnesen, Kroeben, Lissa, Posen, 
Zuin. (PROV. OF SAXONY : Circle of Magdeburg) Alsleben, Armstein, 
Aschersleben, Barby, Croppenstadt, Falkenstein, Frosa, Gardelegen, 
Giebichenstein, Hakeborn, Halle, Oschersleben, Osterburg, Osterwick, 
Reinstein, Salzwedel, Schoenebeck, Seehausen, Seligenstadt, Stassfiirt, 
Stendal, Tangermiinde, Ursleben, Wegeleben, Werben, Wernigerode, 
Wolmerstadt. (Circle of Merseburg} Artern, Beichliningen, Belgern, 
Bibra, Bornstadt, Coelleda, Eckartsberga, Eilenburg, Eisleben, Freiburg, 
Heringen, Herzberg, Hettstadt, Kelbra, Landsberg, Liebenwerder, 
Mansfeld, Memleben, Merseburg, Miihlberg, Naumburg, Nebra, Querfurt, 
Rabensvvalde, Rennstadt, Sangerhausen, Schraphau, Skenditz, Stolberg, 
Torgau, Wettin, Weissenfels, Wiehe, Wittenberg, Zeitz. (Circle of Erfurt} 
Bleicherode, Clettenberg, Ellrich, Erfurt, Helligenstadt, Lipprechtrode, 
Lohra, Miihlberg, Miihlhausen, Nordhausen, Ringleben, Salza, Schleu- 
singen, Thamsbriick, Trefurt, Vargula, Weissensee. 

Pskow, an early Russian mint. Comp. Fraustadt. 

Puy, or Le Pu_y, Haute-Loire, the seat of a long series of episcopal 
coinage from the loth to the I4th c., the original grant having been made 
to the 28th Bishop about 920. The right was contested by the Vicomtes 
de Polignac on two different occasions, when the See paid 25,000 and 
20,000 sols as a compromise. Deniers, oboles, and pougeoises, or ob. 

Puy-Saint-Front, Perigord, a mint of the early Counts, in association 
with the town, from the loth c. There were periodical dissensions on the 
subject of this joint, currency. 

Puygiron, Dept. of Drome, a mint of the Counts of Valentinois and 
Diois of which we hear in 1327 through the condemnation of some of the 
workmen to be burned alive for uttering false money. 

Quedlinburg, Prussian Saxony, the seat of a convent in 928 and of a 
conventual or abbatial coinage in 994 by virtue of a grant from Otho III. 
There are bracteates, groschen, thalers, ducats, and copper money, 
usually bearing a figure of the Abbess, standing with a book, a lily, etc., 
in her hand. In the I5th c. the Abbey made some concessions to the 
town. Qvitveli, Gvddelbv., Qvidelgebvr., Cvedellnbv, Qvidelige, etc., are 
readings on pieces. The ladies superior of this establishment were often 
personages of high rank. There is a thaler of Dorothea of Saxony, lady- 

Catalogue of European Mints 147 

abbess, 1617, and a \ thaler on the death of Anna Dorothea of Saxe- 
Weimar, lady-abbess, 1704. 

Quentovic, Artois, a Merovingian and Carlovingian mint, and one of 
the Counts of Flanders by the concession of Charles le Chauve. It is 
mentioned in the Edict of Pitres, 864. See Cat. Robert, 1886, No. 280, 
where an esterlin reading Cventovici is ascribed to Cnut I., King of 
Denmark and Northumbria, but more probably belongs to his son 
Charles. See Encre. 

Quimperle, Brittany, a mint of John IV., Duke of B., 1364-99. Kiper. 

Ragnsa, Dalmatia, the seat of an almost unbroken republican coinage 
from the I2th to the close of the i8th c. The earliest money belonging 
to this place appears to be the silver grosso with the figure of St. 
Blazius ; the latest pieces, silver thalers, were struck down to 1798. One 
before us has a female head evidently copied from the portraits of Maria 
Theresa, though intended for the goddess of liberty. The perpero and ^ 
p. and the Venetian mezzanine were also at successive periods current 
here ; but neither proceeded from the local mint. 

Ragusa, Sicily, an ancient town, to which, rather than to the cog- 
nominal place in Dalmatia, should be referred the copper coins modelled 
(like the augustale of Frederic II.) on the classical type, and (we appre- 

hend) improperly described as follari. One before us (nth or I2th c.), 
found in the Island of Sardinia, has on obv. a head intended for the city 
with Moneta Ragusii, and on rev. a castle and Civitas Ragusii. 

Rambervillers, Vosges, the place of origin of certain anonymous 
episcopal coins of the I3th c. possibly of the Chapter of Metz. 

Randerode, or Randerath, 10 m. N.W. of Juliers, a seigniorial mint of 
the I4th c., where the gros tournois was imitated by the local lords. Sch., 
xii. 504, and xiv. 319. 

Randers, Jutland, a Danish mint, I2th c. Ranrosia, Radrvsias. 

Ratisbon (Regensburg\ Bavaria, the seat of imperial, ducal, and epis- 
copal coinage, and subsequently of an urban series under the control of 
the Dukes of Bavaria and the See of Ratisbon. There is a denier of 
Henry I., 995-1004, struck at this mint. We have before us a curious 
sede vacant e thaler of 1787 with the shields of all the bishops and a 
mitred bust of the deceased one, enclosing the papal type of St. Peter, with 
the keys, in a boat. 

Ratzeburg, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, formerly an episcopal See, now a 
principality, partly in Denmark. There is a thaler probably struck here 
in the I7th c. 

Ravenna, a mint of the later Byzantine Emperors, of the Ostrogothic 
Kings (5th-7th c.), of the Lombard Dynasty, of the Bishops in conjunction 
with Charlemagne, of anonymous Archbishops, 1 3th- 1 4th c., (perhaps) of 
the Republic of Venice, and of the Popes at two or three intervals of time. 

148 The Coins of Europe 

We have before us a small bronze coin of the 5th c. (part of a follaro) 
with Felix. Ravenna and a turreted head on obv., and on rev. Ravenna in 
a monogram within a wreath. The money struck by Venice for this city 
was more probably coined in the capital. Felix. Ravenna., Rv., DC. 
Ravena., or Eclesie. Ravene. 

Ravensperg. Some of the Dukes of Gueldres enjoyed the title of Count 
of R. On a gold-gulden of Raynald IV., 1402-23, he is styled Co. R. 
There is a copper sechscr of 1621 with Nvmtnvs Ravenspvrg, and a piece 
of 12 pfennigen in copper of 1659, belonging to this place. 

Recanati, Deleg. of Ancona, the source of some autonomous coins 
between the i4th and i6th c., with De. Reca. Neto. on obv., and on rev. 
Mari. A.; others have De Racanati. and D. Rccaneto., with S. Flavianvs 
on rev. 

Reckheim, Brabant, a free barony and a mint of the Heeren or 
Seigneurs of Sombreffe and Vlodorp, who copied the Metz types. A 
silver daalder of Hermann van Lynden, 1603, was apparently struck here, 
as well as other pieces of the Seigneurs of Lynden. There is also a 
considerable copper coinage. 

Rccklinghaiisen, Prussian Westphalia, a mint of the Archbp. of 
Cologne 1 4th c., of the Seigneurs of Broech and Counts of Limburg, 
and of the Counts of Recklinghausen. At present it is the capital of 
the dukedom of Arenberg, and was in the last century the seat of coinage. 
Relnichsven, and Nvm. Rihlinght's. 

Redon, Brittany, a mint established by John V., Duke of B., in 1422. 
A denier of the I3th c. reads Scs. Martinus and Redonis Civi. 

Regensburg. See Ratisbon. 

Reggio, a seat of episcopal coinage in the ijth c., and of papal coinage 
(1512-23). There is a denaro of Nicolo Maltraversi (1233-93). Reggio 
subsequently formed part of the duchy of Modena under the Este 
family. There is a mezzo scudo of Ercole II., with the title of Duke of 
Reggio only, and a copper quattrino with Regivm Lepidi a recollection 
of the Roman name. 

Reichenstein, Silesia, a mint of the Seigneurs of Rosenberg and the 
Dukes of Liegnitz-Brieg. 

Reims, Champagne, a mint of the Merovingian, Carlovingian, and 
Austrasian kingdoms, of the Counts of Champagne, of the Archbishops 
(sometimes in concert with the former), and finally of the Crown. The 
last archbishop who struck money appears to have been Jean de Craon, 
1355-73. The Comte" was incorporated with the See in the nth c., and 
the mint of Mouzon, formerly belonging to the Abbey of Saint Vannes at 
Verdun, was taken over about the same time. Re. Remus, Rimus, etc. 
A denier of Charles le Chauve has Remis Civitas. One of Henri de 
Dreux, archbp. 1227-45, reads on rev. Tebau Comes. 

Remiremont, Vosges, with Saint Die", an ancient abbatial mint, and 
one of the earliest places of coinage of the duchy of Lorraine, and Lor- 
raine and Bar. The ecclesiastical series have the names of St. Peter and 
St. Amatus, and a cross cantoned with Ro Ma Ri Cvs. See Cat. Robert, 
1886, Nos. 1668-82. Romaricvs., or Romarti. 

Rennes, Brittany, a mint of the Dukes of Brittany and of ihe Kings 
of France from Louis XL It is supposed that it may have been a 
Merovingian mint under a duke contemporary with Dagobert I. A gold 
franc of Francois II., the last independent Duke (1458-88), has Francixvs. 
Dei. Gracia. Briton. Dvx., and an ecu. d'or of Louis XII. reads (after the 
union) Lvdovicvs. D: G : Francor. Rex : Britonv : Dvx. It was prob- 

Catalogue of European Mints 149 

ably in the' interval between the death of Charles VIII. in April 1498, 
and her remarriage to Louis XII., that Anne, daughter and heiress of 
Francis II., struck the remarkable piece dated 1498, where she describes 
herself as Queen of France and Duchess of the Bretons, and does not 
name a consort. Rennes was also a mint of the Valois and Bourbon 
lines. The ecu of 6 livres of Louis XV., 1723-5, was struck here. It is 
to be suspected that the numismatic records of the city are very frag- 

Retegno, a mint of the ancient family of Trivulzio, 1676-1726. There 
is a rare ducatone doppio of Antonio Teodoro, 1676. All the larger 
pieces have the effigy. 

Rethel, subsequently Retel-Masarin, Ardennes, an important and 
prolific mint of the Counts of R. and Counts of Flanders, etc., certainly 
prior to 1315, as it is cited in the Monetary Regulations published in that 
year, down to about 1629. The Champagnois types were at first imitated 
here. The domain underwent many changes of ownership, and finally 
came into the possession of Cardinal Mazarin. Regitestensis, or Reg. 
Estensis. In 1357 we find Louis of Maele, Count of Flanders, striking 
here, and elsewhere within the county, moutons d'or and gros d'argent. 
Arches and Chateau-Renaud were two fiefs appurtenant to this property. 

Reuss Mints : Dochlau, Gera, Greiz, Schleiz. 

Reuss, a principality in Upper Saxony, now divided into Reuss-Greitz 
and Reuss-Schleitz. But there were formerly five divisions : Reuss- 
Greitz, Schleitz, Gera, Ebersdorf, and Lobenstein. All have struck 
money in silver and copper. There is a grosch of Heinrich III. of 
Reuss- Ebersdorf, 1814. Heinrich XX. of Reuss-Greitz struck a doppel 
thaler in 1851, which is now rare. Of the Lobenstein branch there are 
pfenningen, etc., of Heinrich LXXIL, thus establishing the antiquity at 
least of the family. 

Revel, on the Gulf of Finland, the seat of a small civic coinage in the 
1 3th and I4th c. under Polish control. There is the schilling in silver 
and the solidus. It also struck some of the money (thalers, marks, 
schillings, and ferdings) of the Order of Livonia. There is one of 
Heinrich de Galen, 1555, with Hinr : De : Galen : Ma : Li : and on rev. 
Mo : No : Revalie : \ 5 5 5. 

Rheda, Prussia, in the regency of Minden, formerly the seat of a local 
coinage, chiefly, if not exclusively, of copper money the pfenning and its 
multiples. There is a 4-pfenning piece of 1659. 

Rheina, Prussian Westphalia, the source of pieces of 1602 of 12, 8, 
and 6 pfenningen, some counter-marked with a bar with three stars 
and 3 R. 

Rheinau, Cant, of Zurich, a place of coinage of bracteates formerly 
ascribed to Fishingen. 

Rheinmagen, Prussia, Lower Rhine, a mint of the Kings of Austrasia. 

Rhenen, Utrecht, 17 m. from Amersfoort, one of the mints of the 
Bishops of Utrecht in the I4th-i5th c. There is a very rare gold ducat 
of Frederic of Blankenheim, Bp. of Utrecht, 1394-1422, with Rijnesis. 
Rhenen was also a mint of the See of Cologne, 1 5th- 1 7th c. 

Rhenish Mints (minor) : Brauweiler, Bretzenheim, Biidelich, Biiderich, 
Biirnheid, Cloten, Saint -Corneli, Cranenburg, Dahlen, Dinslaken, 
Duelken, Saint-Eucharius (Treves), Geilenkirchen, Gerresheim, Gladbach, 
Hammerstein, Hechingen, Herzogenrade, Heyde-Terblyt, Junkheit, Kern, 
Lennep, Liessem, Malmedy, Manderscheid, St. Maximin, Mere, Miinster- 

150 The Coins of Europe 

Eiffel, Neuenaar, Niederwesel, Priim, Ratingen, Rommersheim, Saar- 
briicken, Siegberg, Simmern, Sinzig, Solingen, Sponheim, Vallendar, 
Veldenz, Wassenberg, Waldfeucht, Wetzlar, Wielberg, Wipperfurt, 

Rhodes, a seigniorial mint of Leone Gabalas, I3th c., who appears 
to have struck here a bronze coin with Greek legends ; for a short 
time a place of Genoese coinage, same c. ; and the mint of the 
Knights of St. John of Jerusalem from the beginning of the I4th c. to the 
conquest of the island by the Turks in 1522. Down to the time of Gio. 
Battista Orsini, Grand Master from 1467 to 1476, only the ^igliato and 
aspro in silver were struck. Orsini issued a gold ducat copied, even to 
the legend on rev., from that of Venice. The double was introduced at 
the beginning of the i6th c., and there is a very rare piece of P'abrizio 
del Carretto, G. M. 1513-21, which at the Rossi sale in 1880, No. 3687, 
fetched 2000 lire. The first G. M., Fulco de Villaret (1310-19), coined 
a grosso of a special type, differing from the subsequent series of 

Riazan, an early Russian mint. 

Ribe, an early Danish mint. Ri. and a wheel. 

Ribeaupierrc, near Colmar, Alsace, a seigniorial mint from the I3th 
c. It received a concession from Charles V. of Germany in 1550, and 
we have a silver florin or gulden with the name Egenulfus, and the 
date 1564. 

Ribnitz, a Mecklenburgh mint in 1430. 

Riel, a mint of the Archbishops of Cologne, 1 4th- 1 5th c. There is an 
early dated gold florin of Thierry II. of Mceurs, 1414-63. Cat. Robert, 
1886, No. 2046. This piece follows the style of those of the Palatinate. 

Rictbcrg, Westphalia, a seigniorial county, now part of the princi- 
pality of Kaunitz. The independent proprietors formerly coined money 
of low values. There is a i thaler lantnmncz, with the titles of Fer- 
dinand II. (1620-38), and a copper piece of 4 pfenningen, 1703. 

Riga, a mint of the Knights of the Order of Livonia, i6th c. There 
is a solidus of Hermann von Bruggenau, Master in 1536, struck here, 
as well as other pieces. Riga was also a seat of the coinage of the inde- 
pendent Kings of Poland, and at one period of those of Sweden. There 
is a rare thaler of Charles XL, 1660. 

Rimini, a republican autonomous mint in the I3thc., and a seigniorial 
one of Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta in the I5th. The coins are un- 
common. The republican grosso and $ grosso bear the figures of St. 
Gaudentius and St. Julian and DC Arimi No, or D. Arimino. Other 
forms are, Arimini, or Riminensis. 

Riom, Puy-de-D6me, the capital of the portion of Auvergne given by 
Louis IX. to his brother Alphonse. There are deniers with the chatel, 
copied from the gros tournois, and Anfours., or Alfunsus., Comes., and 
Riomcnsis., or De. Riomensis. 

Rochefort, Dept. of Jura, N. of Lons-le-Saulnier, the place of origin of 
a denier of Tristan de Chalon, Comte d'Auxerre, about 1363, with S. 
Cabilon. and Rocofort. Now a village. 

Rode. See Hertogen-rode. 

Rodez, or Rhodez, Dept. of Aveyron, a seigniorial mint of the ancient 
Counts of Rovergue and Rodez, iith-i4th c. There seems to have been 
in or about 1160 a compact between the secular lords and the bishop, 
by which the latter struck the money, and received during the continu- 
ance of the process 12 deniers per week. Rodes Duco., or Rodes Civis. 

Catalogue of European Mints 1 5 1 

Rodigo, Lombardy, probably a mint of the Gonzage of Mantua, 
1483-96, as Marquises of R. 

Rogoredo, (?) Sardinian States, near Bellinzona, a mint of the Tri- 
vulzio family, Marquises of Vigevano, i6th c. 

Rolduc. See Hertogen-rode. 

Romans, Dept. of Drome, a mint under Charles VI. of France (ord. of 
Sept. ir, 1389), and of Francis I., 1515-47, for Dauphiny. A point under 
second letter. 

Rome, an Ostrogothic and Lombard mint, 6th-8th c., and one of the 
Popes from the 8th, at first under Carlovingian control or sanction ; the 
seat of coinage of the pieces struck during the absence of the pontiffs in 
the name of the Roman Senate and people ; and finally of the Holy See 
down to the reign of Pius IX. and the formation of the modern kingdom 
of Italy. Many of the papal coins, however, were struck elsewhere at 
Avignon, Perugia, Bologna, Terni, San Severino, Gaeta, Paris, etc. One of 
the most remarkable pieces connected with the city is the irregularly-shaped 
silver ducat of Clement VII., coined during the siege of Rome by the 
troops of Charles V. in 1527, with the arms and title on obv., and Dvcato 
within a wreath on rev. Two years only previous, the same pontiff had 
issued a jubilee 5-sequin piece in gold, with sanguine and triumphal 
inscriptions. The coinage for the Roman Republic of 1798-99, consisting 
of a gold and silver scudo and a baiocco and 2^ bai, was engraved by 
Tommaso Mercandetti. In 1846 Pius IX. struck a scudo, a baiocco, 
and a \ bai ; the die of the scudo was soon afterward accidentally 
broken or damaged. But we have also a pattern scudo of the same 
date, with the arms of the senior cardinal, Riario Sforza, and the legend 
Sede Vacante. At the Rossi sale in 1880 occurred a very extensive series 
of papal coins from Adrian I. (772-95) ; and a few of the silver danari 
and of the scudi d'oro realised very high prices. A danaro of Teodoro 
II. and Lamberto (898-900) brought 17 : 123., and one of Giovanni XI. 
(930) was carried to .30. Two gold zecchini of Pio III. (1503) produced 
74 and ^72. Others realised .36, ^29 : I2S., etc. The result was at 
the time a surprise. There is a 2o-franc piece of Napoleon I., 1813, 
belonging to this mint with the wolf and twins on rev. 

Romorantin, near Blois, a seigniorial mint, which produced pieces of 
the Blois-Chartres type, with Remorantini., or Remerensis. One piece 
bears T. Co. Remvr., and is attributed to Thibaut V., Count of B., 

Ronciglione, Viterbo, the seat of a temporary coinage during the 
German occupation of the prov. of Viterbo, 1799-1800. A silver proof of 
the madonnina of 1799 nas on rev - LJ Incendio. Di. Ronciglione. Anno 
1799., with a view f the city in flames. A papal mint, 1799, Sede 

Ronco, in the Genoese territory, a mint of the Spinola family, Marquises 
of Roccaforte (1647-99). 

Roquefeuil, Nismes, originally an independent fief, but carried by 
marriage into the lordship of Anduze-Sauve. The deniers, only struck 
between 1169 and 1239, are imitations of those of A., and read Roca- 
foliens, and on rev. Lex Prima M\pnetel\ in allusion to the fineness. 

Roskilde, an early Danish mint. Rose. 

Rostock, Mecklenburgh-Schwerin, the seat of a long and tolerably 
extensive coinage, chiefly of the lower values, from the I2th to the igth c. 
There were several monetary conventions between R. and other towns. 
As early as 1361, R. had an unrestricted right of coinage. The earlier 

152 The Coins of Europe 

mark was, like that of Wismar, a bull's head on a triangular shield, for 
which a griffin passant was afterward substituted. RO-SS- TO, Rostocke, 
or Rostokcen. R. became in the 1 7th- 1 8th c. one of the mints of the 
undivided duchy of Mecklenburgh. There is a silver piece with Civitas 
Magnop [Rostock], and on rev. Moneta Wysmar. Cat. Robert, 1886, No. 
2165. Comp. 2155. 

Rothau, near Strasburgh, a mint of the Counts Palatine of Deux- 
Ponts-Veldenz, mentioned in a document of 1621. No money known. 
Another seat of coinage, of which no remains exist, was Schelstadt in 
the same vicinity. The Counts also struck money at Weinbourg in the 
1 6th c 

Rothweil, or Rottweil, Wiirtemburgh, a mint after 1512 for pieces in 
gold and silver with an eagle and globe. It seems to have continued 
down to 1623, under which date there is a very rare thalerklippe, or square 
thaler, of 1623, with the titles of Ferdinand II. on rev., and on obv. Moneta 
Nova Rotwilensis. 1623. Reinmann sale, 1891-92, Part ii., No. 7037, 
2550 marks=^i47 : los, The Townshend collection of Swiss coins has 
a grosch of the I5th c., and a second of 1622, as well as a dicken of the 
latter date, with Moneta Nova Rotwilensis , or Moneta N Rotwcle , 
or Mo No Rotwilensis 

Rouen, a more or less busy place of coinage from the Carlovingian 
era. This mint was employed by the successors of Charlemagne, by the 
Capetian dynasty, by some at least of the independent Dukes of Nor- 
mandy, by Henry V. of England (1420), and by the Bourbon Kings of 
France. Our knowledge of the numismatic series of the Dukes of Nor- 
mandy has been considerably increased of recent years by finds, especially 
that of 1885. Some of the issues, with the name of St. Romanus, patron 
of R., are supposed to have been under the common authority of the 
church or chapter of Rouen and the dukes, and at their joint charge. 
None of the products of this mint possesses more than a normal docu- 
mentary interest, and many are of extremely barbarous and illiterate 
work. Perhaps one of the earliest specimens of this seat of coinage is 
the denier with the corrupt legend Vlo Tvici Rex, and on rev. Rotom. 
Ch'ita., ascribed to a temporary possession by Louis IV. of France, 936- 
54, during the minority of Duke Richard ; but this seems doubtful and 

Roussillon, the seat of a seigniorial coinage from an early period. 
The town shared the vicissitudes of the prov. of R., which at various 
periods was transferred from Arragon to Majorca, France, etc., but was 
during some time under the monetary jurisdiction of autonomous counts, 
of whom there are coins struck here or at Perpignan. A denier of the 
I2thc. bears on rev. Rosilonus. While it was under the Spanish sway, R. 
issued deniers in its own name, but on the larger money is associated 
with Barcelona. Comp. Perpignan. 

Rovigo, the place of origin of a Venetian anonymous bagattino, 
1 5th c. 

Roye, Dept. of Somme, the conjectural place of origin of a maille with 
the name of Simon, the moneyer of Philippe d' Alsace at Amiens and 
Crespy (1155-61), on obv., and on rev. R. between a crescent and a 

Rudolstadt, -near Weimar. See Schwarzburg. 

Rugen, the seat of a seigniorial mint in the 1 3th- 1 4th c. Pfennigen 
and bracteates. Rvgian. 

Rummen, an early Brabantine mint of the local heeren. Sch., Cat. 

Catalogue of European Mints 1 5 3 

ix- 373-75- There are various types of groot and denier noir, or swaart, 
of Jan van Wesemael, Arnoud van Orije, etc. 

Ruremonde, or Roremonde, 21 m. from Venray, Gueldres, one of the 
mints of the Dukes of Gueldres, I4th-I5th c., and of Philip II. of Spain. 
Some of the former series struck here and at Venrade are curious as 
demonstrating the armorial differences between damoiseaux or minors 
and those of full age. 

Russon, prov. of Limburg, Belgium, a mint of the heeren or seigneurs 
of that place, I4th-i5th c. A gros tournois of Jean de Louvain has 
Moneta. Rvthes\ Sch., ix. 376. 

Saalfeld, Saxe-Meiningen, an abbatial mint down to 1350, when the 
abbot ceded the right to the town. There is a large bracteate with Scs. 
Petrvs Apostolvs in. Salfelt. It was also an early place of coinage of the 
Counts of Schwarzburg, and received in 1448 from the Duke of Saxony 
a concession for the lower values. The place does not appear to have 
produced any coinage of importance. A heller of 1726 has T.E. in a 
monogram under a ducal crown. 

Sabbionetta, Lombardy, in the Milanese territory, formerly an inde- 
pendent duchy in the Gonzaga family (1559-1671), and a seat of coinage. 
The Dukes also struck money at Bozzolo. 

Sagodoura, Moldavia, the place of coinage from 1771 to 1774 of pieces 
of 5 kopecks and 3 dengi in the name of Catherine II. 

Sahagun, Ldon, an ancient abbatial establishment, to which Queen 
Uraca and Alfonso VII. successively (1116-19) conceded the right of 

Saint-Aignan, Touraine, a mint of the Sires de Donzy. Coins of the 
Blois type. Sancti Ainiano. 

Saint-Andre, formerly Straeten, the seat of a seigniorial coinage in 
the 1 5th c. by Matthias, son of Jan, Bailli of Goch in Gelderland, with 
Mathias. Van. Der. Stras., or Strate. 

Saint-Andre de Villeneu-ve-Lez-A'vignons, a place of coinage under 
Charles VI. of France (ord. of Sept. 1 1, 1389). Orig. m.m. a point under 
2oth letter and from 1540, R. The mint was transferred to Orleans late 
in the reign of Louis XIV. 

Saint- Ba-von, near Ghent, a mint of Louis de Creepy, Count of 
Flanders, 1312-46, if not of Margaret of Constantinople, 1244-80. 

Setint-Bertin, Flanders, a mint of Charles le Bon, Count of Flanders, 

Saint-Brieuc, Brittany, a mint of Charles de Blois, about 1314, during 
his contest for the duchy. 

Saint-Denis, France, a mint of Charles le Chauve. 

Saint-Die, Vosges, one of the earliest places of coinage of the duchy 
of Lorraine, and probably at a prior period an abbatial mint, whence 
came the pieces with a crozier and a book, and the reading Deodatus, or 
Deodatus Usus. Some very barbarous pieces in bad state are described 
in Cat. Robert, 1886, Nos. 1663-66. The rulers of L. used this mint from 
the time of Gerard d' Alsace (1048-70). Sa. in. Diei. 

Saint-Gall, Switzerland, an abbatial mint from 947 for pieces of brac- 
teate fabric, and an urban one from 1415. The addition of the gold 
collar to the rampant bear was given by Frederic III. in 1475. There 
are uniface pieces in gold and silver with the civic arms. The plappart 
of 1424 is the first dated Swiss coin at present known. There is a very 
early and rare dicken of 1505 with Moneta Nova Sancti Galli, and an- 

154 The Coins of Europe 

other of 1511 slightly varied. The Abbey of Beda Angherrn, in this 
canton, also struck money. We have met with the thaler, \ thaler, and 
20 kreutzer. 

Saint-Gengoux; a mint of Louis VII. of France (1166), and possibly 
also of the Abbey of Cluny. Comp. Cluny. 

Saint-Genix, a mint of the Counts of Savoy, 1341-55. 

Saint-Georges de Boschennlle, diocese of Rouen, a possible abbatial 
mint, of which Blanchet (Manuel, 1890, i. 2) cites a bas-relief exhibiting 
the process of coining hammered money in the nth c. It was perhaps 
a transfer from actual life. 

Saint -Gery, near Cambrai, the seat of an ancient abbatial mint, 
eventually incorporated with that of C. It possibly existed in the time 
of Charles le Chauve (840-75), and in 934 the Count of Cambrai enjoyed 
the revenues of the abbey and a moiety of those of the castle. The pre- 
tensions of the Count were set aside in 947. None of the coinage of 
Saint-Gery seems to be known. 

Saint-Gilles, Toulouse, one of the mints of the early independent 
Counts of T., at least from the nth c. A denier of Alfonso, 1112-14, 
reads Anfos. Conies., and Onor. Sci. Egidi. Others, which may have 
been struck here, at Toulouse itself, or at Pont-de-Sorgues, have Comes 
Tolosc., and Marti Puincie. The product was known as the monnaie 
egidienne, and included the type of the paschal lamb, which is found in 
the arms of Toulouse, and in weights of that city of the I5th-i6th c. 
The Marechal de Joyeuse struck money here in the time of the League 

Saint-Jean d 1 Angcly (Angeliacus), near Cluny, an early mint, incor- 
porated in the i ith c. (1030-9), by the widow of Guillaume le Grand, Duke 
of Aquitaine, with Cluny. 

Saint-Jitlien and Salics, two chateaux of Matthieu de Foix, Comte de 
Comminges and (by marriage) Vicomte de Beam, where in 1421-22 he 
struck without authority certain money, which was suppressed in 1425 by 
order of the King. 

Saint- Laurent-les-Chalon, a mint of the Dukes of Burgundy, i5th c. 
Ancerna, or Angrognia de. S. La u rend. 

Saint- Lo, La Manche, near Coutances, a French mint under the Mero- 
vingian dynasty and during the reign of Philip le Hardi (1270-85), and 
occasionally at a later period coins with the distinctive mark C occur. 
Henry V. of England struck money here in 1420. A franc d'argent and 
other issues of Henry IV. of France, 1608, belong to this place. 

Saint-Martial, an ancient abbey in or near Limoges, and the seat of 
an independent coinage from the nth c. down to 1315, when the sole 
right was vested in the Vicomtes de Limoges. In 1307 we find Jean III., 
V. de L., doing homage to the Abbot for the chateau, the chatellenie, and 
the mint. See Barbarin and Lemona in Cat. of Denom. 

Saint-Maurice d^Agaune, Valais, a mint of the Counts of Savoy I3th 
c., and of the Seigneurs of Bargen, Sogern, and Nellenburg. The first- 
named acquired the imperial authority to strike here. The early Savoyard 
and other pieces bear an image of the local saint. A piece called moneta 
maurisiensis is supposed to belong to this place. See Blanchet, ii. 265. 

Saint- Medard de Soissons. See Soissons. 

Saint-Mihicl, or St. Michael, duchy of Bar, diocese of Verdun, a mint 
of the abbots and of the ancient Counts and Dukes of Bar at least from 
the date of a charter granted by Richet, Bishop of Verdun, to the Abbot 
Uldaric in 1099, and renewed by a successor, with leave to coin in the 

Catalogue of European Mints 155 

name of the abbot, in 1124, and (it is supposed) with right reserved to the 
See of Verdun to use the mint. This is the only mint which was re- 
tained by the Dukes of Lorraine and Bar after the union, about 1420, of 
the two domains and titles. There is a rare esterlin of Edward I., Count 
of B., 1302-37, belonging here. S. Michael. 

Saint-Omer, an abbatial, seigniorial, and communal mint, Iith-I2th 
c. Probably the money was struck, for the most part, within the Abbey 
of St. Bertin, and perhaps the abbatial series and that of the Counts of 
Flanders were for some time concurrent. The former read Andomarus, 
and on rev. Bertinus, or S. Pet\r\us, with a figure holding a key or a 
crozier ; some exhibit two croziers for the Abbeys of St. Omer and St. 
Bertin. The communal coinage lasted during a year only, having been 
given to the burgesses by a charter of the Count of Flanders in 1127, 
and withdrawn in 1128. Baudouin VI., Robert I., Charles le Bon, etc., 
employed this mint (1067-1128). S. Om., Ome., Omer, or Omes.; some- 
times St. Ome. 

Saintonge, the seat of a seigniorial mint in the Middle Ages. It be- 
longed successively to Angouleme, Aquitaine, Anjou, and Aquitaine, and 
was united to the Crown by Charles V. of France. Steinas. The 
coinage of the Abbey of St. Mary, founded by a Count of Anjou in the 
nth c., was long vested in that house. 

Saint-Paul-Trois-Ckateaux (Augusta Tricastrinoruni), an episcopal 
mint from a very remote date. The Emperor Frederic Barbarossa con- 
firmed the right in 1154. Money was struck here for the Dauphin under 
Charles VI., with a crozier as a mark of the Bishop's jurisdiction, and 
a proviso that the latter shared the profits. The earliest pieces bear 
Ave. Gra. Plena, and on rev. Santi Pauli. Other pieces read Eps. 
Santi Pauli Tricastrin. There was an attempt here to imitate the 
Florentine gold money in a piece with Flor. Ep. Tea. disposed so as to 
resemble Florentia. 

Saint- Petersburgh, the mint of some of the Czars in the last and pre- 
sent c., opened in 1724. Some patterns of the Czarina Anne, 1740, and 
of John or Ivan III., 1741, belong here, as well as pieces of 10, 5, and 2^ 
thaler in gold, and 9 groschen in silver, struck for the grand-duchy of 

Saint-Pierre, Metz-in-Lorraine, supposed to be a church or monastery 
where a mint was established by the Bishops of the See or the Dukes of 
Lorraine. But see Cat. Robert, 1886, No. 433. 

Saint-Quentin, Picardy, probably the place of origin of the feudal 
coinage of Vermandois, which does not appear to have lasted beyond 
1214, when the fief passed to the Crown. Scs Quintinus. Veranumiu, 
etc. In 1589 Philippe de Longueville, Governor of Picardy, struck 
money here in the name of Henry III. with H. D 1 Orleans D. A. Longa- 
vill. Faciebat, or S.Q. 1589. 

Saint- Remy. See Marseilles. In 1302 the Seneschal of Beaucaire 
was ordered by Philip le Bel of France to seize and sequestrate certain 
tournois de Saint-Remy, struck by the Count of Provence, and allowed 
to circulate outside his territory. 

Saint- Symphorien d'Ozon, Savoy, a mint of the Counts of S. from 
about 1330 to 1 60 1, when this place was ceded to France. 

Saint-Trond, Metz-in-Lorraine, now in Belgium, prov. of Limbourg, 
a supposed mint of the Bishops of Metz when the town was within that 
diocese. A mint of Robert de Langres, Bishop of Lie"ge, 1240-47. 


The Coins of Europe 

Saint-Venant, near St. Omer, one of the places of coinage of the com- 
munal mailles, formerly spread over so large a portion of Flanders. 
Vnent, or Vnaento. 

Saint-Waast, near Arras, an abbatial mint in the nth c., and one 
employed by Robert le Frison, Count of Flanders, 1073-93. Robert II., 
Comte d'Artois, 1250-1302, struck a denier here with Vcdaste. 

Saintc- Severe, Bourbonnais, a fief of the house of Brosse-Huriel, and 
apparently a place of independent coinage in the I3th c. There is a 
denier with Vgo. Vicecomcs. and Sancta Severn. 

Saintes, Charente-Infdrieure, a mint of Louis VII., King of France 
(1137-80). Steinas. 

Salamanca, a Visigothic mint. Salmantica. 

Salc-au-Comtc, Perigord, a mint of the Counts of P., 1322. 

Salerno, the place of origin of some of the coinage of the Dilkes of 
Beneventum, and probably a principal mint of the duchy of Salerno and 
of the Norman kingdom of Sicily and Apulia under Robert Guiscard and 
his successors. 

Salics. See Saint-Julien. 

Safins, Dept. of Jura, an ancient town, fortified in 1411 by the Duke 
of Burgundy. In 1257 the Comte de Chalon, a relative of the Duke by 
marriage, had a mint here. The place was besieged by the French in 
'477) !595? 1636, and 1668. 

Salle-le-Roi, Poitou, a mint and hunting-seat of Richard I. of Eng- 
land about 1190 in the neighbourhood of Les Essarts, where there were 
silver mines. In 1784 a discovery of this place of coinage was made, 
and a denier of Richard was found there. 

Salm, Lorraine and Luxemburgh, a principality, of which the two 
branches have struck money from the I3th c. to 1782. The arms are 
gules : 2 salmons arg., surrounded by 4 croisettes arg. There is a 
demi-gros a 1'aigle of Henri V., Count of Salm in Ardenne or InfeVieur, 

Saluzzo, Sardinian States, a mint of the marquises from 1221, the 
date of the investiture of Manfredo III. by Frederic II. with the fief, to 
1 563. M. Salvtiarvm. The coinage of this State in the latter part of 
the 1 5th and commencement of the i6th c. embraces some pieces of 
singular merit and artistic beauty, particularly the scudi of 1503 and 
1516, to which reference may occur hereafter. 

Salzburg, a mint of the Bishops and of the Dukes of Kaernthen or 

Carinthia from the loth c., and of the former down to the i8th. Some of 
the episcopal money bears the addition Ac Epus. Gvrcen (Bishop of 

Catalogue of European Mints 157 

Gurk), and some were struck in conjunction with the Dukes. It is a re- 
markably well-executed series, and comprises pieces both in gold and 
silver, some square, of striking boldness and beauty of workmanship. 
Attention may be drawn to a gold ducat of 1654 with a rosebush and the 
motto Alles mit Gott Vnd Derzeit, in the name of Sophia, daughter of 
the then prelate. Money of necessity appeared in 1593, 1620-24, and 

Sampigny (Sampimacvtn). See Verdun. 

San Benigno di Fruttnaria, an abbatial fief, 1529-82. Abb. S. Beni., 
or Benigni. Comp. Montanaro. 

Sancerre, Dept. of Cher, a seigniorial mint from the nth to the I7th 
c. The deniers recall the legend that the place was founded by Julius 
Caesar ; they are mostly anonymous. Sacrum Ccesaris, Dominus Ccesar, 
etc. Etienne II., 1037-47, placed his name on the money StepJianvs 

San Gervasio, Sardinian States, a mint of the house of Savoy, 

San Giorgio, a seigniorial seat of the Milano family, Marquises of San 
Giorgio. Giacomo IV. struck a tallero of silver, engraved by Roettier, 
with his titles, etc., but whether here or not is uncertain. 

San Marino, the ostensible place of coinage of pieces of 10 and 5 
centesimi, 1864, of which there are varieties. But these were actually 
struck at Milan. 

San Martina dell' Argine, a fief of the Gonzage, Princes of Bozzolo 

.}, 1614-71. Santo. Martin. 

San Severino, one of the papal mints during the revolutionary period, 
1797. There are the 5, i\, i, and ^ baiocchi struck here by Pius VI., 
and a quattrino. 

Santa Fiora, a palatine fief of the Aldebrandischi, I3th c. 

Santa Maria di Castello, an unknown mint, to which there is an early 
reference, according to M. Blanchet, mentioning " Moneta Sanctae Mariae 
de floreni Castellani." 

Santarem, Estremadura, a temporary mint of Antonio, Prior of Crato, 
who, after the death of Henry the Cardinal, King of Portugal, in 1580, 
asserted a title to the crown. He struck here a copper ceitil, and i, 2, 
and 4 reales in silver. 

Santia, Sard. States, a Savoyard mint, 1630. 

Santiago, the place of coinage in the nth c. of certain ecclesiastical 
institutions, invested by Alfonso VII. of Castile and Leon with the 
privilege of striking money. 

Saragassa, or Zaragoqa, a Visigothic mint. Cesar. Avgvsta. And one 
of the Spanish Kings. Z. 

Sarrebourg, France, Dept. of Meurthe, a place of Merovingian 
coinage, and a mint of the Chapter of Metz, of certain anonymous money 
of the 1 3th c., etc. 

Sassari, Sard. States, the supposed place of coinage of certain money 
struck by the judge or advocate of the commune, early I5th c. 

Saumttr, the place of origin of a denier struck between 950 and 1026 
by the Abbey of St. Florent, with Beati. Florentii and a cross on obv., and 
on rev. Castrv. Salmvrv. and a key. 

Savona, Sardinia Terra-firma, a seat of anonymous republican coinage 
with Moneta Saone or Saona (i4th c. ), and the place of origin of a \ 
patacchina in billon, and perhaps other money, struck by the authority 
of Louis XL, King of France (1461-64), with Civitas Saona and an eagle 


The Coins of Europe 

on obv., and on rev. Comvnis Saona, a cross, and a fleur-de-lis. Francis 
I. of France struck here three varieties of the testone and a pattachina. 

Saxon Mints, minor : (i.) the Electorate, Duchy, and Kingdom : 
Altenzelle, Bautzen, Buchholz, Colditz, Dohna, Freiberg (transferred to 
Dresden, 1556), Frohnau, Grimma, Groitzsch, Grossenhain, Klein- 
Schirma, Leissnig, Loessnitz, Oschats, Pegau, Flauen, Schneeberg, 
Strehla, Taucha, Wolkenstein, Zittau, Zwickau. 

Saxon Mints (ii.) Duchies, etc., within Saxon territory : (SAXE- 
WEIMAR) Allstedt, Apolda, Arnshaug, Bergau, Bargau, or Bargel, Berka, 
Capellendorf, Cranichfeld, Gebstaedt, Gleisberg, Lobdeburg, Magdala, 
Mittenhausen, Remda, Rothenstein, Saalborn, Suiza, Tanrode, Weida, 
Windberg. (SAXE-COBURG) Cella St. Blasii, Gleichen, Grimmenstein, 
Ichtershausen, Koenigsberg, Krawinkel, Neustadt-am-Heide, Reinhards- 
briinnen, Volkerode. (SAXE-MEININGEN) Camburg, Reichmannsdorf, 
Roemhild, Wasungen. (SAXE-ALTENBERG) Eisenberg, Kahla, Lucka, 
Meuselwitz, Miinsa, Poelzig, Roda, Schmoellen, Windischleuba. (AN- 
HALT) Ballenstadt, Coethen, Coswig, Dessau, Gernrode, Hagenrode, 
Harzgerode, Miihlstadt, Nienburg, Ploetzkau, Rosslau, Thesa, Zerbst. 
(SCHWARZBURG) Arnstadt, Clingen, Gehren, Goldsthal, Greussen, Gross- 
Koerner, Keula. (S. - RUDOLSTADT) Blankenburg, Frankenhausen, 
Friedeburg, Kefernburg, Koenigsee, Leutenberg, Schlotheim, Stadtilm. 
Saxony. Duchy and kingdom of ^ -... . c T,, , . 
Saxotty Duchies in l Min ' s ' See Blanchet, . 101-6, 

Saxony, Prussian J ^ r ' l ^~^ 

Schafhausen, Switzerland, the seat of the cantonal coinage from the 
date of the monetary concession in 1333. The earliest were bracteates. 
Many of the pieces embody the legend or idea conveyed in the name. 
It was also a mint at an early period of Savoy and other States lying in 
or on the borders of Switzerland. 

Schleiz, Reuss, the source of bracteates of the Counts of Lobdeburg- 
Arnshaug, with a bull, a bull's head, or a man carrying a bull's head in 
his hand, I3th c. A mint of the Counts of Reuss, 1622-78. 

Schlitz, Hesse -Darmstadt, the seat of coinage of the independent 
Counts of Schlitz, Passau, and Weisskirchen, whose castle still exists ; 
i6th-iyth c. The money usually bears on the rev. the imperial arms and 

titles. As early as 1516 the discovery of the rich silver mine of Joa- 
chimsthal, Bohemia, and its appropriation by the then Count, led to the 

Catalogue of European Mints 159 

coinage of large silver pieces with the imperial or royal titles by the owner. 
The first bear date in 1518. The right of coinage is said to have been 
abolished by the Emperor Ferdinand in 1528, shortly after the death of 
Louis, last independent King of Bohemia, in 1526. There is a thaler of 
this type with the name and titles of Louis, dated 1525. See Joachims- 
thai supra. 

Schmalkalden, Hesse, a mint of the Counts of Henneberg, I3th c. ; 
of the Landgraves of Hesse, I4th-i5th c. In 1455 tne Duke of Saxony 
interdicted the coinage by the latter of pfennigen of bad quality. Smal. 
Smalkald., or a crowned S. 

Schonau, Baden, the place of origin of thalers of Theodore von 
Milondorck, 1542, and of 4-heller pieces of John Gottfried de Blancha, 


Sckoneck, Prussian Poland, in the regency of Dantzic, on the left bank 
of the Rhine. A seigniorial mint in the I4th c. There is an esterling of 
Hartard (1316-50) ; it is of excellent execution, and is figured in Cat. 
Robert, 1886, No. 2159. 

Schoonhoven, S. Holland, the place of issue of tin money of necessity 
during the siege by the Spaniards in 1575. We have the 12, 6, 5, 4, 
and 3 stuivers with S. in a wreath. 

Schoonvoorst) Brabant, a seigniorial mint, where the popular gros 
tournois was counterfeited. See J. de Chestret de Haneffe, Renard de 
Schonau, Sire dc Schoonvorst : Un gentilhomme financier du XIV me 
siecle, 1892. 

Schwabach, Bavaria, a mint of the Margraves of Brandenburgh, i$th 
c. A solidus of Friedrich III., 1440-71, was struck there. Also an 
occasional place of coinage of the Kings of Prussia. 

Schwalenberg, Prussia, a seigniorial mint of the I4th c., connected 
with the ancestors of the house of Waldeck-Pyrmont. There are deniers 
of the Counts Volquin, Widekind, etc. 

Schivarzburg, near Weimar, Saxony, with Koenigsee, Rudolstadt, 
Remda, Stadtilm, and Arnstadt, the place of coinage of the Counts of S. 
and S. -Rudolstadt. There are bracteates of the I4th c. The earliest 
thalers were in 1515. Co. I. Sc. There is a rare \ thaler on the death 

of the Countess Emilia, 1670, and a very curious piece of 1791 with a 
wild man and woman as supporters of the shield on rev. 

Schwarzenberg, Bavaria, the probable place of origin of at least some 
of the coinage of the princes of that place, now of little importance, in 
the 1 7th- 1 8th c. 

Schweidnitz, or Svidnitza, Silesia, the seat of local coinage from the 
1 4th to the 1 6th c., with a boar or a boar's head. The right of striking 

160 The Coins of Europe 

money was purchased from the Duke of Bohemia in 1361 and from 
Poland in 1369. Only low values known. Stveinig, or Sivieni. The 
town of Reichenbach had the right of coinage here given by the Duke of 
Silesia in 1351. 

Schwerin, Mecklenburgh, an episcopal mint in the I3th c., and of this 
branch of the grand-ducal family after the division between Schwerin 
and Strelitz. 

Schiverte, Pruss. Westphalia, a mint of the Counts de la Marck, I3th c. 

Schtvyz, Switzerland, the seat of a coinage from 1424. Svitensis. 
Comp. Bellinzona. 

Sao, the place of origin of a very rare gold zecchino struck by Filippo 
Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan (1421-35); of a Genoese coinage of grossi 
and tornesi ; and of pieces of the same class with the names of the 
Genoese podestas of the Giustiniani family (i5th-i6th c.). One has 
Civitas. Chio. Monet. Ivstiniana. 

Sebenico, Dalmatia, the possible place of coinage of certain silver 
bagattini of the Republic of Venice, but more probably struck at V. 

Sedan, Champagne, originally a fief of the See of Reims, and, after 
many vicissitudes, the property, by marriage with Bouillon, of Henri de 
la Tour d'Auvergne, Manfchal de Turenne (1591). It remained in that 
family till 1721, and we owe to the great Turenne himself and some of 
his successors a very remarkable series of coins in gold, silver, and 
billon, particularly the large e"cus from 1591 to 1594, with the portraits of 
Turenne and his wife, Charlotte de la Marck, who brought him the pro- 
perty. Comp. Bouillon. 

Segovia, Old Castile, an early Spanish mint, to which are assigned 
certain ecclesiastical coins of the nth c. struck by monasteries, and the 
seat of a coinage in the I7th c. Pieces of 50 reales in silver, of 1618, 1623, 
1626, belong here. The elder Don Carlos used this mint from 1833 to 
1840 for occasional issues of silver and copper, with his name and 

Selwerd, probably the seat of the Dukes of Gueldres as chatelains or 
seigneurs of that place, if not of Coevorde, I4th c. A groot or gros of 
Reinold or Raynald III., 1344-57, reads Reinold. Dns. Kovord. 

Scmendria, Servia, one of the mediaeval mints of the Kings of Servia, 
who imitated the Venetian mafapan, or rather, perhaps, followed more 
closely than Bulgaria the fabric and metrology of that time. But there 
are varieties which may lay claim to originality of pattern. We have 
before us one where the patron-saint appears to present the standard to 
the Prince. 

Senlis, Dept. of Oise, a mint of Hugues the Great, Duke or King of the 
Franks of Neustria, and Count of Paris, 923-56. 

Sens,Dept. of Yonne, a Merovingian,Carlovingian,and seigniorial mint, 
9th-iith c. The archbishops at one period seem to have had an interest 
in the coinage ; and comp. Auxerre and Provins. The money, deniers 
and oboles only, was current throughout Champagne, and was imitated 
at Provins. Senones Civitas. 

Serain, diocese of Cambrai, a seigniorial fief belonging to the Counts 
of Ligny in 1304. There are esterlins and rijder-grooten or gros au 
cavalier of Waleran I. and II. (1304-53), with Moneta Nova Serenensis., 
Moneta Seremne., or Moneta Serain. 

Seville, a Visigothic mint. Ispali. And of the Spanish Kings. S-E. 

S 1 Heerenberg. See Berg, 

S> Hertogenbosch. See Bois-le-Duc. 

Catalogue of European Mints 161 

Siegen, .Pruss. Westphalia, a mint of the See of Cologne, I3th c. 
Segen and Segensis. 

Sienna, Tuscany, a Carlovingian mint and a seat of republican coinage 
under imperial authority from the nth to the i6th c., except a brief 
period of subjection to the Duke of Milan (1390-1404). About 1550 it 
fell into the hands of the Medici family. A rare gold scudo of Cosmo I. 
reads Cosmvs Med. Flor. Et. Satiar. Dvx. On rev. is Sena Vetvs 
Civitas Virginis. The latter inscription commonly occurs on the 
autonomous money. It may be remarked that the Sienese, in celebra- 
tion of a victory over the Florentines, struck a piece of 4 gold scudi of 

udo di oro, isth c. 

the ordinary type, on obv., but having on rev. Manvs Tve. Domine 
Fecerunt Me. Cat. Rossi, 1880, No. 4813, 250 lire. 

Sierck, a mint of the Dukes of Lorraine in the I4th and I5th c. 
Cicrk, Cirkes, or Sicrk. 

Sigtuna, or Zigtuna, the place of coinage of the earliest esterlings of 
Sweden during the reign of Olaf Skdtkonung, 1001-26. Zin. Zitvn. 

Silesian Mints: Bernstatt, Breslau, Brieg, Frankenberg, Franken- 
stein (transferred in 1507 to Reichenstein), Freistadt, Friedeberg, Glatz, 
Glogau, Goerlitz, Goldberg, Herrnstadt, Jauer, Klein-Glogau, Kreuzberg, 
Lausitz, Liegnitz, Loewenberg, Liiben, Munsterberg, Namslau, Neisse, 
Nickolsdorf, Oels, Ohlau, Oppeln, Ratibor, Reichenbach, Reichenstein, 
Sagan, Schweidnitz, Striegau, Trachenberg, Trebnitz, Wartenberg, 

Sinigaglia, a mint of the Delia Rovere family, Dukes of Urbino 
(i 6th c.). 

Sirmium, a fortress in Bulgaria, of which the Governor, Sermon, 
struck in or about A.D. 1019 small gold siege-pieces during the struggle 
for Bulgarian independence against Byzantium or Constantinople. These 
pieces bear a monogram on obv., and on rev. the name and rank of 
Sermon in native characters. 

Sisteron, Basses-Alpes. See Forcalqnier and Toulon. 

Sittart, or Sittard, a Brabantine mint in the I4th c. There is a groot 
of Waleran de Born struck here. Sch., Cat. vii. 492. 

Sitten, a Merovingian mint (Sidvnis) ; subsequently of uniface coins 
bearing the bust of St. Theodolus, probably by virtue of the imperial 
grant of 1274. An episcopal mint from 1457 to 1780. Svitensis. 

Skoplje, a mediaeval fortress of Servia, where money was struck with 
the name of the place of origin in Slavonic characters. 

Slagelse, an early Danish mint. Slahlov. 

Shiijs, Zeeland, a mint of Philip le Beau, Duke of Burgundy, in 1492, 
as Damoiscau or minor. It struck money of necessity during the siege 
by Maximilian I. of Austria in 1492 in the name of the Archduke Philip : 
a gold florin and a briquet and double briquet in silver. 


1 62 The Coins of Europe 

Smallenberg, Prussia, a mint of the Bishops of Cologne, I3th c. 
Civitas Smalnberg, or Smalenbtirgi. 

Sneek, W. Friesland, the source of coins bearing Snekensis and a 
shield quartered with an eagle and three crowns. 

Soest, Prussia, an occasional mint of the Emperors of the West. 
There is a denier of Otho III., 983-1002, struck here. A series of copper 
pfenningen, from the i6th to the i8th c., belongs here. Those of the 1 8th 
c. which most usually occur (1700-50) have Stadt Soest and a key. 

Sofia, capital of the principality of Bulgaria, and the seat of a coinage 
since 1880. 

Soissons, the capital and probably the mint of Clovis I. and perhaps 
also of Pepin le Bref. Subsequently one of Louis le Uebonnaire, who 
conferred the privileges and profits on the richly endowed Abbey of Saint 
Medard at Soissons, founded by Sigebert, King of Austrasia. At this 
time the coinage was carried out in the palace. Money was struck here 
in the name of Charles le Chauve, perhaps by the abbey ; but subse- 
quently the Bishops and Counts of Soissons acquired in succession the 
jurisdiction, the latter holding from the See, which ceded the right, no 
doubt, for a consideration. One of the Counts married Agathe de Pierre- 
fonds ; and there is a denier, possibly struck at the now famous Chateau 
de Pierrefonds, with Moneta Canon \Conori\ on obv., and on rev. De 
Pierefons. The ordinary money of Soissons reads Suesswnis, or Mon. 

Solfcrino, Lombardy, a seigniorial mint of a branch of the Gonzaga 
family, Marchesi di Solferino (ijth c.). 

Solms, a seat of seigniorial coinage, I7th c. A grosch of Ernst II., 
1613, is cited by Schulman, Cat. xiv. No. 539. 

Solothurn, or Soleure, an abbatial mint from 930 to 1381, when the 
city purchased the right from the Abbot of St. Ursus, and struck money 
down to the last c. Solodvrcnsis. 

Sommiercs, Anduse, a seigniorial fief of the united lordships of 
Anduse and Sauve, a mint of that family, ioth-i3th c., and in 1236 a 
royal seat of coinage. Deniers and oboles with Andusiensis, De 
Andusia, Salvicnsis, or De Salve. The capital B on obv. may indicate 
the house of Bermond, in whom the lordship was vested in the loth- 
uth c. 

Sondcrshausen, Schwarzburg, the seat of coinage of the principality 
of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen. 

Sora, Naples, the seat of an independent duchy down to 1462 of 
the last Duke, Pier Gian. Paolo Cantelmi (1459-61). Rossi, Cat. No. 4844, 
had a bolognino, which fetched 185 lire. 

Soragna, Parma, a former principality in the Meli-Lupi family, i8th 
c. A gold zecchino of Nicolo Meli-Lupi, 1731, occurred at the Rossi 
sale, and brought 90 lire. 

Sorrento, Naples, a mint of the Lombard Princes, nth c. 

Souvigny-lc- Vieux, Dept. of La Manche, France, the seat of an ancient 
Cistercian priory, which, from the nth c., had a right of coining money. 
There are only deniers of a low standard of silver, with a bust of Saint 
Mayeul facing or in profile. At a later date the priors and the Sires de 
Bourbon struck convention-money at Souvigny at the common cost as a 
means of settling disputes which had arisen by reason of encroachments 
on the part of the seigneurs. In 1320 Philippe le Long, King of France, 
extinguished the rights by payment of 15,000 bons petits tournois = about 
240,000 fr. Scs. Maiolvs and Silviniaco, or Borbonensis. Some deniers 

Catalogue of European Mints 163 

have the bust of St. Mayeul and a cross cantoned with D.B. (Dominus 

Sonzdal, an early Russian mint. 

Souzoun, an early Russian mint. 

Spalatro, Dalmatia, the place of origin of certain small billon pieces 
of the 1 3th c., with Spa Catt ino disposed in three lines on obv., and on 
rev. a cross. In and after 1397 the Ban or Waiwode of Bosnia, on 
behalf of Sigismund, King of Hungary, struck here various coins bearing 
a shield with an armed arm and his titles as supreme waiwode or voyvode 
of Bosnia and vicar of the kingdom of Lladislaus, and on rev. the 
patron-saint, St. Dominus or Doimus. The grossi coined here by the 
feudal dukes formed a source of trouble to Venice, as it was represented 
in 1410 that the standard was below that of the Republic and injured her 

Spanheim, a seigniorial mint of the Counts of Spanheim, I4th c. 
Schulman, Cat. ix. 554, cites a gros tournois of Johan II. 1357-1403. 

Spanish Mints. See Blanchet, ii. 281. 

Spira, an ecclesiastical mint for the Archbishops. 

Spoleto, the place of origin of a bracteate danaro, struck on a large 
flan, with Wido. Gragia. Di. Re. It was struck by Guido, Lord of Spoleto, 
939-44, who probably occupied the ancient castle of the exarchs of 
Ravenna. Spoleto also produced a few anonymous ecclesiastical coins 
with Spoletanvs, or Spoleto, on rev., and was a place of papal coinage, 
1 5th and i8th c. There are 2-baiocchi pieces of the Roman Republic, 
1798-99, struck here. 

Stadtberg. See Marburg. 

Statt, prov. of Liege, a mint of Thibaut de Bar, Bishop of Liege, 

Stavelot, or Siablo, Belgium, prov. of Liege, the seat of an abbey 
said to have been founded in the 7th c. by Sigebert, King of Austrasia. 
There is abbatial money of the i6th c. with the imperial titles on 

Stavoren, on the Zuyder Zee, formerly a town of great importance, a 
mint of the early Counts of West Friesland in the nth c. It is at 
present an insignificant village. 

Steenwijk, Holland, the seat of a coinage of necessity during the 
siege by the French in 1580, and perhaps also during that by Maurice of 
Nassau in 1591. 

Stein, or Steyn, Austrian Illyria, a seigniorial mint of the I4th c., 
where the boetdrager of Louis de Maele, Count of Holland, was imitated. 
Comp. Carin. 

Stcnay, Lorraine, French dept. of La Meuse, a temporary mint of 
Louis XIII. during his occupation of Lorraine, 1635-39. Comp. 

Stendal, Prussia, formerly the capital of the Mark or March of 
Brandenburg, and the mint of the early margraves from the I2th c. 
There are groschen, pfennigen, and other low values, of Joachim and 
Albrecht, struck there in 1513. The town acquired the right of coinage 
in 1369. Standi. 

Stettin, Pomerania, or Pommern, now part of Prussia, a mint of the 
Dukes and Kings of Poland and of the independent Dukes of Pommern, 
1 2th- 1 7th c. The duchy was divided between S. and Wolgast in 1295, 
and reunited in 1625. There is a profusion of early bracteates with an 
infinite variety of designs. The Dukes had nearly thirty other mints, 

164 The Coins of Europe 

among which we may specify Griefswald, Rugen, Stargard, Stralsund, 
and Wolgast. A schilling of Bogeslas X., Duke of Pommern, 1502, was 
struck at S. ; also perhaps a grosch of Duke Franz, 1617, and a double 
schilling of Bogeslas XIV., 1622. 

Stevensiveerd, Gueldres, a mint of the Seigneurs of s' Heerenberg, 
1 5th- 1 6th c. Sch., xi. 37. At a somewhat later epoch it struck the 
copper dute or doit for local use. Comp. Berg. 

Stezau, a fortress of Servia in mediaeval times, and the place of origin 
of coins bearing Ctczauh. 

Stockholm, an early place of coinage of the Kings of Sweden, with 
and without the royal titles. A dickthaler of Stene Sture, the younger 
(1512-20), reads on obv. Mone. Stockholm. 1512, and on rev. 5. Eric-vs 

Stockholm or of 1573. 

Rex Svecic. There is also copper money of the i6th c. with the name of 
the capital only. 

Stolbcrg, Pruss. Saxony, circle of Merseburg, the place of origin of 
bracteates of the i2th or i3th c., with a stag to 1., of later uniface pieces, 
with a stag's head and Stol. or Stalb., and from the concession of a grant 
in 1467 to the Counts, the seat of a considerable coinage in gold, silver, 
and copper. The thaler and its divisions, first struck in 1544, the 
kreutzer and batz and their multiples, and the albus, were current here, 
and the gold ducat. The gold is very rare. A ducat of 1743 shews on 
the obv. a stag with his horns entangled in a pillar ; but a very beautiful 
one of 1818, struck to commemorate the golden wedding of Christian 
Friedrich, exhibits a free stag on obv., and on rev. /. Ducat. D. XI. Nov. 
1818. There were two or three branches of this house Stolberg-Stolberg, 
Stolberg-Rochefort, and Stolberg-Weringerode of which all had the 
coining privilege. 

Straeten. See Saint-Andri, 

Stralsund, Pomerania, the seat of the coinage of Jasomar II., Prince 
of Rugen, and of convention-money between it and other towns in the 
duchy. There are very early pieces, both in silver and billon, bearing 
on obv. an arrowhead, and Moneta Svndensis. 

Strasburgh, Alsace or Elsas, a Carlovingian or Frankish mint. 
There is a denier of Pepin le Bref, 8th c., struck there. The episcopal 
coinage under imperial authority, and with the secular titles, commenced 
in pursuance of a concession from Louis the German in 873. The bishops 
began by placing a crozier in the field, and then their initials in the legend 
of the coinage ; and there is an engraving in Cat. Robert, 1886, No. 1754, 
of a well-executed denier of Bishop Odbert (906-13). The gros tournois 
was current here in a local imitation at an early date. In the nth c. 
these powerful prelates substituted their own names and effigies for those 
of the suzerain (965-92), perhaps by virtue of an amplified grant from 

Catalogue of European Mints 165 

Otho II. in 974, when that Prince conferred the right cum omni integri- 
tate ; and at the end of that c. we find a bracteate system intro- 
duced by certain lay seigneurs as well as by the occupants of the See, to 
be continued down to the I3th, with a variety of types and symbols, side 
by side with an apparently independent imperial series of the usual 
fabric. The I3th c. witnessed the rise of a municipal interposition, in 
consequence of the progressive debasement of the bracteates ; during a 
few years (1298-1306) the city struck anonymous pieces of episcopal type ; 
the influence and spirit of the burgesses gradually triumphed ; and 
finally, in 1 508, the Emperor having vested the gold coinage exclusively 
in the borough, the Church lost its ground completely here. The bishops 
struggled in vain from 1592 or before to recover their ascendancy, and 
struck money elsewhere (comp. Guebwiller, Giinzburg, and Molsheitn) ; 
there is also evidence of the crisis in money of necessity of 1592, struck 
by the city during its contest with Bishop Charles de Lorraine. In 1681 
S. became French, and the monetary patterns were modified. From 
1693 the m.m. was BB. In 1815 a decime was issued here in the name 
of Louis XVI II. 

Stuttgart (Stvggarten, or Stvgardi on coins), cap. of Wtirtemburgh, the 
place of origin of some of the ancient coinage of this duchy and kingdom, 
and since 1423 the only mint for this State. There is a long series of 
coins in all metals and various denominations. We may note a small 
square gold piece without date with a view of Stuttgart. 

Substancion, or Siistancion-Melgueil, near Maguelonne, a Merovingian 
and Carlovingian mint, of which the precise site is not known. Svstan- 
cione. The See of Maguelonne was transferred hither in 737. It was the 
seat of a seigniorial coinage from the loth c., and of an episcopal one 
from the I3th to the I4th. The types were borrowed from the royal 
coinage with the name of Carloman, and from that of Narbonne, and 
appear to have acquired popularity, as the monnaie melgorienne was 
widely spread over the south and west of France. The peculiar form of 
cross is also found on seals of the Bishops of Melgueil. 

Sulmona, Naples, in the Abruzzi, the place of origin of a bolognino 
of Charles III. of Durazzo (1382-86), and of a carlino and cavallo of 
Charles VIII. of France (1495). On tne latter occur the letters S.M.P.E. 
for Sidmo mihi patria est a quotation from Ovid's Tristia. 

Susa (Segusio, or Sectisia), Sardinian States, perhaps the earliest mint 
of the Counts of Savoy. There is a danaro of Umberto II., 1091-1103, 
struck here. It has on rev. Secvsia. But comp. Acqtiabella. Under 
Amadeus IV. (1233-53) Susa ceased to appear on coins, and Sabavdia is 

Sutri, Papal States, conjectured to be the Flavia Sidrio mentioned 
on coins of Desiderius, King of the Lombards, 755-74. More usually 
known as Colonia Sutrina. 

Swinemunde, Prussia, in the prov. of Stettin, a mint of the earlier 
Kings of Hungary. There are small billon pieces (deniers) of Louis II., 
struck there in 1517, 1520, and 1523. 

Swiss Mints (minor) : Appenzell, Diessenhofen, Disentis, Engelberg, 
Fishingen, Glarus, Gotteshausbund, Graubiindten, Haldenstein-Schauen- 
stein, Kyburg, Laufenburg, Muri, Nyon, Peterlingen (abbey, 962), Prun- 
trut, Rheinau, Sitten, Solothurn, Stein, Tessin or Ticino, Thurgau, 

Swiss Mints. See Blanchet, ii. 962-67. 

Systerbeck, a Russian mint under Catherine II. 

1 66 The Coins of Europe 

Tagliacozzo, Naples, a mint of Pope Alexander V., 1410. There are 
two bolognini with Talia. Coza. on rev. 

Tarascon (see Marseilles], Provence, the mint of Rend and Charles 
III. d'Anjou, 1434-86, Counts of Provence. In 1483 the Archbp. of 
Aries gave leave to the mint-master here to strike his money at Mont- 
dragon in consideration of an annual payment of 20 ecus d'or of the 
money of the King of France, which tends to shew that the mint at T. 
had then closed. The m.m. is a tarasque, a nondescript monster, which 
used to be carried in procession in the streets here and elsewhere on 
certain occasions. 

Tarbes, Hautes- Pyrenees, a mint of Edward I. of England as Duke 
of Aquitaine. 

Tarragona, a Visigothic mint (Tarraco, Tiraone), and one of the 
Spanish kings. 

Tassarolo, a seigniorial fief of the Spinola family (1604-90), and the 
probable place of origin of certain coins, some with portraits, including a 
tallero with its divisions, a scudo, a luigino, a piece of 8 bolognini, etc., 
all very rare. The coinage is connected with the duchy of Massa- 
Carrara ; one or two examples bear the portrait and titles of Alberico II., 

Teano, a Lombard mint, i ith c. 

Termini, a mint of the King of Naples, 1515-21. 

Termondc, or Dendermonde, E. Flanders, a mint mentioned in a 
document of 1 108. Guillaume de Juliers, grandson of Gui de Dampierre, 
Count of Flanders, struck money here in 1302-3. It remained a mint of 
the Counts of F. and of the Dukes of Burgundy ; and by virtue of a 
concession from Philip le Bon (1419-67) the local Brotherhood of Our 
Lady struck money here. 

Terncs, Les, Auvergne, present dept. of Cantal, probably the place 
intended on a coin of Jean de Chatillon, Comte de Saint-Pol, 1317-44, 
with the legend lohanes. Comes. Santi. Pavli. E. T. Nois. 

Terni, States of the Church, the place of origin of billon pieces of 8 
and 6 baiocchi, 1797, money of necessity in character. Comp. Perugia. 

Teschcn, or Teck, Styria, a mint of the Dukes of Teschen (1529-79), of 
the bishops, of the town, and of the Emperors Ferdinand III. and IV. as 
Kings of Bohemia. There is a thaler of Wenzslaw Adam, Duke of Teck, 
with Wcncesla D.G. Dvx Tesine. 1560. 

Thann, Alsace, a mint of the Landgraves of Alsace, I5th c., of the 
municipality down to 1505, and for a short time reopened in 1623. 
Moneta Nova Tannensis. There are gros of the town with S. Theo- 
baldus episcopus. 

Thicrrens, near Moudon, Cant, of Vaud, Switzerland, the place of 
coinage of certain contrefai^ons of the money of the Bishop of Lausanne 
by Louis, Seigneur de Vaud, a cadet of the house of Savoy. 

Thionville, France, Dept. of Moselle, a mint of Henri II. le Blondel, 
Count of Luxemburgh (1246-81). 

Thionville, Luxemburgh, one of the earliest known mints of the 
Counts of L., 1 2th c. Tionville. 

Thorn, Brabant, the place of coinage of an important conventual 
establishment under the government of abbesses, 1 5th- 1 7th c. There is 
a gold angel of Margaret of Brederode, abbess, 1531-71, and liards, 
double liards, halves and quarters, belonging to this institution. Some 
bear the name of the Abbess Anna de la Marck, who, like the preceding, 
was the member of an illustrious seigniorial family. The Abbess 

Catalogue of European Mints 167 

Margaret copied the Goslar (Hanover) type with the Virgin and Child 
on obv. and a lion on rev., on a gros or groot reading Moneta Nova 
Arge : D : M : B . The same abbess struck a \ daalder of a novel type 
with Denarivs Nows Qvindecim Stvfferorvm, of which there seem to be 
two varieties. 

Thorn, Prussian Poland, a mint of the Teutonic Order I3th-i5th c. 
In 1436 the Grand Master surrendered the right of coinage to the town 
for half the profits. Thorn was also a mint of the independent Kings of 
Poland, whose money bears Moneta Dvcatvs Prvcie, or the double 
Jagellon cross and the double Prussian eagle. This was in the i6th c. 
the common Polish mint for the whole of Prussia under that Crown. 
There was copper currency (solidi) down to about 1770. A solidus of 
1761 has the crowned monogram of Augustus III. of Poland, and on rev. 
Solid. Civitat. Thorun. There is a rare solidus belonging here of John 
Casimir, King of Poland (1648-68), for East Prussia. 

Thonars, Poitou, a viscounty in the Middle Ages, whose representa- 
tive intermarried with the house of Mauleon. In 1226 Henry III. of 
England granted to Hugues I., V. de T., the right of striking money of 
the Poitevine standard to be current throughout the province with his 

Tiel) a mint of the Emperors of the West of the Hohenstaufen 
dynasty. Deniers of Henry II. (1002-24) a d of Conrad II. (1024-39) 
were struck here. 

Tiftis, Georgia, an early Prussian mint. 

Tirlemont, Brabant, the source of mailles of the I3th c. with the 
paschal lamb. 

Tirnova, Bulgaria, possibly, with Sofia, the chief, if not only mint, of 
the principality since 1880. 

Tivoli, near Berne, the place of origin of a piece of 5 baiocchi 
(madonnina) of Pius VI., 1797. 

Todi, Papal States, an autonomous (i3th c.) and papal (1450) mint. 

Toledo, a Visigothic mint, and one of the Kings of Castile and Leon. 
I2th-I5th c. Alfonso VIII., 1158-88, struck here dinars with Arabic 
characters and his title as Emir of the Catholics, or Alf. There is a coin 
of Beatrice of Portugal, consort of John I., 1379-90, with her name and 
titles as Queen of Castile and Portugal. Joseph Buonaparte, King of 
Spain, 1 808-10, employed this mint. Toleto, T.O., or Q. 

Tongres, prov. of Liege, a mint of Jean d'Arkel, Bishop of Liege, and 
Due de Bouillon, 1364-78. 

Tonnerre. See Chateattbclin, Orgelet, etc. 

Torgau, Prussian Saxony, a mint of the Dukes of Saxony of the 
Ernestine branch, i6th c. 

Torriglia, possibly a place of coinage of the Lomellini family, I7th c. 
There are luigini of Violante Doria Lomellini, Contessa di Lomellini 
(1665-67), supposed to belong here. 

Tortona, Piedmont, an imperial mint, 1 2th- 1 3th c. ; a grosso and ^ 
grosso have on obv. IWirator Fr., and on rev. Terdona. This place was 
at one time within the territory of the Dukes of Milan. 

Toul, France, Dept. of Meurthe, a mint of the Kings of Austrasia 
(6th-8th c.), of the Carlovingian line of kings, and of the bishops of the 
See, io-i4th c. It is possible that a copper coin of Jean d'Huhlhuizen of 
the I3th or I4th c., described by Schulman, Cat. xv. 316, is part of 
this episcopal series. It is clearly not a seigniorial piece. A curious 
denier of Otho (956-62) has the name of the town written from right to 

1 68 The Coins of Europe 

left, OLL VT. Other forms are Vrbs TV///, Tvllo Civls, Tvllensis, etc., 
but the place first appears under the name of Levcha Civitas. The 
coinage of this See is poorly and carelessly executed, and the earliest 
productions are degenerate copies of Carlovingian types. 

Toulon, a seat of a special unauthorised coinage, during the confusion 
in France about 1589, by the Admiral Bertrand de Nogaret, who also 
struck money pieces of 6 blanques at Sisteron or Forcalquier. 

Toulouse, one of the chief cities of the kingdom of the Visigoths, a 
Merovingian and Carlovingian mint, one of the Bishops and the Counts 
of T., of whom the latter seem to have usurped the coinage, perhaps 
with rights reserved to the See, and of the Kings of France of the Valois 
and Bourbon dynasties. It was also the centre of the system of mone- 
tary weights for a lii>ra and its parts, etc., long prevalent in the South of 
France as far as the Pyrenees, and of which the precise history is 
scarcely yet fully understood. Some of these poids were clearly nothing 
more ; but the livra of Toulouse, Bordeaux, etc., appears to have belonged 
to a different category. The most singular feature about it and its 
divisions is that they are dated. 

Tournai, a bishopric given with that of Noyon, from 531 to 1146, to 
the Abbey of Saint Medard at Soissons, founded by Sigebert, King of 
Austrasia. No remains of any episcopal or other money of that period 
have come down to us ; but on the coinage of the i2th c. the prelates of 
both Sees bear a double crozier in token of the ancient union or alliance. 
The Bishops of Noyon also used the mint here. At a later period there 
are coins of the Counts of Flanders, the Kings of France (from Philip III.) 
and Spain, and of Albert and Isabella after the cession of Brabant to 
Austria. In 1306 T. was one of the eight royal mints of France. There 
are siege-pieces of 1521, 1581, and 1709. 

Tournus, Saone-et- Loire, the seat of an abbatial mint from 889 by 
virtue of a concession by Eudes, King of France, confirmed by his suc- 
cessors. The earliest coins signify that they were struck by the permis- 
sion of Lothaire, and cannot be older than 955. Some of the pieces bear 
Caput Regis. 

Tours, a Carlovingian mint and, during the early Capetian period 
under Hugues Capet and his immediate successors, a place of great 
monetary importance. The Abbey of Saint Martin was a celebrated seat 
of coinage, and laid the foundation of the Tournois standards, which 
preceded that of Paris established under Philip Augustus, but was re- 
tained and employed by him in all the coinage outside the regal precincts 
or le sermcnt de France. Louis IX., however, was the first to introduce 
the gros tournois, and to place the French currency generally on a sounder 
and more practical basis. A signal movement such as that at Tours, 
even before the time of Louis IX., inevitably exercised a powerful influ- 
ence on all sides, and affected the coinage of Champagne and other 
adjacent provinces, as it eventually did, where the striking type of the 
gros appeared, that of many parts of Europe. The earlier French 
kings employed this mint for the provinces beyond the Loire, and 
distinguished their money from that of the abbey by the simple legend 
Tvronvs Civfs. Thibault le Tricheur, Count of Tours, about 950, also 
used it. 

Transylvania* Minis. See Blanchet, ii. 181. 

Trau, Dalmatia, a seat of Venetian colonial coinage. A bagattino 
has on obv. S. Lavrentivs N.M., and on the rev. Sanctvs 
Marcvs Venet., with the facing lion. 

Catalogue of European Mints 169 

Tregui'rc, Cotes du Nord, a mint of Charles de Chatillon or Blois, a 
competitor in 1341 for the duchy of Brittany by reason of his marriage 
with the niece of Duke John III. 

Tresana, a place to which are referred certain coins in silver and 
bronze of the Malaspina family, i6th c. But the appropriation seems 
doubtful. Perhaps a place of coinage of the Lombard kings. 

Treves, or Trier, a mint of the Kings of Austrasia, 7th-8th c. (7V.), 
and the seat of an ecclesiastical and imperial coinage from the loth c., if 
not earlier. See Cat. Robert, 1886, Nos. 1863-64. 

Treviso, a mint of Charlemagne, of some of the later emperors, of the 
Count of Goritz, and of Venice. The reverse of a danaro of Charlemagne 
reads Tarvis. The Count of Goritz (1319-23) struck the aquilino and 
picciolo, which have Comes Gone., or Comes Gor., and on rev. Tarvisiu, 
or Tarvisivm. 

Trevoux, Les Dombes, Burgundy, originally a chateau which de- 
veloped into a town, a mint of the Sires de Thoire and Villars in the I2th 
c., and subsequently of the Dukes and Sires de Bourbon and Bourbon- 
Montpensier. Les Dombes or Dombes was united to the Crown in 
1527 ; but the coinage was resumed, and continued till the closing years 
of the 1 7th c. ; the latest piece which we have seen is one of 4 sols of 
Anne Marie Louise d'Orleans, 1665. The Due de Maine, the last 
beneficiary of the mint, renounced it under unsatisfactory circumstances, 
in having fabricated money in imitation of regal types of a lower standard 
to enhance the commercial advantage. At an earlier stage the coins of 
Dombes, of which there is an extensive and important series in gold, 
silver, and billon including a gold piece of Jean II., 1459-75, weighing 
six times as much as an ordinary teston, and probably a piece de plaisir 
had attained great celebrity and were copied in many directions, even in 
Italy ; the \ dcu or piece of 5 sols, with the youthful portrait of Marie de 
Montpensier, is said to have been greatly used in foreign commerce, and 
to have been long at a premium in Turkey as a bijou or jewel, which they 
termed a timmin. There is a curious contrefaqon of a Venetian ducat 
struck here about 1620, which is said to have evoked a remonstrance 
from the Doge an involuntary tribute to the reputation of the mint. 

Trient, a seat of episcopal coinage from the I3th (perhaps i2th) to 
the 1 6th c. The most important piece in this series is a munt-medaille 
of Bernardt Clees, Bishop from 1524 to 1539. Rossi Cat, 1880, No. 4899. 
The mint closed in 1776. There is a proof in silver of the last gold sequin 
struck there. 

Trieste, an episcopal mint, 1 2th- 1 4th c. The bishops also struck 
money in the I3th c. at the Castle of Pastorium. Cat. Rossi, 1880, No. 
495, places under this head a piece belonging to Trient. 

Troyes, in Champagne, a mint of the Counts of Champagne. A 
denier of Henry II., Count from 1 180 to 1 197, belongs here. Also of the 
League, 1586, Louis XIV. and XV. A \ louis of the former, 1694, and a 
hard of the latter, were struck at T. Trecasi Civi. 

Truxillo, Spain, prov. of Ca$eres, the place of origin of a peseta of 
Ferdinand VI L, 1808, struck as a proclamation of his authority, with 
Proda. en la C. de Trvxillo Rno. de Guat. 

Tiingen or Thiengen, duchy of Baden, formerly in the landgraviat 
of Kletgau or Kleggau, a fief successively of the Sees of St. Blasien and 
Constanz, and of the Barons von Kreukingen, and perhaps a mint of all 
these lords, but at present known only as the place of coinage of certain 

1 70 The Coins of Europe 

bracteates of the i4th c., with T|, attributed to the contemporary 

Seigneurs of Kreukingen. 

Tunsberg, a Norwegian mint under Magnus III., 1093-1103. 

Turennc, a mint of the Vicomtes de T. from the nth to the I4th c. 
Their money was current in the dioceses of Cahors, Limoges, and Peri- 
gueux. In 1263 the V. did homage to Henry II. of England for his 
chateaux, his fiefs, and his mint (pro monctd sud et jure cudendi cam). 
Raimundus De Turena, R. Vicecomes and Tiircnne, with a cross canton- 
ing E\eaulicu\ etc. The earliest known coins are of Raimond I., 
1091-1 122. 

Turin, the possible place of coinage of the small bracteates of Lom- 
bard fabric discovered in the vicinity, with coins of Charlemagne and 
Desiderius. A mint of some of the rulers of Savoy. There are coins of 
Filippo (1297-1334) and of Ludovico, Prince of Achaia (1402-18 : Torim>s 
Cn'fs), as well as of the Piedmontese Republic, 1798-99 ; of a gold 
2o-franc piece struck by Bonaparte in commemoration of the Battle of 
Marengo, I4th June 1800, with IJ Italic dclivrcc a Marengo ; of a 5-franc 
piece of Napoldon, 1811 ; and of the more recent sovereigns of Sardinia 
and Italy. 

Turr, an early Russian mint. 

Udinc, a mint of the patriarchs of Aquileia, I4th c. 

Ulm, or Uberlingcn, Bavaria, a royal and imperial mint from a very 
early date ; but it does not appear to have produced anything but hellers 
and schillings till 1546, when we find a dated thaler. In 1552 Charles V. 
conceded the right to coin gold and silver. The ancient hellers bear 
a V. During the Thirty Years' War Ulm issued a regiments thaler in 
1622, and during a siege by the Imperialists in 1704 a florin and a piece 
of 21 florins in gold and a gulden in silver. The mint is said to have 
been closed in 1773, of which date there is a kreutzer of thick fabric. 
Comp. Kcmptcn. 

Unna, Prussia, circle of Hamm, a mint of the Counts de la Mark. 
Vnncus or Vnnts. 

Urbano, in the Bolognese territory, the source of a siege-piece in lead 
of papal type, with F[orte] V[rbano], struck during a blockade by the 
Imperialists about 1706. 

Urbino, an imperial mint under the house of Hohenstaufen, and at a 
later period of the independent Dukes of Urbino, of the Montefeltro, 
Delia Rovere, and Medici families. See a note in Cat. Rossi, No. 3193, as 
to the doubtless improper ascription of a quattrino of Julius II. with the 
Delia Rovere arms to this place. The celebrated Lorenzo de' Medici, called 
the Magnificent, was Duke of Urbino from 1516 to 1519. Armand men- 
tions Paolo di Ragusa, Clemente di Urbino, and Francesco Martini as 
artists at U. about this date. It is believed that the coins of the I5th 
and 1 6th c., bearing the names of Castel Durante and Fossombrone, 
were really struck at Urbino itself. Clement XL, 1700-21, struck a mezzo 
scudo here in 1707. 

Uri, the place of a local coinage of uncertain antiquity ; the first 
concession was in 1424. There was a convention between U., Schwyz, 
and Unterwalden in the i6th c. ; but coins with the separate marks of 
Uri and Unterwalden are also found for that period. Gold pistoles of 
the St. Martin type were struck here. See one figured in Cat. Robert, 
1886, No. 2174. Vranie. 

Utrecht, a mint of the Merovingian era, of the ancient Bishops of the 

Catalogue of European Mints 1 7 1 

diocese, and of the provincial Government during the republican period. 
The same Merovingian moneyer, Adalbertus, who worked at Durstede 
and elsewhere, has his name on coins belonging to this place. During 
the 1 8th c. Utrecht was one of the mints for the Batavian Republic and 
the Dutch Indies. In 1812-13, Napoleon I. struck pieces of 20 francs, i 
fr., and \ fr. ; at that time Holland still formed part of the French Empire. 
Utrecht is the mint of the present kingdom of the Netherlands. There 
is a curious denarius of Otto van Gueldres (i3th c.), Bishop of U., as 
Advocate of the See, and another of Bishop Willem van Gueldres, with the 
bust of the Bishop on rev. and that of the Emperor Henry IV. (1056- 
1 106) on obv. A denier of Willem van Briig, 1054-76, presents on the rev. 
one of the earliest views of a city on a mediaeval coin. There is a small 
silver piece of PVederic of Baden, with Mon. Epi. Traicc. and the date / 
1498. Schulman, Cat. v. 131, cites an obole of an early bishop of U. 
struck in West Friesland. A botdrager or double groot of John of 
Virenburg, Bp., 1364-71, is termed Moneta de Zalandia. We may notice 
a rare leeuendaalder of 1578 with the shield supported by two lions, the 
original type of the denomination, and between 1519 and 1606 several 
unusual varieties of the daalder and \ daalder, and of the rose-noble and 
\, some of the former with the portrait of William the Silent ; also a pie- 
fort of the gold rijder of 1620 differing from the current issue, and weighing 
19 gr., and varieties of the double ducat in gold, 1683, 1706, 1742, etc. 

Use's. Dept. of Card, a seat of Carlovingian, if not of Merovingian, coin- 
age, and opened as an episcopal-capitular mint in the gth c. It appears 
that in the I2th (1145) the chapter alienated its share in part to the 
Seigneur d'Uzes. There is an obole of Bishop Raymond III., 1208-12, 
with Use on rev. 

Valence and Die, Dept. of Drome, two episcopal mints from 1157 to 
1456, when the seigniorial rights were ceded to the Crown. Valence was 
united to Die in 1276. Gros, \ gros, carlins, and deniers. The money 
of Die, before the union of the dioceses, reads Civitas Diensis ; that of 
Amede'e II. of Saluzzo, 1383-90, has A. De : Saluc. Administrator 
Ecclesiar. &* Comitat. D. Valenc. E. Dn. 

Valencia, a Visigothic mint, and one of the early Kings of Arragon, 
1 3th c. Valencie Maioricarvm. And of the Kings of Spain. V. 

Valenciennes, an occasional mint of Louis le Debonnaire, and of the 
Emperors of the West (i4th c.). See Cat. Robert, 1886, Nos. 31, 32. Two 
variant thalers of Louis of Bavaria (1314-47) were struck here. Also the 
place of coinage of some of the Counts of Hainault and of Flanders, and of 
the Dukes of Burgundy. Some of the money of Margaret of Constantin- 
ople (1244-80), and Jean d'Avesnes (1280-1304) of Hainault, belongs here. 
Under the later Counts it became an important mint, and from the time 
of Gtiillaume III., 1356-89, the sole one. In 1793 a piece of 3 livres in 
bell-metal was struck during the siege of the town by the Duke of 

Valetta, the mint of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem after their 
investiture by Charles V. in 1530 with the Island of Malta, and down to 
the close of the i8th c. There is a rare silver ingot struck as money of 
necessity during the siege of 1799. 

Valladolid, a place which appears under the initial V. on certain coins 
of the Counts of Urgel, I3th c., with Urgellensis, Comes Urgelli, etc. At 
a somewhat later period the bishops appear to have had some interest in 
the coinage, on which occurs a crozier. Low values only. 

172 The Coins of Europe 

Vannes, a mint of John I. , le Roux, 1237-86 ; of John IV., 1364-99 ; and 
of John V., 1399-1442, Dukes of Brittany. Veneten, or Urbs Venetensis. 

Varennes, a mint of the See of Verdun, and the place of origin of a 
\ gros of Cardinal Louis, Duke of Bar, with Semgros. Varen. 

Vasto, Abruzzi, a fief and perhaps mint of the Marquis Cesare d'Avalos, 
1706. Mar. Vasti. 

Vaud, or Waadt, a separate canton of Switzerland since the present c. 
The Savoyard deniers and other money struck within this territory from 
1273 to 1536 probably belong to Geneva or Lausanne ; some of them are 
marked with IV. The cantonal coinage dates only from the present c. 
A silver ecu of Louis XVI., 1792, is countermarked to pass for 40 batzen 
or 4 franken within this district. 

Vauvillcrs, Haute-Saone, the seat of a seigniorial mint, denounced by 
an edict of 1554 as the source of unlicensed imitations of the regal and 
imperial types ; the carolus of Besanc.on was copied. Chatelet in the 
Vosges was included in the charge. But there seems to have been an exten- 
sive coinage in all metals at the latter place. A denier of Gauthier de 
Beauffremont has Mo. Ar. Sup. Vvsis. Nicole 1 1. du Chastelet, 1525-62, 
struck t'cus an soldi and many other types with Nicolaus du Chastelet, 
or Nicol. A Castelleto Sup. Vusis, and Moneta Dni DC Vaui'illers. The 
Hard and double Hard were struck here. The known coinage seems to 
be limited to these two persons. 

Vendomc, originally belonging to the county of Anjou, and supposed 
to have been at one time an appanage of the See of Chartres, whose pre- 
lates were seigneurs of the Chateau of V. Reunited to the Crown in 
1712. In this town and district use was long made of the currencies of 
Tours and Angers, and the autonomous coinage cannot be referred to a 
date anterior to the middle of the I ith c. The Counts, afterwards Dukes, 
of V. did not place their name on the money till the I3th c. The earlier 
types are imitations of those of Chartres and Blois ; the later shew the 
influence of Tours. Vindocino Castro, Udon Caosto, or Vedome Castr. 
An obole, thought to indicate a monetary convention between the Count 
of V. and the Vicomte de Chateaudun in the I3th or i4th c., reads on 
obv. Idvni Castr., and on rev. Vidodnensis. The alliance was probably 
of some duration, as the crescent of C. appears on many of the ano\iymous 
coins of V. 

Venice, possibly the place of coinage of some of the numerous (twenty- 
four) varieties of danaro published by our valued and erudite correspond- 
ent Count Nicolo Papadopoli (whose numismatic labours are so widely 
known), and issued more or less under imperial authority between the 9th 
and 1 2th c., and from the latter date till the close of the Republic the 
seat of an autonomous mint. Pieces in all metals were struck here in 
1848, and it was an occasional mint of the Lombardo- Venetian kingdom. 

Venrade, Brabant, a mint belonging to the Heeren of Kessel. Sch., 
Cat. ix. 384. 

Venray, 21 m. N. of Ruremonde, a mint of the Dukes of Gueldres 
and Juliers, I5th c. A double groot of Raynald IV., Duke of Gueldres, 
1402-23, was struck here. It was for some time an active mint. 

Ventimiglia, Sardinian States, a seigniorial fief. Gio. Requesco, 
Count, 1725. 

Vercelli, a seat of autonomous coinage, i3th c., under imperial 
sanction, and a mint of the Dukes of Savoy, 1 6th- 1 7th c. Vcr., or V. 

Verdun, France, Dept. of Meuse, a somewhat prominent Merovingian 
mint, and subsequently one of the emperors from Louis le Ddbonnaire to 

Catalogue of European Mints 173 

Henry L'Oiseleur, and of the bishops from the loth to the I7th c. 
1633). The original concession to the See was from the Comtes de 
Verdun, of whom, however, no money is identified. Down to the middle 
of the nth c. the bishops added the imperial titles to their money (as 
the Counts indeed may have done before them, even withholding their 
own names). About the middle of the I3th c. there was perhaps the 
same sort of municipal jealousy as at Metz, and we hear of the episcopal 
currency of Toul being confined to the rural districts, and possibly it was 
struck out of the city. The early French regal types (gros tournois, 
denier, blanc a la queue, etc.) were imitated at V. A very fine grand ecu 
of Charles de Lorraine- Chaligny, Bp. of V., 1616-22, is figured in Cat. 
Robert, 1 148 ; this and other productions of the same reign are attributed 
to the engravers B[ailly] and G[ennetaire]. In the Merovingian pieces 
this place is indifferently described as Verduno, Vereduno, Virdun, 
Virdimo, Virdunum, Virdunis civitas, etc. Other mints of the See were 
Dieulouard, transferred about 1616 to Mangiennes, Hattonchatel, Dun, 
and Sampigny. Comp. Saint-Mihiel and Varennes* 

Vergagni, Genoese territory, a fief and perhaps mint of the Spinola 
family, iyth c. 

Verona, a mint of the Lombard kings, 7th-8th c. ; of the emperors, loth 
c. ; of an autonomous republic, 1 2th- 1 3th c. ; and of the successive rulers 
of that part of Lombardy, except that the Venetians do not appear to 
have struck money here. There are coins of the La Scala or Scaliger 
family, Lords of Verona (1262-1381) the grosso and the soldo, both in 

Vesteras, an early Swedish mint. Westear. 

Vevey, canton of Vaud, a Swiss mint under the Merovingian princes. 

Vezelise, Meurthe, formerly in Lorraine, and a mint of the Dukes of 
L. and Bar. Veseli. 

Vianen, 21 m. N. of Luxemburgh, a mint of the early Seigneurs of 
Brederode. We may call attention to a rare daalder of Heinrich van 
Brederode, with his bust to r., his gauntlets and plumed helmet in front 
of him. The legend (Nisi Doininvs Frvstra) is divided by the shields of 
Brederode, Vianen, and Mark. On the rev. is a quartered escutcheon 
with Mone>. No\ D 1 . Bred 1 . Lt. D\ Viari. There is a f thaler of Fried- 
rich Adolf, 1715, Count of Lippe and Seigneur of Vianen. 

Viborg, an early Dano-Swedish mint. Viber, Pibr. Probably the 
place of coinage of the bishops, I2th c., whose coins bear Wiberga or 
Kelil (St. Killian or Ketil). 

Vic, near Metz, a temporary mint of the Bishops of M. about 1556, 
while the right of coinage within the city was in the hands of Henry II. 
of France. The latter complained of the debased standard issued at 
V. Here Henri de Vernueil, Bishop of Metz from 1612, struck the last 
episcopal money of that diocese. 

Vicenza, the place of origin of an apparently autonomous aqtiilino 
with Vicencie on obv. and Civitas on rev. I3th c. 

Vich, or Ausonna ( Vicus Ausonice\ Cataluiia, probably an early Carlo- 
vingian place of coinage, and a mint of Wilfred II., Count of Barcelona, 
906-13, of which he left by will a third of the profits to the church here. 
There is an anonymous denier of one of the bishops with Episcopi Viet. 
and Santi Pctri. V. was also a Franco-Spanish mint during the French 
occupation of the province, 1642-48. 

Vienna (Wien\ a mint from the I2th c., and a place of coinage, 

1 74 The Coins of Europe 

chiefly for lower values, of the early Dukes and Arch-Dukes of Austria. 
The seat of the mint of the Austrian Empire since 1806. The earliest 
gold siege-piece is that struck here on the occasion of the blockade by 
the Turks in 1529. The archbishop coined a thaler at V., with the 
permission of the Emperor Joseph, in 1781. There is a superb one struck 
by the Numismatic Society of V. in 1888, in honour of Maria Theresa, in 
two varieties : one with a plain, the other with an inscribed, edge. 

Vienne, Dauphiny, formerly a place of great consideration and im- 
portance, and by the Council of 892 declared the metropolis of France. 
There was a Venetian settlement in Haute-Vienne in 977, and the quarter 
where the colonists fixed themselves was known as the Rue des Venicicns. 
The town of V. was both a Merovingian, a Carlovingian, and a Burgundian 
mint, as well as, at a somewhat later period, a local one, and a seat of 
coinage of the archbishops and dauphins. One of the archiepiscopal 
pieces has on obv. Vrbs Vienna, and on rev. Caput Gallic. There is a 
denier of the loth c. of municipal origin, having on obv. Vrbs Vienna and 
a monogram in centre, and on rev. S. Mai'rici-vs and a cross. Some 
pieces of the same period indicate a monetary convention between the 
primates and the Crown of Provence. 

Viennois, a district of France, in which formerly existed several mints 
employed by the Comtes d'Albon, I ith-i 5th c., namely : Sesana, or Sisena 
(1155), Avisans, Chaneuil, Veynes, Grenoble, Tronche (near Grenoble), 
Pisangon, Cremieu, Serve, and Romans. Humbert II. (1333-49) still 
used the mint authorised by Frederic Barbarossa at Sesana. 

Vierzon, Berri, a seigniorial mint from the I2th to the I5th c., when, 
after several changes, it was reunited to the Crown of France. 

Viesville, Hainault, a place of coinage of the ancient Counts of 
Namur, I3th c. 

Villa di Chicsa, a mint of Alfonso IV. and Pedro IV. of Arragon 

Ville-Franchc, a seat of the French coinage under Louis XIII. A 
double tournois of 1614 was struck there. 

Villeneuve. See Beaucaire and Satnt-Andr/. 

Vih'ordc, S. Brabant, near Brussels, a seigniorial mint in the Middle 
Ages, and one of those of the Dukes of Brabant. 

Vimy, Pas de Calais, a mint under Louis XIV. Liards of 1654 
with V. 

Visby, an early Danish mint. Visbycensis. 

Visd. See Wezet. 

Visigothic Mints. See Blanchet, ii. 271-72. Many are very doubtful. 

Viterbo, a place of coinage of certain pieces in silver and billon with 
Patrimoniv. Beati. Petri., and of others with the name of St. Laurentius, 
I2th-i3th c. It was a papal mint from 1303 to 1490, and Pius VI. struck 
bronze money here in 1796-97. The Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, 
when they left Rhodes in 1522, remained for some time at Viterbo and 
at Candia, and may have struck their money on the spot. 

Vitforia, near Parma, a supposed place of coinage of pieces with the 
name of Frederic II. and S. Victoris. about 1247. 

Viviers, Dept. of Ardeche, on the Rhone, the seat of an episcopal 
coinage from the I2th to the I4th c. It seems that in 1293 the mint was 
known as 1'Argentiere. In 1307 leave was given for the circulation of 
the money outside the diocese. Vivarii, or Vivariensis. Some pieces 
have the initial and title of the bishop. Low values only. 

Vlissingen. See Flushing. 

Catalogue of European Mints 175 

Vollenh'oom, Overijssel, the place of origin of a J groot of Jan van 
Diest, Bishop of Utrecht, 1322-41. 

Volterra, Tuscany, a seat of episcopal coinage, 1 3th- 1 4th c. Only 
pieces of low value with De. Volterra, or D. Vvlterra. 

Vroenhof. See Maestricht. 

Wadstena, or Wadstein, E. Gothland, the place of origin of a square 
4-mark piece struck by the Dukes of Finland and Sodermanland during 
the war with Eric XIV., 1568. 

Waelhem, near Malines, the mint of Philippe de Bourgogne during his 
administration of the duchy of Brabant for Jean IV. 

Walcheren, Holland. The French defenders struck a piece in lead 
in 1813 with Regiment de Valcheren during the siege by the English. 

Waldeck, W. Germany, probably the mint of the principality of 
Waldeck-Pyrmont. In Sch., xiv. 547, there is a remarkable gold ducat of 
Christian and Wolrath IV., 1616. There is a very fine thaler of 1813. 
There was probably a mint here in the beginning of the I3th c., if not 

Waldeck Mints (minor) : Arolsen (1732-1840), Corbach, I3th c. (Cvr- 
bekec, Corbeck, or Corbecia), Nieder-Wildungen. 

Walincourt, Hainault, now Dept. of Nord, the place of coinage of 
Guillaume I., Count of Hainault (1305-6), and of a gros of Jean, Seigneur 
de W., probably struck in 1306-7, when he received the authority from 
the Count, as the See of Cambrai promptly procured an injunction 
against the mint as being within that diocese. The gros above mentioned 
reads Johannes Dns. De Wai., and on rev. Moneta Nova Waullancort. 

Wangen, canton of Berne. See Kyburg. 

Waremme, prov. of Liege, a mint of Thibaut de Bar, Bishop of Liege, 

Warendorf, probably the mint of the copper money (kupferdreier] 
of the 1 6th- 1 7th c. bearing the name of the place. The earliest which we 
have seen is a 12 pf. of 1594 with Stadt Warendorp and a portcullis. 

Warsaw, formerly part of the kingdom of Poland, erected into a 
grand-duchy by Napoleon I. under the government of the King of Saxony, 
and now belonging to Russia ; a mint of which little seems to be known. 
A rare gold ducat of Frederic Augustus, King of Saxony, as Duke of 
Warsaw, 1812, reads Aurens Nummus Ducat. Varsov. The revolution- 
ary money of 1831 was struck out of Poland. 

Weerdt, Limbourg, 14 miles from Ruremonde, the chief mint of the 
Seigneurs of Homes, 1 3th c. Philip de Montmorency struck a silver piece 
here, copied from the type of the Bolognese lira, with Moneta Nova 
Argen. D\pmint\ I\n\ W\eerdt\. 

Weimar, Saxony, a grand-duchy formed in 1484. There is a series of 
thalers and other pieces from the i6th c. down to the latter end of the 
i8th c. There is a thaler of Friedrich Wilhelm and Johann, 1583, with 
their portraits, and thalers and \ thalers of Amalia, Regent of Saxe- 
Weimar and Eisenach, 1763. It is to this series and locality that we 
have to refer the curious thaler of Johann Ernst II. and his seven 
brothers with all their effigies (1605-20). Weimar was also a mint of the 
Counts of Orlamiinde. 

Weissenhorn, Bavaria, the place of origin of a gold florin of Anthony, 
Baron of Fugger (1530-60), with a quartered shield and Ant. Fvgger D. 
in Weissenhorn. There is a series of coins and medals of this great 
house in both its branches, from the i6th to the i8th c., struck either 

176 The Coins of Europe 

here or at Augsburg. At the latter place was published the well- 
known collection of portraits : Fuggerorum ct Fuggerarum Imagines, 
folio, 1593. 

Well, near Lidge, the possible place of coinage of Jan van Arendal 
and of the Seigneurs of Rheidt and Well (i5th c.). 

W els feil. See Laroche. 

Wendcn, Livonia, a mint of the Order of Livonia, who also struck 
money in gold and silver, sometimes in conjunction with others, at Riga 
and Revel. 

Werden and Helmstadt, Prussia, in the circle of Duisburg, an abbatial 
mint in the Middle Ages, and down to the i8th c. The schellings of 
Campen were copied here. A piece of 6 sous on the Dutch model of the 
Abbot Hugo d'Assindia is cited by Sch., xiv. 617. Comp. Ludinghausen. 

Werl, Prussian Westphalia, a mint of the Counts of Recklinghausen 
and of the See of Cologne. The latter money (in copper, 1602) bears the 
arms of the town a key on a cross. 

Wernigcrode, Prussian Saxony, a mint of the independent Counts, 
whose castle lies a little distance from the town, from the I3th to the 
1 8th c. The earliest issue was of bracteates. There is a convention- 
gulden of this place, 1 764. 

Wertheim, Baden, the place of coinage of pfennigen of silver struck 
by the Counts by virtue of an imperial licence granted in 1363, and of 
money of the Counts of Stolberg and of Loewenstein-Wertheim. Werthen. 

Wesel, a mint of the duchy of CleVes, I4th-i5th c. 

Wesscrn, Limbourg, a mint of the Seigneurs of Homes in the I3th c. 

Westphalian Mints (minor) : Alen, Anholt, Beckum, Eversberg, 
Halteven, Mark, Stadtberg, Stromberg, Tecklenburg, Telger, Vlotho, 
Vreden, Werne, Winterberg. 

Wezct, a mint of the Lords of Reckheim. Here the Netherland 
contrefa<^on of the Bolognese lira appears to have originated. Also a 
mint of the Bishops of Liege in the I2th c. We have a denier with 
Enirrdvs Ep., of which the identification is difficult. Some have sup- 
posed it to belong to Bishop Reginard (1025-39). Vioza, Vicsez, or We. 

Wied, Prussia, the ostensible place of origin of certain silver and 
copper money in the last and present century. It possesses copper mines 
and a silver finery. But the coins were probably struck at Berlin. 

Wicdenbrtick, Prussian Westphalia, probably the mint of the copper 
money (kupferdreier), bearing its name. 

Wielun, Poland, the place of coinage of money struck by the Duke 
of Oppeln, Governor of Poland and Red Russia, on behalf of Louis of 
Anjou, 1 3th c. Moneta Welv. Ct.; Moneta Rvssie. 

Wiesbaden, Nassau, a mint of the duchy of Nassau, I4th-I7th c. 

Wijk-bii-Dunrstedc, in the province of Utrecht. See Durstede. 

Wijniges, West Friesland, the seat of a mint for that province in 
1634. Schulman, xi. 91, cites an inedited variety of the gold ducat struck 

Wilna, probably the seat of the coinage of the Dukes of Courland, as 
well as of that of Lithuania before and after its annexation to Poland. 
The money struck by the Dukes in the i6th c. was on the model of the 
Polish currency emanating from Dantzic and Riga. 

Windisch, canton of Aargau, a Swiss mint under the Merovingian 
princes. Vindonissa. 

Winsum, W. Friesland, a mint of the Counts of W. F., nth c. 

Catalogue of European Mints 177 

Wismar, Mecklenburgh-Schwerin, a seat of coinage in all metals from 
the i/thc. ; but in recent times copper only seems to have been struck 
there. It was one of the mints in the 1 7th- 1 8th c. of the undivided duchy 
of Mecklenburgh. Moneta. Wismar. and on rev. Civitas. Magnop. The 
mint seems to have produced nothing after 1854. There is a rare piece 
representing a thaler and a half, without date, but about 1680, with a three- 
quarter figure of St. Laurence, holding the gridiron, a shield of arms in 
front of him, and the legend Fir ma Est in Domin .'. Spe s . Et Fid-vcia 
Nostra , and on the rev. the outer circle has a legend : Wismariam 
A Cvnctis Protege Christe Malts.'. The inner circle, embracing a 
quartered shield, reads Devs. Dat. Cvi. Vvlt. This coin was obligingly 
lent to us, with many others, by Messrs. Spink and Son of London. 
Comp. Schulman, Cat. xx. 1208. A gold ducat of Wismar, 1743, occurred 
at the Reinmann sale, 1891, No. 867. In 1715, during the siege by the 
allied Russians, Danes, Saxons, and Hanoverians, the town struck money 
of necessity for I, 4, 8, and 16 schillings. 

Wissembiirg, Alsace, an abbatial mint from 1275, and a municipal one 
under imperial sanction 1 5th- 1 7th c. The abbatial money bears Widen- 
fire [? the name of an abbot Wilfrid], the other Weissenbvrg. Am. 
Rhei. This is the place of origin of a very early and rare denier, 
described in Cat. Robert, 1886, No. 1791. Comp. also Nos. 1978, 

Wittenberg, a mint of the Electors of Saxony and of the town, I3th- 
i6th c. Shield with two swords and W. 

Woerden, Holland, the place of origin of a square piece of 4 stuivers 
in lead, struck during the siege by the Spaniards in 1575. 

Woerth-am-Sauer, Alsace, a mint of Lichtenberg, 1587-1632. 

Wolfenbiittel, Brunswick, the seat of a branch of the house of Bruns- 
wick, and the place of origin of a tolerably long series of coins. Money of 
necessity was struck here in 1627 by the commandant of the fortress. 

Wohlau or Wohlau, Silesia, the source of pfennigen of the I4th c. 
with a bull's head and IV. V. for Wulavia; there were pieces of 24 
kreutzer during the Thirty Years' War (1621-22). It was also a mint of 
the Counts and Dukes of Brieg. 

Workum,VJ. Friesland, a seat of local coinage, I4th c., with Wolderv. 
and an eagle and three fleurs-de-lis. 

Worms, Hesse Darmstadt, the place of origin of a denier of early 
fabric similar to those of Louis le Ddbonnaire of the temple type, and a 
mint of the Bishops of Worms from the gth c., as well as perhaps of the 
See of Treves. The most ancient denier of the bishops is one of Henry 
(1217-34). There is also civic or municipal money in gold and silver. 

Wurtembtt-rg Mints (minor) : Aalen, Argen, Bartenstein, Biberach, 
Brenz, Buchau, Buchhorn, Christophstal, Elwangen, Esslingen, Forchten- 
berg, Giengen, Gmiind, Gnadenthal, Goeppingen, Heilbronn, Helfenstein, 
Kirchberg, Koenigsegg, Langenargen, Langenburg, Limpurg, Mainhard, 
Marbach, Mergentheim, Montfort, Neckarssulm, Neuenstein, Oehringen, 
Ravensburg, Riedlingen, Rottenburg, Siilz, Tettnang, Tubingen, Unter- 
steinbach, Waldburg, Waldenburg, Waldsee, Wangen, Weickersheim, 
Weingarten, Weissenau, Woellwarth, or Wallworth. 

Wurtzburg, the mint of the bishops. Money of necessity has been 
repeatedly struck here. 

Xeres, a mint of the Almohades (516-668). 


178 The Coins of Europe 

Yennc, a mint of the Counts of Savoy, I4th c. 

Ypres (Ipra, or Ipre), the mint of Philippe d'Alsace, Gui de Dampierre, 
and others, Counts of Flanders after the acquisition of Artois. It appears 
that certain English nobles were struck in this locality, if not in the town 
itself, by a concession granted to Edward III. by the towns of Ghent, 
Bruges, and Ypres in 1345. The coin is said to have originated in a 
victory by Edward over the French in 1340 ofFSluijs. 

Yves, Namur, a mint of Gaucher, Count of Porcien (1312-22). 

Zacatccas, Mexico, one of the principal colonial mints of Spain in 
former times. It was still employed under the Spanish Bourbons in 
1821, and is said to be still in operation. 

Zamosc, Poland, the source of a silver coin of 2 zlote", struck in 1813, 
as money of necessity. 

Zantc, one of the places named on the Venetian copper gazzctte struck 
for the Ionian Isles under Venetian rule. 

Zara, Dalmatia, the place of origin of a series of siege-pieces in 
silver, the double-headed eagle crowned, between Zara, 1813, and on 
the other the value. There are pieces of 18 fr. 40 c., 9 fr. 20 c., and 4 fr. 
60 c., besides a countermarked baiocco of Pius VI. The Venetian money 
for Zara may have been struck here or at Venice itself. 

Zator, Galicia, formerly an independent duchy, for which we have a 
piece of 30 kreutzer of Maria Theresa of 1776, with Archid. Avs. Dvx 
Os-w. Zat. 

Zicgcnhain, Hesse, the mint of the local seigneurs in the I3th c., and 
subsequently of the Landgraves of Hesse. CygcnWga. 

Ziericzcc, the place of coinage of siege-money in tin for 20, 15, and 10 
stuivers, and for i stuiver, in 1575-76 during the Spanish siege. 

Zofingen, Switzerland, canton of Aargau, a place of independent can- 
tonal coinage by a concession of the Emperor Frederic II. in 1239. 
There are bracteates of the Counts of Froburg, I3th-I4th c., with Z O; 
other money down to the i8th c. 

Zolder, Limburg, the mint of Jan van Elteren, Seigneur of Zolder, 
Zonhoven, Vogelshanck, and Houthalen, and of his successor Henri van 
Bastogne, I4th c. The coins are billon, imitated from the Liege type, 
and read lohs. De Eltcren. Dns. De. Voge., or Moneta. Nova. Svlrens. 

Zonhovcn, Limburg, the place of coinage of the Archbp. of Cologne, 
Engelbert de la Marck, and of Henri de Bastogne, with Engelb. D. Mar. 
Dns. Son., and Her. DC. Bast. Dns. Sonvc. There are only deniers in 

Ziig, the place of origin of bracteates of late date with the arms of the 
canton and of coins of the I7th c. Tvgiensis. 

Zurich, a Merovingian and Carlovingian mint ; a place of coinage 
of Otho I. (Tvrcgvm, or Tvrec\ of the dukedom of Suabia, loth 
c., and the bishops ; and the source of a long and important series 
of numismatic productions in gold, silver, and billon, nearly down 
to the present time. In 1045 Henry III. accorded to the Abbess of 
Frauenmiinster the right of striking money here, and there are brac- 
teates of the 1 3th- 1 4th c. with a church, the bust of St. Felix, that 
of the Abbess, etc. The abbey ceded the right to the city in 1514. 
There are some interesting types of the thaler (including those with 
the three martyrs carrying their heads, and with a view of the city) 
and also of the gold currency. Pieces prior to the i8th c. are scarce. 
The dicken or \ thaler was imitated by the engraver of a double groat of 

Catalogue of European Mints 179 

Daventer. Zvrich, Zv. Reip. Tigvrina or Thvricensis, Moneta Tigurina. 
Among the rarer products of this mint may be cited a gold coin struck 
in the reign of Charles le Gros, with Mon. Nova Av. Thvricesis on obv., 
and on rev. Civitas Imperial ; a dicken of 1504, a thaler of 1512, of which 
there are varieties, and others of 1526, 1558, and 3-thaler klippe of 1559. 
All of these belong to the imperial epoch. The thaler and ^ thaler of 
1773 are also said to be uncommon, especially the latter. 

Zutphen, Gelderland, on the Yssel, the probable place of origin of a 
briquet of Charles le Temeraire, Duke of Burgundy, 1475, having as a 
mint-mark a lion running to left. Sch., xv. 200. Other pieces struck here 
in billon and copper occur. It was an occasional mint of the Spanish 
rulers. During the siege by the Spaniards in 1586 the town issued 3 
stuivers or sols in lead and copper. 

Zweibriiggen, Bavaria, formerly in the Palatinate, apparently the 
source of a thaler of 1623, with the titles of the Duke of Juliers, CleVes, 
Berg, Mark, Ravensperg, and Ravenstein. 

Zwolle, a mint at which convention-money was struck in the i6th c., 
prior to 1576, in pursuance of the treaty between it, Campen, and Daventer. 
Also an imperial and civic mint in the i6th and I7th c. A grosch of 

the German type was struck here in 1601. A silver coin of Zwolle, 
apparently money of necessity, struck on a square flan, bears on obv. 
Zwollae 96 [1596], and on rev. a shield with the legend Devs. Refvgivm 


The items marked * have been taken from Mr. Peter Whelan's Numismatic 
Dictionary (1856), as they stand, the writer not having met with them. He 
regards many as very doubtful, and others are almost certainly incorrect ; the 
latter category we have, as a rule, rejected. 

Abbaze, a special silver currency struck by Russia for Georgia, con- 
sisting of 5, i, and 2 abb. i8th c. 
*Abra, Polish silver, value is. 

Achtentwintig, a silver coin worth 28 stivers. There is also the half. 
1 7th c. W. Friesland, Emden, etc. There is an Italian imitation of the 
Emden type. See Sch. v. 582. 

Achtstuiverstuk, a piece of 8 stivers. i6th c. Brabant. There is 
also the tienstuiverstuk or 10 stivers, etc. 

Achtsehner. See Zeyner. 

Affonsim or grosso affonsim, the 4-dinheiro piece of Alfonso V. of 
Portugal, 1438-81. There is the half. 

Agnel. See Mouton and Lam. 

Albertin, a silver coin so called from Albert, Archduke of Austria, 
Governor of the Netherlands, in conjunction with his consort Isabella. 
The busts are either accollated or vis-a-vis. There is the double. 

Albertin, a gold coin of the same princes and type, with the two 
busts facing each other on the Spanish model. 

Albulo da S. Pietro, a billon coin of Lucca under republican rule, of 
the Of to type. The rev. has a full-length figure of St. Peter with the 

Albus, i.q., blanque, blanc, bianco, bianco, witpenning, a billon or plated 
coin, current in Germany and the Low Countries from the I5th c. A 
mannheimer gulden of 1608, of which there is the half, is described as 
being worth 26 albus. Apiece of two albus of Orange-Nassau, 1684, is 
cited by Schulman, Cat. v., No. 494. Comp. Raderalbus. The city of 
Cologne struck pieces of 4 and 8 albus. 

Alfonsino, a name by which the gold florin of Alfonso I., King of 
Arragon, Sicily, and Naples (1433-58), is supposed to have been known or 

Alfonso, the gold Spanish piece of 25 peseta struck under Alfonso 
XII., 1871, etc. 

*Allevure, Swedish copper, the lowest value. 

1 82 The Coins of Europe 

Alpha et Omega, an allegorical or figurative emblem, which presents 
itself on many mediaeval coins of bishops and secular rulers, and which, like 
other Western types, was imitated in a more or less degenerate form by 
the moneyers of Northern and Eastern Europe. See p. 61. 

Altininck, a Russian silver or billon piece of three kopecks struck 
under Peter the Great and his immediate successors. 

Alttnichlic, Turkish silver, value 35. 60 para. 

Ambrosino, a name of the silver Florentine grosso of the first republic 
(1250-1310), derived from the figure and name of the patron-saint on rev. 

Angelet, a gold coin belonging to the Anglo-Gallic series. The half- 
salute. Comp. Engels. 

Angevin, the term by which the money struck at Angers was known, 
as distinguished from that of Tours. One of the earliest modern coins 
with the denomination expressed is a double angevin of Charles de 
Valois, Count of Maine, with Anicvins. Dobles. on rev. 

Angcvinc, or double gros, a denomination used for the double gros in 
the diocese of Metz, 1 4th- 1 5th c. It was imitated at Verdun and in the 

Anglo-Gallic money, a very extensive series in gold, silver, and billon, 
struck by the Kings of England as sovereigns of France from Henry II. 
to Henry VI., by the Black Prince, and by the Regent Duke of Bedford. 

Angster, a Swiss denomination (cantons of Schwyz and Lucerne), igth 

Anselmino, a silver type of Mantua, i6th c., from the effigy and name 
of St. Anselm on rev. It seems to have been struck only under Vincenzo 
and Francesco IV. Gonzaga (1587-1612). 
*Aperbias, Maltese. 

Aquilino, a small silver coin struck at Padua during the republican 
epoch (1200-1300). It reads Padva Re&ia CIVITAS, and owes its name 
to the eagle significant of imperial suzerainty. The same denomination 
was struck at Treviso by the Count of Goritz (1319-1323). 

Aquilino, a silver coin of Genoa of the i4th or I5th c. with Fidclivm 
Imperii and an eagle with outstretched wings on obv., and on rev. 
lanve et District. Remedi Cat. 1884, No. 1447, 320 lire. 

Ardite, Spanish and Franco-Spanish currency of very low value, I7th 
c. The Spaniard used to say : " No vale un ardite." 

Arcndes groot. A Brabantine and Dutch coin of the I4thand follow- 
ing centuries. Schulman, Cat. v., No. 228, cites the quarter of Louis IV. 
of Loos. 

Arendeschclling,?*. Dutch and Flemish coin of the i4th, 1 5th, and i6th 
c. See Sch., Cat. 4, No. 297. There is the half. 

Arendesrijksdaaldcr, a Low Countries denomination, like the preced- 
ing, issued during the i6th c., probably from an Arensberg model. 
There is one with the titles of Rudolph II. (1576-1612). 

Argento, the name conferred on a silver coin struck by Pope Clement 
V. at Carpentras, near Avignon, early I4th c. Cat. Rossi, 1880, No. 793, 
and comp. No. 888, where a piece of similar appellation is cited as struck by 
the Prince of Castiglione (Francesco Gonzaga, 1593-1616). The latter 
seems to have been = ^ scudo d'oro. 

Armellino, a silver coin of Guidobaldo II., Duke of Urbino (1538-74), 
with an ermine to r. on obv. and the figure and name of St. Crescentius 
on rev. 

*Armoodi, Turkish gold. 

Arnaldus or Arnaldensis, a small billon coin of the See of Auch or 

Catalogue of European Denominations 183 

Agen in Aquitaine. Five a. were = 4 deniers tournois ; it corresponds to 
the pite or pougeoise. Agenensis. 

Arnoldusgulden, a copper weight of the type of the gold ducat of 
Arnould, Duke of Gueldres, 1423-73. Apparently of the period. 

Artesienne (Monnaie), the generic appellation bestowed in public acts, 
as it may have been in contemporary parlance, on the money of Artois, 
more especially the commercial currency of mailles, which were struck 
with local differences at nearly all the towns in this district, as well as at 
Antwerp, Brussels, etc. Comp. Maille. 

Artilitk=T, Italian grossetti, a silver coin of the republic of Ragusa. 
The word is said to be of Turkish origin. 

Asper or Aspar, a Turkish billon coin current in Asia Minor, in the 
time of Byron and Hobhouse, for about the 3oth part of a penny. In 
Barbary they used to have the ^ asper or bonrbe. 

Aspro, a silver coin of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem at 
Rhodes, I4th c. The Rhodian danaro. 

Assis, a silver coin = 6 kreutzer or a schilling in the old monetary 
systems of Basle and Strasburgh-in-Elsas. There were the a., the 
double, and the half. A double a. of Basle is dated 1624, and a. of the 
same city, 1695, 1697, and 1708. In 1795 a siege-piece of 72 a. was 
struck for Luxemburgh. The Strasburgh series of this type is a tolerably 
numerous one, and includes some well-executed pieces ; the three faurs- 
de-lis were introduced after the French occupation in 1681, in lieu of the 
ancient Us; but the legend still preserved for some time the word 

*Attine, Turkish silver, value 5d. 

Aubonne, a silver crown, with the half and quarter, of Lorraine, i8th 
c. It owed its name to M. d'Aubonne, the director of the mint from 
1724 to 1728, in which year he was succeeded by M. Masson. 

Augustale, a gold coin of Sicily under Henry VI. and Frederic II. 
(1194-1250), modelled on the ancient Roman aurei. It occurs with the 

portrait of Frederic II. (1197-1220). There is the half, which is the scarcer 
of the two. 

Ausbeutethaler, a silver mining thaler of Saxony, Brunswick- Luneburg, 
Brunswick- Wolfenbuttel, Anhalt-Bernberg, etc. Some of these pieces, 
more especially those of Brunswick, are very striking and very admirably 
executed. They often occur of a large module, and are marked with 
values from i^ to 4 thalers. There is a particularly fine one of 1657 for 
Brunswick- Luneburg, with the head of the Hanoverian Horse turned back. 

*Bache, Zurich, billon, value ifd. 

Baer-pfenning, a billon coin of St. Gall, Switzerland, i$th c., with the 
gold-collared bear rampant. 

Baetsner=& deniers, a small billon coin of Strasburgh-in-Elsas, the 

184 The Coins of Europe 

6th part of a dick-pfenning. There are also the drei baetzner or \ dick- 

Bagattino, bagai, a trifle, a small bronze coin of Venice, first struck in 
the earlier half of the I5th c., and largely employed for the colonies. 
The type varied according to circumstances. Nicolo Trono (1471-3) 
struck the double. The piece with Trono's name has the special interest 
and importance of possessing a portrait of the Doge, attributed by 
Armand to Antonello, and different from that on the lira Tron. The 
bagattino was the Venetian unit in copper. There is the half of some 
reigns. A bagattino of the I5th c. struck for Zara has a half-figure of St. 
Simeon and Simeon Ivsti's Prof eta. The remarkable bagattino of Nicolo 
Trono, 1471-1473, is conjecturally attributed to Luca Sesto or to Antonello, 
contemporary moneyers at Venice ; and the same origin is claimed for 
the lira Tron. Comp. Lira. 

Baioccbella, a small billon coin of Fano under papal government. 
There are several varieties. 

Baiocchetto, a small silver coin of the Farnesi, Dukes of Castro, i6th 
c., with the effigy and name of St. Savinus on rev. 

Baiocco, the papal centime. 100 baiocchi are=i scudo. In 1712 
Clement XI. issued a silver piece of 80 bai. During the revolutionary 
periods, 1796-99 and 1848-49, a very varied series of baiocchi was struck by 
Pius VI., Pius IX., the Roman republic, etc. That on circular flans in 
white metal is said to have been struck at Paris. 
*Bajoire, Genevese silver, value 45. 6d. 

Banco, a standard of currency, which virtually came into operation in 
the 1 6th c. when the Venetian banks were obliged to seek from the 
Government power to avert failure by reducing the weight of the gold 
ducat. In West Friesland, during the troubles with France, the autho- 
rities instituted an artificial monetary standard termed Bank-paiement or 
Bank-gelt, analogous to Banco. The latter expression constantly occurs 
on the copper coinage of the north of Europe, and seems to be employed 
as a mark of distinction from Courant. Schulman, xi. 95, cites a curious 
piece, which he describes as a proof in piedfort, belonging to the West 
Friesland series. It bears date 1677, and is inscribed with 6 Sittivers 
Bank Payement. It has been the practice of all countries for the Govern- 
ment or Crown to tamper with the current silver and copper coin, and 
profit by the difference in weight or alloy. English history has a fair 
share to shew under this head, and a late Jewish Chancellor of the 
Exchequer even went so far as to suggest an experiment on the gold by 
introducing a half-sovereign token worth 8s. Comp. Bursarienzeichen. 

Bano, the unit of the copper currency of the kingdom of Roumania. 
There are pieces of i bano ; 2, 5, and 10 bani. The bano = centime. 

Barbarin, from barbe, in reference to the bearded face of St. 
Martial, a billon coin of the Abbey of Saint-Martial, first struck at the 
commencement of the i2th c., and copied by the Vicomtes de Limoges. 
Obv. Scs. Marcial. Rev. Lemoricensis. Gui VI. V. de Limoges (1230-63) 
endeavoured to replace it by an altered type with his own name in 1263 ; 
and both were eventually replaced in the Viscomtd by an improved and 
varied coinage, copied from the royal or the Breton money. See 

Barbone, a silver coin of Lucca, i7th c., with the crowned and 
bearded Sanctus Vultus. 

Barbuda, a piece of 3 dinheiros, struck under Fernando I. of Portugal, 
1367-83, representing on obv. a profile of the king, crowned and visored, 

Catalogue of European Denominations 185 

and on rev. a cross surcharged with the besanted shield, and cantoned 
with four castles. The king bears on his shoulder a similar shield, and 
before and behind the bust occur L.P. in a monogram, surmounted by a 

Barile, a silver type used by Alexander de' Medici, first Duke of 
Florence, 1531-7. It has the figure of St. John the Baptist to r. 

Barrinba, a gold colonial coin of Portugal of low standard, struck 
for Mozambique, and reckoned as = 2^ meticaes or 66 cruzados de conta, 
each cr.= loo reis. There was the half, igth c. (1847-53). 

Bastido, bastioes, a silver denomination of the Portuguese Indies = 300 
reis, and struck at Goa under Sebastian about 1551-54, deriving its name 
from the figure of the cognominal saint on obv. 

Batz, a small plated or copper coin of Switzerland and Germany (Baden, 
Wiirtemburg, etc.), but (from the name) probably originating in Berne. 
There are pieces of from 2 to 48 batzen, the higher values being in fine 
silver. 10 batzen = I frank. 

Bazaruco, a billon Portuguese coin of the I7th c. (1617), apparently 
struck at Goa under the authority of the Viceroy of India, having on 
obv. F\ilippus\ II. R\ex~\ P\prtugalli<z\, and on rev. /[] H\pc\ S[fgno] 
V\inces :] = 60 reis. There were the 2.\ and the 5 b. pieces of similar fabric, 
but of variant type. The b. itself and the 2^ b. bore on obv. a St. Cathe- 
rine's wheel, and the latter was on that account termed a roda. 

Beard-money. See Borodoraia. 

Beguinette, the specific name of the maille blanche struck by Villaume 
de Nancy, moneyer to the Count of Bar, 1370-74. 

Beichlinger thaler, a denomination current in Poland. There is one 
of Augustus II., 1702. 

Berlinga, a silver toin of Filippo Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan 
(1412-47), with the duke on horseback galloping to r. ; on rev. St. 
Ambrosius seated. 

*Besklie ) Turkish silver, value 35. 2d. 

*Beslic or Bestic, Turkish silver, value 5 aspers, 3d. 

Bezzo or quattrino bianco, a small silver coin of Venice, somewhat 
similar to the older soldino. One of Andrea Gritti (1523-39) reads 
Andreas. Griti. Dvx., and on rev. is the lion. 

Bianchetto, a billon coin of the Marquisate of Monteferrato, under the 
Palaeologi (1380-1480), who also had the maglia (or maille) di bianchetto 
in bronze or copper. 

Btssolo, a billon piece of the Duchy of Milan under Gio. Maria Ettore 
and Giancarlo Visconti, 1402-12. It probably owed its name to the 
bisda or viper, the cognisance of the family, on the rev., the obv. being 
occupied by a bust of St. Ambrosius, the crosier in his r. hand, and the 
1. raised in the act of benediction. It does not seem to have been 
reissued. The word is a corrupt form or contraction of bisciolo. A 
descendant of the Dukes used to reside in the mansion now converted 
.into the Biscione Hotel at Milan. 

Bissona, a silver coin of Louis XII. of France, struck at Milan as 
Duke (1502-12). On obv. occurs : Lvdovicvs. D.G. Francor. Rex and 
the arms of France between two crowned vipers. 
*Blaffert, Cologne, a small coin. 
*Blamneer, Westphalia, money of account. 

Blanca, a plated coin of Castile and Leon, I5th c., corresponding to 
the French blanque, and German albus, witpenning, breite-grosschen, 
and silber-groschen. 

1 86 The Coins of Europe 

Blanque, and detni-blanque, and grand-blanquc, a billon coin of the 
French and Anglo-Gallic series. These coins continued in use till 1791. 
Sch., Cat. 4, No. 460, where is cited a piece of six blancs de Montagny. 
A grand-blanque Tournaisis was struck by Charles VII., 1422-61, for 
France, and a denier = two blanques or albi by Charles V. for the county 
of Holland. 

Blutzger, an episcopal type formerly current in the Swiss cantons of 
Orisons, Coire, and Haldenstein. They are known of many years from 
1644 to 1842. They were also struck for the town of Coire or Chur. 

Bokmisch, a coin belonging to the former bishopric of Fulda, now 
part of Hesse-Cassel. 

Bolognino, a silver coin of Bologna from the autonomous republican 
period (nth c.) to the last century. There is the half as well as the double. 
Comp. Fcrrarino. 
*Bon-gros, Hesse-Cassel, silver, value 2d. 

Borodoraia, the popular name given to the Russian beard-money, of 
which there are existing specimens in copper of various dates, 1699, 
1705, 1725, etc. The obv. bears the Russian eagle and the date, the rev. 
a nose and mouth with the beard and moustache, with the legends dengui 
usiafi (money received), sborodi pochlina usiata (beard-tax received), or 
dague platchena (tax paid). This species of currency was really a token. 

Bossonaya, a billon coin of the ancient Counts of Barcelona. 

Botdrager, Holland, episcopal money of Utrecht, a type of the double 
groot or gros, silver, I4th c. There is the \ and ^, otherwise the groot 
and \ groot. 

Bourbe. See Asper. 

Bourbonnais, a type of the French denier under Louis VII. (1137-80), 
King of France, of which there were at least three varieties : the B. a la 
tete, the B. a la tete barbue, the B. i\ la main bdnissante, from the mints 
at Bourges and Mantes. 

Bourdelois, a variety of the French denier struck under Louis XI. 

Bourgeois, a term for the Toulouse denier of Philip le Hardi (1270- 
85). It was called the Bourgeois de la langue d'Oc or Languedoc. 

Bourgeois, a term applied to two or three kinds of billon currency 
under the prolific reign of Philip le Bel (1285-1344). We find the b. fort, 
the b. simple, and the maille bourgcoisc. The Dukes of Lorraine adopted 
it ; there is an inedited variety of Ferri IV. (1312-28) struck at Bruges ; 
and Bruges itself preserved the type and name under the Spanish rule, 
calling it the Burgensis Novus. 

Box-thaler, a coin formerly struck in several parts of Germany, and 
enclosing a series of pictures, sometimes not of a very conventional 
character. One of the posthumous thalers of Charles V. for Besangon, 
1660, is of this type. 

Bracteate, from Gr. ppdxciv, to crackle, or Latin bractea, metal foil, 
a peculiar uniface species of money current in N. Germany, Switzerland, 
the N. Netherlands, and Lombardy from a period of unknown antiquity 
in the middle ages down to the i6th c. It exists in gold, silver, and 
copper, of which the silver types are the commonest. It is nearly, if not 
quite, always anepigraphic (one of Pertarit, King of the Lombards, 671- 
686, struck at Pavia, has Per.}, and many specimens and types are of a 
very rudimentary style. Sometimes, however, the bracteate occurs with 
the appearance of having been the product of a carefully and artistically 
prepared die, and we have before us one of Mayence of quite an elaborate 

Catalogue of European Denominations 187 

pattern, though uninscribed and uniface. When we look at their flimsy 
and fragile texture, it becomes a source of surprise that such large 
numbers should have survived. The precise place and office of the 
bracteate in the extensive area over which it once circulated are not 
readily determined. It possessed scarcely any intrinsic value, nor was 
its current rate expressed ; and although it was light to excess, it was not 
portable without risk of injury even in the small wallets used in the 
middle ages as receptacles for specie carried on the person. It was cer- 
tainly not available for ornamental purposes. Yet that it was used in 
commerce, and even broken into halves and quarters, appears to be cer- 
tain. The purchasing power of such money was of course much greater 
in former times, and the rate at which it and its fractions were accepted 
was probably understood. In Bavaria a modification of this form of 
currency took place in the I2th c., retaining the flimsy fabric, but adding 
a rev. There are varieties of this species of coin. In one the obv. has 
a coiffed head, and the rev. an angel carrying a cross. The peculiar cur- 
rency of Mantua and Aquileia in the middle ages was a direct evolution 
from the bracteate. 

Braspenning, a copper penning or pfenning of the 1 5th c. Fricsland. 
Comp. Jager. 

Bravuda, a Portuguese denomination mentioned in official regulations 
belonging to the reign of Duarte I., 1433-38, and apparently = 3 dinheiros. 

Breite-groschcn, a term for a plated or billon groschen of Mansfeld, 

Briquet or Vnurijzer, and the half, a silver coin of the I5th c. current 
in Holland, and so called from the short thrusting sword (briquet} in the 
lion's claw. Schuhnan, Cat. v. 1883, cites a half vuurijzer of the I5th c. 
of one of the Bishops of Utrecht. 

Briquet, double. The double of the foregoing. 

Brod, a copper mining piece of Dortmund of the i8th c., is termed a 
Paderborner Brod. 

Bruit, a piece of four stuivers, current in the bishopric of Liege, 
1 6th c. 

Bryman, the double gros, I4th c., billon. Brabant. 

Bugue, a small silver coin of Metz in Lorraine, 1 5th- 1 6th c. There is 
the half. A remarkable series is described in Cat. Robert, 671-698. 

Bursarienzeichen, a copper piece of 3 pfenningen, 1608. Munster. 
*Bushe, Aix-la-Chapelle, value 4 hellers. 

Butken, a name given to the half-groot of Groningen, 1 5th- 1 6th c. A 
butken appears to have been = 2 plakken. 

Cadiere, a name given to the gold currency of Brittany and to a billon 
type struck under Charles VI. of France for Dauphiny. There is a cele- 
brated c. d'or of Anne of Brittany, 1498, the earliest French coin with a 
.date, where she styles herself Queen of France and Dux Britonum. This 
royal lady was naturally very proud of her Breton origin and rank. 
*Cagliaresco, Sardinian copper, value 6 to a soldo. 

Cagliarese, a copper coin of Cagliari, Sardinia, struck by the Kings of 
Spain as Kings of Sardinia, by the Emperor Charles VI., and by the 
Kings of Sardinia of the House of Savoy. There is also in copper a piece 
of 3 cagliaresi. 

*Calderilla, Spanish copper, the Cuarto, value 4 maravedis. 

Camillino, a silver denomination of Correggio, near Modena ; it 
derived its name from Camillo, Count of Correggio (1580-97). 

1 88 The Coins of Europe 

Canello. See Patacdo. 

Cantem, the Bulgarian centime. There are bronze pieces of 10 kantem, 
1 880 and 1887. 

Cantonal, the name engraved on the rev. of two silver Spanish coins 
of five peseta and ten reales struck at Cartagena in 1873 during the siege 
by the Centralists. 

*Capfllone, Modena, silver, value 3d. 
*Caragronch, mod. Greece, silver, value 55. 

Carambole, the e"cu de Flandre struck by Louis XIV. for 80 sols, with 
the quartered arms of France and Burgundy. There are several 
varieties : c. aux palmes, aux insignes, etc. 

Carlino, a small silver coin of Bologna under papal sway and of the 
Two Sicilies. A piece of 12 carlini = 5 lire. Also a coin of Vianen in the 
Netherlands, struck on the Italian model. The short-lived Neapolitan 
Republic struck a piastra of 20 carlini and two varieties of pieces of 6 

Carlino, a gold denomination of Carlo Emmanuele III., King of 
Sardinia (1730-73). The rev. bears the annunciation. 

Carlino, a copper as well as a silver denomination at Malta, i6th c. 

Carlino nuov>o, a gold coin of Sardinia, 1786-93 = ,4 : i6s. or 120 
francs. There was no subsequent issue of it ; but in later reigns we have 
nearly equivalent values under other names. 
*Carlo, Lombardy, silver, value 53. 

Carlovingian money, the name by which we generally understand the 
coinage of the Franco-German empire from the time of Pepin le Bref, 
A.D. 752, to the death of Louis V., A.D. 986. The mints at which this 
coinage took place are neither so numerous nor so doubtful as in the case 
of the Merovingian series, many of the names which we find in the earlier 
list present themselves in the later one. Pepin alone is shewn to have 
had 35 mints. M. Blanchet assigns to Charlemagne 82 ; and to this 
additions might be made. So it is with some of the other emperor- 
kings ; and it appears to be evident that the system of production was 
different from our own ; for we must recollect that the royal or im- 
perial money formed only part of the whole body of currency, and 
did not perhaps amount to nearly as much as the aggregate feudal 

Carnabo or Cornabo, a silver coin of the Marquisate of Monteferrato 
(i5th c.) and of the feudal lords of Desana of the Tizzone family (early 
i6th c.). 

Carolin, half, and quarter, gold coins of Wiirtemberg, i8th c., so called 
from Charles Alexander, Duke of Wiirtemberg. The same denomination 
existed in Sweden under Charles XII. (1697-1718) ; there were pieces of 
i and 2 caroliner. 
^Caroline, Swedish silver, value is. 6d. 

Carolus, a billon coin of Charles VIII. of France, of which there were 
3 or 4 varieties and the half ; the ordinary type, that for Dauphiny and 
that for Brittany. The piece was = 10 deniers tournois. 

Carolus gulden. Silver gulden of Charles V. struck for the Nether- 
lands, 1543-55. The same name was given to the piece struck by him or 
in his name at Besan^on, of which imitations were made at Vauvillers in 


*Castellano, Spanish gold, the ancient coin [? same as Castillon\. 
Castillon, Spanish gold, probably from bearing the arms of Castile. 
Catechismus or Glaubensthaler, a variety of 1668 in the Saxon series, 

Catalogue of European Denominations 189 

with portions of the catechism upon it, possibly designed for presentation 
to children. ' 

Cavallo, a copper coin struck by Ferdinand I., King of the Two 
Sicilies (1458-94), having a standing horse on the rev. It continued in 
circulation down to the igth c., and retained its old name even when the 
horse was replaced by other types. In 1781 it is said on a grano of 
Ferdinand IV. that it is = 12 cavalli. 
*Cavallucci, Naples. 

Cavalot, a silver or billon coin struck by Charles VIII. of France at 
Naples and Aquila in three varieties. 

Cavalotto, a small silver coin struck at Asti by Louis XII. of France 
during his occupation of the Milanese. 

Ceitil or Ceptil, early Portuguese copper currency, 1 5th- 1 6th c. = 6th 
of a copper real, w. 18 gr. Also a denomination in copper of the Bishops 
of Aquila in the Abruzzi in the i6th c. 

Cent, a Danish copper coin,- with its multiples in silver, struck for the 
Danish West Indies. 

Centesimo, a copper coin equal to the hundredth part of an Italian 

Centime, the looth part of the French franc of the latest type. The 

first centime was struck under the First Republic. 

Centime, the Spanish equivalent of the centime. It is the denomina- 
tion employed for home use and the colonies (Philippines, etc.). There 
is a piece of 10 centimes for the miniature republic of Andorra in the 

central Pyrenees, 1873. It was probably struck at Paris. The republic 
is now under French protection. 

Cervia, a silver coin of Massa-Carrara or Di Lunigiana, the princely 
fief of the Malaspina family. A piece of 4 cervie, 1610, which occurs in 
Cat. Remedi, 1884, No. 1752, appears to be an instance in which the 
denomination was independent of the type, which properly has a stag or 
hind on rev. and the motto Velocivs Ad Coelvm. See ibid. No. 1753. 

Chaise, a gold coin in the early French series, representing on the 
obv. the monarch seated on his throne or chair. Comp. Clinckaert. 

190 The Coins of Europe 

*Chclon, Polish billon. 

C/tiavarino, a copper or bronze coin of Frinco under the Mazzetti 
family (i6th-i7th c.), owing its name to the papal type of the keys and 

Chipotois, perhaps an alternative name for the \ obole of the Bishops 
of Auch or Agen in Aquitaine, otherwise known as an arnaldus, and = a 
denier tournois, less a fraction. 

*Choustack, Polish billon, value 2d. 

*Christian [Christiern], Danish gold, value i6s. 5d. 

Christiana Religio, a legend and (with the usually accompanying 
Temple) type introduced into European coinage by the moneyers of 
Louis le Ddbonnaire. The denarii with this distinctive feature were 
extensively copied both in Western and Eastern Europe, and acquired 
in some cases a very degraded form. The imperial money itself retained 
the symbol and motto during centuries ; there is a denarius or obolus of 
the Emperor Henry II., 1002-24, struck for Lucca, bearing the temple on 
a contracted scale without the Christiana Religio. The sacred edifice 

itself had been a constant feature in the pagan coinage, and the words 
were almost requisite to indicate a new cult. 
* Christine, Swedish silver, value is. 2d. 

Cinquantina, the piece of 50 reales in silver struck by Philip III. 
and IV. and Charles II. of Spain, with the value expressed on the 

Cinquina, = 5 grani, a silver denomination of the Knights of St. John 
at Malta and of other Italian states, i6th c. There is a very rare one of 
Pietro del Monte, Grand Master at Malta, 1568-72. Em. de Roban 
(1775-97) struck the moiety. 

CinquinliOi the Portuguese piece of 5 reis under John III. (1521-57). 

Clemmergulden, the term applied to a gold ducat of the Dukes of 
Gueldres, i5th c. There are several varieties. 

Clinckaert, \ clinckaert, and clinckaert, a gold coin, with its 
divisions, answering to the French chaise. 1 4th- 1 5th c. Holland. The 
earliest was probably that struck at Antwerp by the Emperor Louis IV. 

Cnapkoeck, the \ goudgulden or gold ducat of the Low Countries 
(Groningen, etc.) in the I5th and i6th c. 

Cob. See Duro. 
*Colon\n\ato, Spanish silver ; the Pillar Dollar is so called. 

Compagnon, a term applied to a type of the gros blanc struck under 
Jean le Bon of France (1364-80) ; the two sides divide the titles ; and on 
rev. is a castle surmounted by a Us. 

Conceic^do, a gold Portuguese coin = 4800 reis, struck by Joiio IV. 
(1640-56) in 1648, having the scriptural legend on rev., and on obv. a cross, 
of which one of the limbs is screened by a crowned shield. In the mint 

Catalogue of European Denominations 191 

at Lisbon is a pattern of one with the name of Pedro II.; it was perhaps 
ordered and withdrawn, as no such coin is known. 

Constantin, the name applied to the gold money of Louis Constantin 
De Rohan, Bishop of Strasburgh, i8th c. 

*Conto, Portuguese computation, 1000 millreis. 

Convention-money, a principle, analogous to that of certain states of 
ancient Greece, by which a currency was tolerated or recognised within 
a stipulated radius at a fixed standard. The practice does not seem to 
have come into vogue in the Low Countries till the I4th c. (see Drielander* 
Jager, Rozenbeker, and Vierlander). The earliest trace of this sort of 
treaty was, we believe, in the monetary arrangement in 1240 between 
the town of Lindau, Bavaria, the Bishop of Costanz, and others. This 
was long prior to that between John I., Count of Namur (1297-1331), the 
Count of Flanders, and the Duke of Gueldres ; and we are not to forget 
the somewhat later compact of Edward III. of England (1345) with the 
Emperor Louis of Bavaria and the Duke of Brabant at a time when the 
extension of English commerce and coinage rendered such facilities of 
peculiar importance to that country. There are very curious types of 
1479 for Daventer, Campen, and Groningen, and of 1488 for Daventer, 
Campen, and Zwolle ; the latter convention appears to have been still in 
force in 1588. A proof \ daalder on a square flan, and daalders of 1584 
and 1588, with the titles of the Emperor Rudolph II., were struck for the 
three towns in common. The majority of the German princes, both lay 
and ecclesiastical, used convention-money during the i8th and even 
igth c. 

Coquibus, a denomination in silver of the Bishops of Cambrai, I3th- 
I4th c., and also current in the diocese of Metz and in the Netherlands. 
The name is said to have been a popular sobriquet, occasioned by the 
eagle on the piece being mistaken by the common people for a cock a 
not improbable error, as that bird is frequently delineated on coins of all 
ages in such a manner as to be mistaken for a pigeon or a sparrow. 

Cornabo, a silver coin of the marquisate of Saluzzo, I5th-i6th c. 

Cornado, a billon coin of the ancient kingdom of Castile and Leon, 
1 3th c. 

Coroa de prata, a piece of 1000 reis, struck under Maria II. of Portugal 


Coronato, a silver coin of low standard of Ferdinand I. of Arragon, 
King of the Two Sicilies, 1458-94, so called from the legend : Coronatvs 
Qu\f\a Legitime Certavi. There are at least two types of this, and one of 
the following reign, that of Alfonso II., 1494-95. Of those of Ferdinand, 
one has on obv. the portrait, and on rev. a cross ; the other has on rev. 
St. George and the Dragon, and behind the bust on obv. T. for Trinacria. 
The Alfonso coin has the St. George reverse with the Z 1 ., and on the 
other side the ceremony of coronation as in the engraving. The type of 
the coronato struck by Ferdinand, probably the latest one, has the portrait 
on obv., and the St. George and Dragon on rev. Behind the bust occurs 
T. for Trinacria, as on some of the money of the Norman Kings of 

*Coronilla, Spanish gold. Vientin D'Oro, value 20 reals. 

Coronnat, a name officially applied, from a large crown in the field, 
to a type struck at Marseilles in and after 1186 by the Counts of Pro- 
vence, Kings of Arragon, and Counts of Toulouse. The piece, of which 
six went to the gros d'argent in 1230, occurs in a document of 1186 as 
Novus Regalis Coronatus, or Regalis Massilie Coronatus j it may probably 

1 92 The Coins of Europe 

have led to the introduction of the coronato into Sicily, though the legends 
and types differ. 

Cotale, a silver coin of Florence under the republic, with S. Joannes 
Batista, and the saint seated, on obv., and on rev. Florentia and the lily. 

Cotrim, a billon Portuguese coin of the i$th c. = 5 ceitis. 

Courant. See Species and Banco. 

Couronne, a term improperly applied to coins otherwise than of 
French origin, and in that series there is no such denomination, except 
the gold ecu a la couronne, first issued under Philip VI. (1328-50). 

Courtisson, a coin of Charles le Chauve, 840-75, noticed by Schulman, 
Cat. in, No. 345. 

Crabbelaer, the same as the Vlieger. A piece of four patards. 

Crazia, a billon denomination of Medicean Florence under Cosmo I. 
(1537-74). There is also the piece of 2 crazie or the doppia crazia. 
*Croat, Spanish silver. The gros d'argent of Arragon. 

Cromstcert, or Kromstaert, the Dutch groot or gros with the lion. 
1 5th c. Holland. 

Crosazzo, a Genoese silver coin, I7th c. The reverse has the usual 
Conrad titles, accompanied by a cross with four stars. There are the 
double and quadruple crosazzo, as well as the crosazzo di stampo largo, or 
the coin on a larger flan. See Remedi Cat., 1884, Nos. 1480-1517, for a 
probably unique series of crosazzi. No. 1480, a piece of 6 cr., weighing 
230 gr., brought 280 lire. 

*Cruchc, Swiss billon, value W. 

Cruzada and dobra cr., a gold denomination of Castile under Pedro I., 
1350-68, weighing (the cr.) 92^ gr., and of fine standard. The titles are 
on both sides : the obv. exhibiting the bust of the king crowned ; the rev. 
the arms of Castile and Leon. The m.m. is S- probably Saragossa. 
The cr. was = 75 reaes or reales in 1451, but the value fluctuated. It was 
one of the pieces admitted into circulation in Portugal. 

Cruzado, Crusatus, a gold Portuguese coin, so termed from the share 
borne by Alphonso V. (1438-81) in the Turkish Crusade. There is a 
variety designated the Calvario Cruzado. Philip II. of Spain, after his 
occupation of Portugal, issued a rare piece of four cruzados, of which 
there are at least two varieties. Those of Henry the Cardinal, 1578-80, 
are also rare. John, Prince Regent, 1799, afterward John VI., issued a 
cruzado of a new type, called the cruzado nuevo = 400 reis. Comp. Pinto. 

Cruzado, a silver coin of Portugal = 4 tostdes, or 400 reis, with the half. 
First struck under Antonio (1580), and again introduced after the restora- 
tion of independence by John IV. Pedro II. in 1688 had a cr. novo = 
480 reis, instead of 400, weight 347 gr. 

Cuartilla, a copper coin = j real, struck in 1860 for the Spanish 
colony of Chihuahua. 

Cuarto and double c., copper denominations of Spain under Ferdinand 
and Isabella (1476-1504), Joanna, Queen of Castile, her son Charles V., 
and the later monarchs of that country. The word is sometimes spelled 
Quarto, q.v. The most usual type bears the Castle and Lion on either 
side for Castile and Leon. Originally = j and \ real. 

Da Venti, da Sedici, da otto, da quattro, da due, a term employed at 
Venice and elsewhere in Italy to denote multiples of the mint according 
to the metal in the gold the ducat, in the copper the bagattino. The \ 
giustina maggiore is sometimes termed the Da Quaranta, the whole 
being = 160 soldi. 

Catalogue of European Denominations 193 

Dalar, the Polish form of thaler, first struck under Sigismund III., 
1587-1632, and = 30 groschen. 

Daler, a copper coin of fictive value in the Swedish series, 1715-19. 
There are pieces of this character struck in the lifetime of Charles XII. 
anonymously, the majority under the auspices of Baron Gorst, who ended 
by placing his head on one of them, and subsequently on the block. 
The daler with the baron's portrait, 1719, is scarce. 

Danaro, the Italian form of denier, and current in the Peninsula in 
various States or other centres with local modifications. At Venice 
alone, in the course of about 200 years, as many as 24 varieties of the 
coin were struck under imperial authority, or at least with the titular 
sanction of successive emperors. The danaro and its moiety continued 
to be the sole ordinary currency till the grosso was introduced. Multiples 
of the d. itself were struck, however, long after that period. As late as 
1755, Honore III. Grimaldi, Prince of Monaco, issued a piece of 8 
danari in copper. Comp. Denariits and Denier. 

Dauphin, grand and petit, two denominations in billon struck under 
Charles VII. of France for Dauphiny. The legend adds to the titles Et. 
Dalphs. Vienesis. 

Davidsharp, the gold florin or goudgulden struck by David of 
Burgundy, Bishop of Utrecht, 1455-96, with the effigy of St. David and 
his harp. There is the double florin of this type. 

Decime, a French revolutionary copper coin, of which several patterns 
exist, equal to 10 centimes. One was issued for Louis XVIII. at Stras- 
burgh in 1815. It was also struck in 1838 for Monaco, and in 1840 for 
France, as a pattern for a proposed new copper coinage under Louis 
Philippe. Comp. Dixain. 

Dei Gratia, a formula, which appears on the legends of mediaeval 
coins at least from the 9th c. Eudes, King of France, 887-98, styles 

himself Gratia Domini Rex. A gros tournois of Gui de Luxemburgh, 
Count of St. Pol, goes somewhat farther than usual, and completes the 
self-complacent assumption by reading on the obv. in an inner circle 
Gracia Domini Dei nri : Factvs Sum, which may, after all, refer to the 
fabrication of the coin. It was a phrase which originated in the politic 
alliance between Church and State, and which recommended itself to 
the secular authority as a strengthening influence and an unimpeachable 
sanction. Yet it never became general, and is frequently absent from 
the currencies of those princes who nominally, at all events, exercised a 
vicarious office under the Crown. 

Delia giustizia, a silver type of the Rep. of Lucca, 1 8th c., having on 
rev. Ivstitia. Et. Pax. 

Denar, the modern Serbian franc or lira = the Roumanian lev. Comp. 

Denaretto, a name given at Arezzo and elsewhere to the denaro or 
danaro of small module. It is virtually = obolo. 


194 The Coins of Europe 

Denarius, a name found on the silver pieces of Boleslav III. of 
Poland, 1102-39, and on some of those of Orange, I2th-I3th c., corre- 
sponding to the French denier. It is also a term used in a generic sense 
on a silver piece of 30 stufer of Batenborg, i6th c. The obv. reads 
Dene? NOTJVS D. Batenb . Triginta Stvfer. It is described in the Rein- 
mann Cat., 1891-92, Part ii. 4966, as a thaler. Probably denarius was 
understood in the Netherlands and the German-speaking countries as the 
name of the French denier. A double denarius of Orange (Raymond III. 
or IV., 1314-93) reads : R. Dei. Gra. Princps., and on rev. Ai>r\isci\ 
Du\_plex~\ D\enarius\ III. G\rana\ XX. These pieces weigh in fact 23 

Denga (token), a small amorphous billon coin of the Dukes of Kief, 
Vladimir, and Muscovy, struck as early as the I5th c., if not before, at 
Kief and Novgorod, subsequently at Moscow down to 1704 or later ; and 
in copper, of a regular and larger module = \ kopeck piece. It is no 
longer current. 

Denier, denarius, danaro, dinheiro, dinero, dinar, etc., a silver billon 
and copper denomination current throughout Europe in and after the 
Middle Ages. It was an inheritance, and generally a declension, from 
the Roman coin. The Carlovingian deniers, even before the reform of 
the system under Charlemagne, were of good standard and workmanship, 

Early denier of Charlemagne. 

and so continued till the close of the 9th c. Schulman, iv. 399, cites a 
grand denier of Charles le Chauve struck for Luxemburgh. The French 
denier tournois in copper first appeared under Henry III. (1574-89), and 
was = \ Hard or double. As the value differed in various localities, the 
French acquired the habit, as with the Hard, of distinguishing their issues 
as Denier de France. Pieces of 3, 6, and 12 d. were struck from the time 
of Louis XIV. to the Revolution, but the weight was apt to fluctuate. In 
Lorraine, under Leopold I., 1690-1729, appeared billon pieces of 12, 15, 30, 
and 60 d. In Metz the denomination was equally adopted ; and there 
is a billon piece of early date called Quartus Denar. In Brunswick- 
Liineburgwe meet with a minute variety so termed, and said to be = I3th 
part of a mattier. The Strasburgh thaler contained 144 d. 
*Denushka, or Dengop. Russian copper, the half kopeck. 

Diamante, a silver type of Alfonso II., Duke of Ferrara, 1559-97, 
deriving its name from the diamond ring enclosing a flower on obv. 
There seems no reason for ascribing this name to the St. George type 
of the grosso of Ercole I., 1471-1505. 

Dicken, a Swiss silver coin of the ijjth, i6th, and I7th c., the fourth 
of a thaler. Perhaps so termed from its thicker fabric in comparison 
with other pieces. There is the half. A dicken of Berne, 1492, is the 
earliest which we have hitherto noticed. The type was imitated in the 

Catalogue of Eiiropean Denominations 195 

Dicken of Schaffhausen, 1633. 

Dickgroschen, the thick type of the grosschen. 

Dickpfenning, a billon coin of Strasburgh-in-Elsas, 1 7th- 1 8th c. = 6 
baetzner, and apparently = 48 deniers. 

Dickthalcr, the Austrian thaler of small and thick fabric, dated 1484, 
with the portrait of the Archduke Sigismund. There is the half of the 
same type. Later thalers of Mansfeld, etc., bear the same designation. 
There is a dickthaler of Schaumburg-Lippe, 1765. A double dickthaler 
of Munster, 1647, is cited by Sch., Cat. ix. 606. A most rare dickthaler 
of Hamburgh, 1505, is described as being a i^ markstiick. 

Dijonnois, the local term assigned to the Burgundian money struck at 

Dinar, pi. dinara, silver currency of the modern kingdom of Serbia or 
Servia. A dinar is = 100 para. There are pieces of 5, 2, and i dinar 
and 50 para in silver, and of 10 and 20 dinara in gold. 

Dinerillo, a small copper coin of Philip III. and IV. of Spain, and of 
Louis XIII. and XIV. of France, struck for Valencia, I7th c. It seems 
to be identical with the dineruelo, said by Whelan to be current in 

Dinero, the Spanish denier, struck for Navarre, I7th c., and the 
Balearic Isles, 1 7th- 1 8th c. The term was employed in Spain to signify 
money generally, like the French argent. 

Diiilieiro, the Portuguese denier. A copper coin of the 1 5th- 1 6th c. 
One. of John III. (1521-57) is offered by Schulman, Cat. xi. 774. But the 
piece was struck by Alfonso V. (1438-81). It was suggested, perhaps, by 
the copper currency of Castile and Leon under John II. 

Dinher, a gold coin of the Arab Emirs of Sicily, nth c. 

DioboloS) two oboloi. Currency of the modern kingdom of Greece 
= 10 lepta. 
* 'Ditto Bolo [? diobolo\ Ionian Islands, copper. 

Dixatn, a billon coin of the reign of Louis XII., equivalent to the 
Karolus of his predecessor. A piece struck in bell-metal in 1791 during 
the French Revolution = -fa of the Itvre, and the prototype of the decime. 

Dobla, a double scudo or piece = 16 silver lire of Genoa, I7th c. On 
the obv. the Virgin is crowned by two angels. 

Doblen^a, or duplo, a denomination of the ancient Counts of Barce- 

Dobler, a copper coin, double dinero, of Spain, struck for the Balearic 
Isles, 1 6th- 1 8th c. 

Doblon, the double escudo, a familiar Spanish gold coin = 5 silver 
piastre. There are the doblon de a cuatro and the d. de a ocho or onza 
= about ^3 : 45. Said to have been struck for Mexico. 

196 The Coins of Europe 

Doblon scncillo, in the old Spanish monetary system a phrase used to 
express the value of 60 reales, although no coin of such a denomination 
has ever existed. A sort of money of account, like the mark and the 
livre, or the Venetian lira di piccoli and /. di grossi. 

Doblone, a denomination applied to a pattern piece in bronze of 
Clement XI. (1700-21) with Doblone Doppio D'ltalia, the papal arms, 
and Clement XI. Pont Ma.r. 

Dobra, a gold Portuguese coin struck under Pedro I., 1357-67 = 82 
soldi, and weighing 92-3^ gr. the 5oth of the marc of gold. 

Dobra, a gold Portuguese coin, struck in and after 1732, and = 4 
escudos, or 6400 reis. There is the half and quarter. The d. was = 64 
tostoes of silver. 

Dobra de Banda, a gold Castilian coin of Juan I. [John of .Gaunt], 
1379-90=120 reaes, with the usual rev., and on obv. a shield bearing a 
transverse band. It was current in Portugal. 

Dobrao, dobrdcs, a gold Portuguese piece, originally worth 20,000 reis 
= about ^6': 125. English. There is the meo-dobrao or half. But the 
later dobrao was reduced to 12,800 reis. The dobrao appears to have been 
first coined under John V., and to have acquired the name of a Joamcse. 

Dodkin. See Suskin. 

Doppelschilling, a copper coin of Soest. A double schilling. 

Doppcl-thalcr, a double thaler. 

Doppia, a Venetian gold coin of the I7th c., equal to 12 lire or 2 gold 

Doppia, a gold coin of Mantua, 1 6th- 1 7th c. Equal to 2 gold scudi. 

Doppio grosso, or double groat, a silver denomination issued at 
Venice under Francesco Foscari (1423-57), with a half-length figure of 
St. Mark on rev. 

Doppionc, a gold coin struck by Louis XII. of France during his 
occupation of the Milanese (1500-12); a piece of 10 gold scudi or 5 
doppic, struck in 1641 by the Duke of Savoy during the siege of Coni. 
Comp. Coni. 

Donzain, a plated or billon French piece, the twelfth of the franc 
d' 1 argent under the Valois Kings, and the twelfth of the silver ecu d' argent 
under Louis XIII. and his successors. There are various types, as the 
douzain au croissant of Henry II. of France. The older type was also 
current in Burgundy under its autonomous Dukes. 

Drachma, a silver coin of the modern kingdom of Greece. 100 lepta 
= i drachma ; 5 lepta = i obolos. There are pieces of 5 and 2 drachmai, 
i drachma, and \ drachma or 50 lepta. 

Dreibatzner, a silver piece of 3 batzen current in the city of Stras- 

Dreier, a copper coin of Weidenbruck (i7th c.), Wurtzburg, etc. 

Dreilander, a type of gros and double gros current in three States. 
Comp. Vierlandcr and Snaphaan. 

Dreiling, a billon or copper coin of the Archbishopric of Treves (i5th 
c)., of Hamburg, and Schleswig-Holstein. There is a dreiling of Otto 
von Ziegenhain, Archbp. of Treves (1418-30). In Schleswig it was the 
half of the sechsling. 

Dreipolker (3-polker piece), a billon coin struck by the Margraves of 
Brandenburg for East Prussia, and by the Kings of Sweden for Poland. 
There are 3-polker pieces of Swedish origin struck at Riga of 1622, 1623, 
1624, and 1644. 
*Drittel, Mecklenburgh silver, value is. One-third of Rix dollar. 

. Catalogue of European Denominations 197 

Duarius, a piece of two kraicjars or kreutzers struck for Hungary, 
1 7th c. Base silver or plated. 

Ducat, dukaat, a gold denomination strictly applicable only to a very 
limited range, and probably of Venetian origin. It was introduced at 
Venice under the Doge Giovanni Dandolo (1280-9), an d underwent two 
or three changes of type. It is sometimes erroneously used in reference 

Gold ducat of Ferdinand II., 1636. 

to the German and Netherland series ; yet a few cases are known where 
a German coin is expressly so called. A double ducat of the Palatinate, 
struck by Frederic V., 1610-23, reads on rev. Moneta. Nova. Avrea. 
1612, and in an inner circle II. DV. CA. TI. Reinmann sale, 1891, No. 
646, 805 marks = .40 : 55. There is one of George III. for Hanover, 
1815, and of Stolberg, 1818. Of the Venetian ducat in gold, in a few of 
the later issues, there are the \ and the j ; the latter differs in having on 
the rev. the legend Ego Svm Lvx Mvn \di\ This numismatic term is also 
found in Lorraine in the i6th and I7th c. Charles III., Duke, 1545-1608, 
struck the single, double, and quadruple ducat. See Cat. Robert, 1886, Nos. 
1448-50, wherein the two latter are figured ; the quadruple is dated 1587. 
Charles IV. of Lorraine had a double ducat. During the revolutionary 
crisis of 1831,3 gold ducat was struck at Brussels for Poland. Comp. Grosz. 

Ducat, a silver denomination of Venice, first struck, it appears, under 
Girolamo Priuli (1559-67), with the \ and \. On the rev. we read 
Dvcatvs Venetvs, and 124 for the value 124 soldi. The silver ducat 
was also modified from time to time ; it was continued down to the close 
of the republic. 

Ducat, a silver coin of Walmoden-Gimborn, 1802. Equal in module 
and weight to an ordinary gulden. 

Ducatdo, a gold Portuguese coin, to which reference is made by the 
authorities as ordered by Sebastian (1557-78), when he was at Guada- 
lupe ; but no specimen is known. 

Ducaton, or Ducatoon, the \ and the double, a name conferred on the 
larger silver coinage of the Low Countries during the I7th and i8th c., 
and corresponding to the English crown and French grand ecu. It was 
also struck for the Dutch Indies with the special colonial mark below 
the shield. The ducaton and even the double are, for the most part, 
very common, the half much less so. A ducaton, double d., etc., were 
struck at Amsterdam in 1672-73, during the siege by the French, from the 
plate of the burghers. There is a very carefully engraved and struck d. 
of 1727 for W. Friesland by Knol, with a turnip as a m.m. 

Duetto, a billon coin of Lucca = 2 quattrini, with Otto Imperator and 
Lvca on obv., and S. Petrus and a standing figure of the saint on rev. 

Diiit, or Doit, a Dutch copper coin = 8th of a stuiver. There are in- 
numerable varieties, as well for the home currency as for the colonies. 

Duplone, the Swiss double ducat or florin =16 francs. It has been 

198 The Coins of Europe 

struck for several of the cantons and for the Confederation. In 1800 a 
piece of 32 francs a quadruple ducat or double duplone, was issued in 
the name of the latter. 

Duro, or Douro, the name of a silver piece = about 5 peseta, struck at 
Granada by Ferdinand VII., 1808, as money of necessity. Also part of 
the monetary system of Spain under the law of the 26th June 1864. 
Whelan says that the d. was known at Gibraltar as the Hard Dollar or Cob. 

Dtitgen, Dantzic silver, value 3 groschen. 

Dvougrivenik) the Russian 20-kopeck piece or double grivenik. 

*Ebroeer, Danish silver, value 14 skillings. The Justus Judex. [The 
type is also found in gold.] 

Ecu, the gold, old Fr. escu, a French coin struck under the Valois 
and earlier Bourbon kings, and presenting at different times several 
types, as the porc-tpic, a la couronne, au soleil, au bandeau, aux lunettes, 
etc. In 1625, during the suspension of the Tower mint at London, owing 
to the Plague, the French quart d^ecu or cardecu (as it is said to have been 
spelled) was made for a short time legal tender by proclamation. 

Ecu, the silver, a French coin first struck, with the half and other 
divisions, under Louis XIII., 1642. There are cssais of 1641. This 
belonged to the scheme for the general improvement of the coinage. 
The old franc d'' argent, however, continued to appear even so late as the 
reign of Louis XIV. The Spaniards term this denomination the escudo, 
the Italians the scudo, the Hollanders the schild, pi. schilden. 

Ecu du Parlcmcnt, the silver e"cu of Louis XIV. with the aged bust, 
curled peruke, and embroidered cravat, published about 1709. 

Engcls, the Teutonic Angel or Angelet, a Saxon denomination for a 
kipper or plated thaler of 40 groschen, with an angel as part of the type. 
There is an engel-groschen of Saxe-Weimar, 1567. In the Low Coun- 
tries, a gold piece of the same character was struck, and is generally 
described as an angelot. 

Engelsk, a Danish esterling = 3 penningen. Early I5th c. 

Engcnhoso, a gold Portuguese coin, first struck in or about 1561 by 
Sebastian (1557-78), and worth 500 reis. It is said to have been engraved 
by Joao Gongalves of Guimaraes, and is remarkable as the first piece in 
this series bearing a date, which occurs in the angles of the cross on rev., 
and as having the legend on that side in an inner circle. The novelty 
of the type suggested the name. Fernandes (Mem. 1856, p. 143) figures 
one of 1 563. 

Engroigne, a small coin of Burgundy. Blanchet. 

Ephraimitc, a byword for the pieces of 8 groschen struck at Berlin 
by Frederic the Great about 1759, from the name of one of the directors 
of the mint. 

Equipaga, the \ macuta or \i\ reis. Portuguese colonial currency. 

Erncstiis and half ernestus, a type of denier struck by Ernest of 
Bavaria, Count of Loos and Bishop of Lie"ge, 1582, with the imperial title 
on rev. 

Escalin, schelling, or schellinck, a silver or billon coin of various 
types struck during a lengthened period in the Low Countries, and = 3 
stuivers. There are the half and double. The roosschelling bears a 
floriated cross, the hoodjeschelling the stadtholder's bonnet or hood on a 
staff in the claw of a lion rampant. A third variety bears a ship, and a 
fourth (of Albert and Isabella, 1598-1621) a peacock. Comp. also Snap- 

Catalogue of European Denominations 199 

Escalin, a copper denomination struck by Russia during the period 'of 
occupation for Prussia, 1759-61. 

Escalin, a plated coin struck by the third French Republic for the 
colony of St. Domingo, with the emblem of Liberty on one side and the 
value on the other. 

Escndillo, a gold coin struck in Spain under Charles IV. (1793), an d 
probably = 10 reales. Isabella II. issued a similar piece in 1857, which 
was perhaps suggested by the French 5 francs in gold. 

Escudo, the Spanish equivalent for the Italian scudo and French fau, 
and the Spanish monetary basis under the law of 1864, which made 
it= 10 reales. Among the patterns struck in or about 1864 we meet with 
a piece of 4 reales or 40 cent 5 - de escudo ; there appears to have been 
a twofold method of computation or subdivision, by the escudo and real. 

Espadim, a Portuguese coin (i) in billon, (2) in gold of the I5th c., 
which owed its name to the hand grasping a sword on obv. in a tressure, 
with four besants in the curves. The rev. has the shield in a similar 
enclosure. The billon piece belongs to the reign of Alfonso V., the gold 
one to that of John II. They differ in type, and there are varieties, again, 
in the gold coin, which usually weighs from 58 to 65 gr. 

Esphera, (i) a gold Portuguese coin of fine standard, weight 32^ gr., 
struck under Emmanuel (1495-1521) for the colonies, with the half. An 
example of the latter, figured by Fernandes, has on obv. Mea, crowned, 
and on rev. a globe traversed by a band. (2) A silver P. coin, struck at 
Goa in the i6th c. 

Estenevant, a very early denomination for the money of Besancon, 
from the bust or effigy of St. Etienne or Estienne placed upon it. We 
find the livre estenevant mentioned in 1 507. The type was imitated by 
the Princes of Orange and the Seigneurs of Charenton ; and the money 
itself was long current in Burgundy and the Viennois. 

Etschkreutzer, the name given in the Tyrol to the kreutzer, which is 
said to have owed its origin to that region, and to have been current 
there in the I3th c. 

Fanain and half fanain of silver struck under Louis XIV. for Pondi- 
chery and the Isle de Bourbon, as well as, perhaps, for the other French 
colonies in the Indian Ocean. The f. of smaller module continued to be 
struck under Louis XV. and XVI.; the flan is usually too small for the 
die, owing possibly to the employment of that of the grand fanam for 
the more diminutive coin. 

Fanam, a copper coin known as the f. an cog, struck under Louis 
Philippe, 1836, for Pondichery. 

Pel, ,3. Moorish billon or base silver denomination belonging to the 
coinage of the Kings of Granada. Coins of irregular form, often de- 
noting where, if not at what date, they were struck. Comp. Granada in 
C. of Mints. 

Feldthaler,feldklippe, the German expressions for siege-pieces struck 
in the course of a campaign by the besiegers. 

Fennig. See Pfenning. 

Ferding, a silver coin struck at Riga and Revel in the i6th c., and be- 
longing to the currency of the Order of Livonia = \ thaler. Whelan adds 
that it was used as money of account at Libau, and as Russian currency. 

Ferrarino, a billon piece = \ bolognino, struck at Ferrara during the 
republican epoch with the sanction and name of the Emperor Frederic II. 

Pert (or Fort\ a small billon coin of Savoy, I4th c. = 4 pites or 2 

2oo The Coins of Europe 

oboles. The equivalent of the Savoyard denier. Originally 12, subse- 
quently 8 fert, made a grosso or gros, and 12 gros were reckoned to the 
florin de petit poids. 

Fert, the name apparently given to a gold coin of Louis, second Duke 
of Savoy (1440-65), from the motto over the shield one used by the family 
at least since the ijth c. The fiction as to the word representing the 
initial letters of a legend relevant to the defence of Rhodes by Count 
Amadeus IV. can no longer be entertained. See Mrs. Bury Palliser's 
Historic Devices, etc., 1870, p. 230. The motto, which is of course sig- 
nificant of fortitude or endurance, does not seem to have been employed 
after the i6th c. A silver scudo of Carlo II., 1504-53, exhibits a shield 
on the reverse, dividing the wordfe rt. 

Filippo, a name applied to the silver testone of Milan under the reign 
of Philip III. of Spain, and continued by his successors. There is the i, 
\, and \ of the later princes ; and Charles II. of Spain struck a \ filippo 
on a larger flan. 

Filippo, a gold coin of Milan under Spanish rule. Philip IV. struck 
the filippo and double filippo. On the reverse occurs Mcdiolani. 

Fiordaliso, a gold coin of the Two Sicilies under Joanna, Queen of 
Naples (1343-81). The obv. has her title as Queen of Sicily, Jerusalem, 
etc., and the field is strown with lilies. It is virtually the gigliato type, 
common to this region, in gold with certain differences. 

Flabbe, a piece of 4 stivers. The \ snaphaan, i6th and i;th c. Base 
silver. There is the double flabbe. Groningen, etc. 

Flindrich, a piece of 3 stivers or sous, struck for Jever and for East 
Friesland, i6th c. 

Flitter, an early copper coin of Lippe, Germany. Whelan adds that 
it was small copper of Brunswick, and that the word imports a spangle. 

Florette, a variety of the French gros struck under Charles VI. (1380- 
1422) = 20 deniers tournois or 16 d. parisis. The name arose from the 
three fleurs-de-lis crowned on the obv. 

Florim, an Arragonese gold coin, I4th-i5th c., modelled on the Italian 
original. It was also current in Portugal, where it seems to have been 
= 70 reis. 

Florin, fiorino^ from fare, a flower, a silver coin of Florence, prob- 
ably of as early a date as the I2th c. It was continued during the 
whole of the republican epoch with sensible modifications and varieties. 
Comp. Guelfo grosso. The prevailing type is the bust, seated figure, or 
standing one, of St. John the Baptist on obv., and on rev. the lily. 

Florin, a gold coin of the same State, introduced about 1250, and 
executed on the model of the silver piece, of which it represented the 
multiple often. It acquired, like its successor at Venice, a great repute, 
and was extensively copied in Italy, Germany, and even France (at Bar- 

Florin, a gold coin of the duchy of Berg, or s' Heerenberg, West- 
phalia, copied from the Metz type. One of Hermann Friedrich has on 
the rev. Florenvs. Dni. Montensis. 

Florin, a gold coin in the French and Anglo-Gallic series, 1 3th- 1 4th 
c. Of the latter there are the half and quarter. 

Florin, a name found on the first silver coinage of Louis Napoleon, 
King of Holland, 1807. It was subsequently altered to the gulden. The 
gold pieces of the Netherlands are sometimes loosely described as 
florins. A very singular one of Raymond IV., Duke of Gueldres, with the 
Bolognese type on rev. is still preserved in the original gold box, and is 

. Catalogue of Eiiropean Denominations 201 

supposed to have been carried on the person of the ancient owner as a 
charm ; the obv. has the Madonna and Child. 

Follaro, fromfollts, a wallet or purse, a copper coin of the Byzantine 
Emperors, 7th-8th c., if not later, and of the Norman Kings of Sicily 
and Sicily and Naples, Iith-I2th c., struck at a variety of places (Naples, 
Gaeta, Messina, Ravenna, Ragusa in Sicily, Amalfi, Brindisi, etc., 
and by the Princes of Taranto (1100-31). Both the Byzantine and 

Sicilian follaro, ut 

Norman coins present the effigy of St. Januarius, and probably these 
were from the Naples mint. One of the smaller module (if it really is 
of this type at all), perhaps a ^ or J, belonging to Ragusa in Sicily, bears 
on obv. a head in the ancient Greek style, intended for the Tyche of the 
city. The follaro seems to have varied in weight and value, and to 
have been worth at different times 20 and 40 nnmmi. See Nummiis. 

Fort, the term assigned by the French numismatists to a rare gold 
coin of Charles de France, Duke of Aquitaine, struck at La Rochelle, 
with the quartered shields of France and England and the legend 
Karolus. Regis. Francr. Films. Acqiritanor. Dux, and a ship on both 
sides. Comp. La Rochelle in Cat. of Mints. The specimen of the fort 
examined by Blanchet weighed 7 gr. 76. There is also a silver gros of 
Charles with the quartered arms. 

Fort, a silver type of Lyons in and after 1368 = 2 deniers viennois. 

Fort. Comp. Fert. 

Fort bourgeois. See Bourgeois. 

Forte, a term applied rather to the standard than to any particular 
coin in the Portuguese monetary vocabulary, to distinguish the internal 
from the colonial currency. The phrase probably had the same origin 
in France and Savoy. 

Franc, a gold coin of France of two distinct kinds : faefranc-d-ptedaad. 
franc-a-cheval, current in France and Brittany during the Valois period, 
and originally designed to represent a figure on foot or on horseback. 
Both types were imitated in Flanders, Holland, and the Two Sicilies. 

Franc, a silver French coin of the later Valois kings, and of the house 
of Bourbon, being nearly equal in size to an English crown. The decree 
calling it into existence bears date Mar. 31, 1575. There is the half. 
Improved patterns of both were submitted by Briot in 1618, but were not 
adopted. It was superseded in 1642 by the grand ecu. 

Franc, a silver coin of the See of Metz, I7th c., but at present only 
known in the and j ; 1621-60. 

Franc, a silver coin, only preserving the name of the original pieces, 
and first introduced in a multiple of five during the French Revolution. 
The earliest modern piece appears to be that of Napoleon as First 
Consul, An. xi. 

Francescone, the name received by the scudo of silver on the acces- 


The Coins of Europe 

sion of Francis of Lorraine to the throne of Etruria in 1737. There is 
the half. The designation was retained by his successors for some time. 

Franc/io, a form of the French franc used in the Napoleonic kingdom 
of Etruria, and in that of Westphalia, 1806-13. 

Francois (for, the name given to the gold ducat of Lorraine under 
Francois II. (1726-37). Comp. Francesconc. 

Frank, a form of the franc struck in Switzerland in silver, and in gold 
in 5 and 10 frank pieces for the Napoleonic kingdom of Westphalia. 

Frignaccho, fricaccnse, or frisaccho, the name given in public docu- 
ments to the danaro of the patriarchate of Aquileia, c. 1410. 

Froedrich, the name sometimes given to the gold ducat of Frederic 
II. of Prussia. It was also struck by his father Frederic William 
(1713-40). There is the half of the former and the third of the latter. 

Funfer, a Swiss billon piece = 5 haller, struck by a convention in 1450 
between Berne, Fribourg, Lausanne, Solothurn, and Wiflisburg. 

. Fusil, a silver coin of the i$th c. belonging to Hasselt, near Lille, and 
to the See of Liege (isth c.) with the half and double. 

Fyrke, the name on a small copper coin of Gustavus Adolphus, King 
of Sweden, 1627. 

Galley halfpence. See Suskin. 

Callus-pfenning, a billon coin of St. Gall, Switzerland, with the bust 
of a saint, struck either for the abbey or city, or both, 1373-1415. 

Gazzcfta, a Venetian copper coin = 2 soldi, of which variant types were 
struck for the several colonies of the republic probably in most cases at 
home. One has Corf. Zant. Cef. for Corfu, Zante, and Cephalonia ; 
another Dalma. Et A/dan. Of the latter there are pieces marked /. and 
//., and varieties. The gazzetta seems only another name for the earlier 
colonial tornesc. These pieces rarely occur except in the issues of the 
last century, and even then in sorry state. They were, as a rule, very 
roughly struck. They covered the whole area of the Venetian colonial 
possessions : Candia, Cyprus, the Morea, the Ionian Isles, Istria, Dal- 
matia, and Albania ; and those for the Isles and the Morea include the 
word Armata in the legend, as though they were also applicable to the 
pay of the ships on foreign stations. 

Gazseffino, the name borne by a small Venetian coin under the Doge 
Leonardo Loredano (1501-21). A diminutive, perhaps, for domestic use of 
the colonial gazzetta. 

Gchelmdcdaalder, a silver coin with the helmeted shield, i6th c. 
s' Heerenberg, Batenborg, etc. 

Gehelmde groot, a groat of the same type. Holland. i6th c. 

Gcnevoise, the ecu of Geneva = 80 sols or 1 2 florins of the old standard. 
1 8th c. (1794). 

Genovino, a gold coin of Genoa dating back to the imperial or 

Conrad period (i3th-i4th c.). There is the | and the j. It corresponds 

'Catalogue of European Denominations 203 

to the Venetian and Florentine gold currency in value and weight. At 
the Dillon sale in London, 1892, No. 575, occurred a piece QilQgenovini 
d'oro, weighing 2 oz. 2 dwt. 23 gr., with the date 1641, and of the usual 
type. It was perhaps the same as that which sold at Remedi sale, 1884, 
No. 1479, for 130 lire. 

- Genovino, a silver coin of the same republic of later origin, with the 
, j, and \. In Remedi Cat. 1884, 1523, a mezzo genovino of silver of 
1577 occurs. 

Gentil, a gold coin of Fernando I., King of Portugal (1367-83), 
apparently suggested by the French chaise, but exhibiting on rev. the 
usual arms of Portugal in an inner circle, and in an outer one eight 
castles disposed round. Weight, 63^ gr. 

Georges, the gold florin with the dragon type which appeared in 
France in 1340, but was not reissued. 

Georgino,^. silver Genoese coin of the i8th c. with the saint on horse- 
back on rev., and Est. Probitate. Robvr. Comp. Luigino. 

Gigliato (gtglto, lily) and the half, a silver coin equal in weight and 
dimensions to a grosso or ^ grosso, belonging to the Sicilian series, and 
to that of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem at Rhodes, and of the 
Kings of Cyprus of the Lusignan line. The word is due to the terminal 
embellishments of the cross on rev. Some of the g. of Sicily represent 
on obv. the king seated in a chair, of which the arms are formed of lions. 
The early gigliati of Rhodes are rare, especially in fine state. There was 
a find at Ephesus, however, of those of Helion di Villa Nova (1319-46). 

Gigot and half gigot, copper coins of Brabant. i6th and I7th c. 

Giiilio, with the , \, and j, a silver coin of the papal and other Italian 
series, apparently so called from the Pope Julius II. One of the most 
interesting relics of this type is the Giulio struck in 1 586 by Cesare d'Este, 
Duke of Modena, on the occasion of his marriage with Virginia de' 
Medici, and bearing both their arms. In A mittimus to the Jiibilee at 
Rome, 1625, a giulio is said to be worth 8 soldi, and 10 g. to be = a gold 

Giustina maggiore= 160 soldi, a large Venetian silver coin, with its 
numerous divisions, first struck in 1571, and so termed from St. Giustina, 
on whose name-day (October 7) the Battle of Lepanto was fought in that 
year. There are the \, \, , T V, and -5^. 

Giustina minore, a similar piece in the same metal, but of smaller 
module, also with its divisions. Both types have the legend Memor 
Era Tvi Ivstina Virgo. The minore was imitated by Cesare d'Este, 
Duke of Modena (1597-1628). The Modenese giustina, which had no 
actual fitness of nomenclature, was = 20 bolognini. 

Glocken-gulden, the familiar type of Brunswick, etc., with the bell, 
which is found both with and without the clapper. 

Glocken-thaler, the same denomination and type. There are the 
divisions down to the 7th. All are rare in really fine state. 
*Goesgen, Hanoverian money of account. 

Gosseler, a silver denomination current at Daventer in 1534, with the 
double, and at Campen in 1561. 40 gosseler were=i silver daalder. 
See Goslar in Cat. of Mints. 

Goudgulden, or Gold Gulden, a gold gulden or florin, 1 5th- 1 8th c., ' 
Germany and Low Countries ; it occurs in the Anglo-Hanoverian series. 
Some of the feudal potentates imitated the type. It is in fact a form of 
the gold ducat. 

Gouden Rijder. See Rijder. 

204 The Coins of Europe 

Grano and half grano, copper currency of the Knights of Malta and of 
the Two Sicilies under the Bourbons and Murat. The former had it in 
the 1 6th c. Twelve Sicilian cavalli were = i grano = i centime and a 
fraction ; there were multiples of 2, 3, 5, and 10 gr. in that series in 
copper, and of 10, 15, and 20 gr. in silver. The silver scudo was =120 
gr., and that of Francesco I., 1825-34, is scarce. The Maltese standard 
was much lower than the other. 

Grave, a Portuguese silver coin of the I4th c. = 3 dinheiros. 

Greivinik, a Russian coin of base silver = 10 kopecks, struck under 
Peter the Great and his immediate successors. There is a rare copper 
one of Catherine I., 1726. 

Greschen, a copper coin of Transylvania and Hungary, ijth and iSth 
c. The Magyar gros. 

Griffon, a Brabantine and Dutch term for the double gros or groot in 
the 1 5th c., derived from the type, a griffin holding in its claw a short 
sword or briquet. Schulman, Cat. v., No. 208, notices the double, dated 
1487, with the name and titles of Philip the Bold. There is also the 
half. See also Sch., xv. 203, for an account of an inedited griffon of 
Philip le Bel, 1482-92. Comp. Briquet. 

Gros, Groot, Grosch, Greschc, Grosz, Grosso, Grote, a coin apparently 
of Italian origin, and equal to four danari or deniers, the highest denomi- 
nation previously available. The Venetian grosso or matapan, struck 
under the Doge Arrigo Dandolo (1192-1205), was the pioneer in this 
direction, and was followed at intervals by similar multiples in other parts 
of Europe, especially in France by the famous and popular gros tournois. 
Its success proved the importance of it at the time of its original issue ; 
it was the great piece, as distinguished from the danaro or penny. The 
same notion underlay the primary gulden -groschc n of Saxony. The 
early Dukes of Milan issued silver grossi both of 5 and 8 soldi. In the 
French series, under the Capetian dynasty, there were two or more 
varieties of the gros tournois which, as we shall see, was freely copied by 
other States. Mary of Burgundy (1476-82) struck one variety known as 
\.\\Qgros a I M. from that letter occupying the obverse, as in one of the 
Mary Stuart series. It appears that in the province of Zeeland in 1602 a 
daalder was = 60 grooten ; in 1657 an ort, struck at Elbing under 
Swedish authority, was said to be = 18 groschen of Polish standard. 
There is a copper grosch of Catherine I. of Russia, 1 727 = i kopeck. The 
town of Utrecht formerly coined a billon piece as low in value as the 8th 
of a groot. For further particulars of the Venetian grosso see the writer's 
" Coins of Venice" in Antiquary, 1884, and grosso 'infra. 

Grosch, the German groat or gros. See Gros. 

Grossetto, a copper coin of Venice = 4 soldi, introduced under the 
Doge Antonio Veniero (1383-1400), and weighing 38 gr. 9 car. A 
triple gr. of the following reign (1400-13) weighs 100 gr. The i gros- 
setto was struck under Andrea Gritti (1523-38). The piece of analogous 
character current in Dalmatia and Illyria was worth only f of the Vene- 
tian grossetto. 

Grosso, the Italian form of gros. The Venetian grosso was sometimes 
called a matapan, from the Cape of that name, where the fleet of the 
Republic had at that juncture won a success. Compare Giustina. The 
coin was appointed to weigh 44 gr., and was of fine silver. The Milanese 
grosso was practically in currency down to the last century, but instead 
of being worth 8 soldi, as under the autonomous Dukes, passed for 5 
only, the value being usually expressed. 

Catalogue of European Denominations 205 

Grossone, a Venetian silver coin = 8 grossi, introduced under Fran- 
cesco Foscari (1423-57), and existing in two types. See Antiquary, ix. 


Grossone, a silver coin of the Two Sicilies under Ferdinand and 
Isabella. The obv. and rev. divide the names and titles. On the latter 
is a yoke and a sheaf of arrows. 

Grossone, a silver coin of the Republic of Pisa under the Emperors, 
but sometimes with autonomous legends. One has on obv. Popvli 
Pisani, and on rev. the Virgin and Child with Protege. Virgo. Pisa. 
Charles VIII. of France also struck a grossone here with his titles and 
the arms of France, but with Pisanorvin Lib. in the obv. legend. 

Grosz, pi. groszy, the Polish form of grosch, and a very early deno- 
mination in that country. A \ grosz of Sigismund I. occurs with the 
date 1509. The coin remained in use under the later kings, and under 
Russian rule, in pieces of J, i, and 3 gr. There is a 10 groszy Pols in 
poor silver and a 3 gr. in copper, apparently struck at Brussels, and 
issued during the political disturbances of 1831. 

Grote, a billon or silver coin, with its multiples and moiety, of 
Bremen, Oldenburgh, etc. It was also struck by the Seigneurs of 
Jever, Oldenburgh, etc., and by the Counts of Bentinck at Knijphausen, 
down to the present century. A piece of 9 gr. is cited by Schulman, 
ix. 514. 

* Grouch, Turkish, silver, the piastre. Guerche, Goorooch. 
*Groupe, Turkish computation. A bag of money. 

Guelfo grosso, a term applied to a variety of the silver fiorino of 
Florence, with the standing figure of St. John. There are several 
varieties. This coin appears to have been struck in 1363, and one type 
has a fox under the saint's feet, significant of Pietro Farnese, general-in- 
chief of the Florentine forces ; it is said to have been struck under the 
walls of Pisa. Cat. Rossi, i. 1880, Nos. 1290-95. Instead of the usual 
legend on the rev. of the silver fiorino it reads Dct Tibi Florere Christus 
Florentia Vere. 

Guenar and demi-guenar, a name applied to the blanque for Dauphiny, 
with a cross on rev. cantoned with two Its, a crown, and a dolphin. A 
blanc and i blanc of the same reign for ordinary circulation followed the 
type with variations ; and Charles VI. issued other patterns for 
Dauphiny itself. Henry V. of England, also had the blanc gue"nar. 
There was a curious trouvaille a few years ago at Vucht, near Bois-le- 
Duc, of a type of this denomination, suspected to be the work of a 
coeval forger. 

Guiennois, a gold coin in the Anglo-Gallic series. 

Guiennois, a silver piece in the same series = 10 guiennois noirs. 

Guiennois, a billon piece in the same series, the loth of the g. 

Guiennois esterlin, a silver piece in the same series 5 g. noirs, or \ 
g. d'argent. 

Guillemin, a term applied to the municipal currency of Forcalquier, 
Provence, in the I2th c. 
*Guillot, Brabant, copper, value one-sixth of a [sol or stuiver]. 

Guinea, the name which appears on the face of a commemorative gold 
coin struck at Christiania on the accession of Christian VI., 1730. 

Guishem or Guillem, a species of currency in billon of low standard 
struck by Jean de Grailly, Comte de Foix, and interdicted in 1421-22 by 
the Crown. 

206 The Coins of Europe 

Gulden, a coin of the Low Countries and of Germany, apparently 
originating in the Gildepenningen or money of the trading corporations or 
gilds, which were formerly very numerous. The word is derived iromgeld, 
money, and the form gulden and guilder (applied to the British currency 
for Guiana) are alike incorrect. The value of the gulden has fluctuated. 
The modern Dutch piece is = is. 8d. English, and is indifferently termed 
a gulden and a florin. A pattern silver piece of Louis Napoleon, 1807, is, 
however, expressly described on the face as a florin. In the iyth and 
1 8th c. pieces of 7, 14, 30, and 50 g. in gold were struck for the United 
Provinces. That of 50 g. with the posthumous portrait of William the 
Silent, 1687, is an ordinary daalder struck in the superior metal ; it was 
probably a piece de plaisir. See Goudgulden. 

Guldcngroschcn, or great gulden. See Klappciniinze. 

Guldenthaler, a term applied in some of the German series to a 
thaler of smaller module and lighter weight = of the higher standard 
a piece between the gulden worth 2od. English and the thaler worth 
about 35. Both the guldenthaler and the \ were current at Niirnberg in 
the 1 6th c. 

Guldenthaler and the half, silver coins = 60 and 30 kreutzer respec- 
tively, of the Swiss canton of Basle, i6th c. The rev. bears the imperial 

Halbbatzen, or half batzcn, money of convention, 1628, between May- 
ence, Hesse, Nassau, and Frankfort-on-Main. 

Halbling, a small coin of the Swiss canton of Basle, as well as of 
other Swiss and German States under that or a similar name. Comp. 
Helbelin, Haller, Heller, and Scherfe. 

Haller, a small copper coin of the Swiss canton of Zug. A plated or 
washed piece of 3 haller scarcely equals a centime in dimensions. It 
appears probable that this piece and the heller or pfenning, first intro- 
duced at Halle in Swabia, were identical ; both succeeded the haclbling, 
helbclin, or scherfe, which had itself, under one or other of those names, 
appeared at Brunswick and elsewhere, and superseded the ; archaic 

Hardit, or hardi (?) from Fr. hardes, a gold coin of the French and 
Anglo-Gallic series. Charles VII. of France struck one at La Rochelle 
as Duke of Aquitaine (1451-61). 

Hardit, or hardi, a billon coin of the same series. The Scotch hard- 
head appears to be a corruption of hardit, 

Heaume, a name for the double groot in the Bishopric of Liege, 
1 5th c. 

Helbelin, the \ pfenning of Strasburgh, I4th c. 

Heliens, deniers current in Perigord in the time of Count Helie II. 
(nth c.). Blanchet. Comp. also id. i. 288. 

Heller, a billon or copper coin of small value, introduced at a very 
early date into the currencies of Hesse, Treves, etc. The most ancient 
are of the bracteate or semi-bracteate fabric, and in fact the heller is an 
evolution from the haelbling. 8 hellers = i kreutzer, and i heller = ^ 

Henri, the name given to a gold florin struck at Bayonne by Henry 
II. of France in 1553. The rev. has Dvm Totvm Compleat Orbem. 
1553. There is the double. 

Henriques, a gold Castilian coin of Henry or Henriques IV. of 
Castile, 1454-75, with the usual rev., and on obv. the figure of the king 

Catalogue of European Denominations 207 

seated on his throne ; it was a copy of the French chaise. The piece 
was current in Portugal. 

Hirschguldcn, a denomination of Wiirtemburg, I7th c., from the stag 
on rev. There is the half. 

Hoedjeschelling, a schelling or escalin with the stadtholder's bonnet, 
1 7th c. Zceland, etc. See livid-penning. 

Hohlpfenning, a billon uniface coin of German origin, allied in fabric 
to the bracteate. 

Huitain, a copper coin of the canton of Geneva, belonging to the 
class of money of necessity, and made to pass current, 1602, for twelve 
instead of eight sols. The obv. reads Geneva Civitas 1602 ; the rev. 
Post Tenebras Lvx Povr XII Sols. 

Hvid-penning, a piece of 4 penningen, current in Denmark, I5th c. 
Comp. Hoedjeschelling. The interest of these two terms appears to lie 
in the circumstance that they shew the contemporary designation for 
what we are wont to call the bonnet. 

Imperial, a gold coin of Catherine II. of Russia = 10 roubles. There 

Imperial of Catherine II. of Russia, 1767. 

is the double. It is one of the handsomest types in the Russian gold 

Imperial, half, a Russian gold coin of a different type = 5 roubles, 1 5 
kop. ; first struck in 1801. 

Imperiale, a silver coin of the Del Carretto family, Marquises of 
Cortemiglia. There is one of Ottone, 1300-14, with Odonvs Marcho. de. 
Char. Reto. The same denomination was used by the earlier Visconti of 
Milan, I4th c. One of Barnabo Visconti has on rev. Imperialis in three 
lines, the word Vicecomes being understood. The family name was 
originally an official vicariat. 

India, a silver Portuguese coin ordered to be struck in 1499 on the 
model of the Venetian marcella, weighing 60 gr., and = 33 reaes or reals. 
It seems to be known only from a history of the reign of King Emmanuel 
by Damiao de Goes. See Fernandes, Memoria, p. 116. 

Irakli, special copper currency struck by Russia for Georgia. 

Isabella, the name, rather popular than official, conferred on the 
doubloon or ico-reales piece in gold struck under Isabella II. 
*Izelotte, German silver, value 2s. gd. 

Jager, or halve braspenning, a piece of 2 stivers, billon or copper, 
1 5th c. Groningen. There is the double jager = 4 stivers, and a j jager, 
convention-money between the town of Groningen and the Count of East 
Friesland in 1507. See Schulman, Cat. v. No. 681. There are early 
dated jagers and double jagers of Groningen from 1455 downward. 

208 The Coins of Europe 

Jaques, the name of a Spanish copper coin, said to owe its name to 
Jaca or Jacca in Arragon, which may be they indicated on some of the 
money of Ferdinand VII., otherwise identical with the pieces of 8 mara- 
vedi. But it seems to be open to doubt whether the \vordjagites was in 
general acceptance, although the initiaiy may signify the Jaca mint. 

Jeton, a production generally to be regarded as distinct from a coin, 
and owing its name to its office as a token cast among the crowd on 
special occasions, yet in certain cases very probably used as money. 
Such, for instance, appear to be those of Philip II. of Spain, struck at 
various places in the Spanish Netherlands, and known as oorts ; and we 
engrave one of the same monarch, 1582, which may have been struck in 

Spain, as it differs from others of Flemish origin in our hands. It was 
perhaps accepted in payment as a double Hard within the precincts of 
the palace formerly a wide radius. There is, however, an immense body 
of these monuments, issued on all sorts of occasions, and the greater part 
must be clearly distinguished from the normal currency. 

Joamese, Portuguese gold, value ,3:11:2. So called from John V. 
The \ dobra. The popular name in England, where great numbers of 
this and the dobra have been melted, \vasjoey. 

Jubelgroschcn, a groschen struck in commemoration of any event. 

Jubiletuns thaler, a commemorative thaler. 

Jultusloeser, money of necessity struck by Julius, Duke of Brunswick, 
1574-80 ; there are groschen and thalers (with the multiples to 10) in silver. 

jus/o, a gold coin struck by Joao II. of Portugal, 1481-95, apparently 
= from 540 to 600 reis, and first issued in 1490. Its name was suggested 
by the reverse legend Justus Ut Palma Florebit. 
*Jux, or Juck, Turkish, 100,000 aspers. 

Kaiserthaler, the silver thaler without date of Maximilian I. (1493- 
1519), having on obv. a three-quarter portrait of the Emperor or 
Kaiser to 1. 

Kanna Drick, an oval copper coin struck for the Swedish miners of 
Trollhatta, W. Gothland ; there is an octagon piece of 2 kannor dricka. 

Kipperthaler, or copper-thaler, a plated or billon thaler of Bavaria and 
Saxony. But the latter seems to have varied from the Bavarian piece, 
and to have been current for 4 grosschen only. 

*Kitzc, Turkish gold. A Bag, value 30,000 piastres. 

Klappemunze or guldengroschen, the name conferred on the earliest 
silver thaler of Saxony (1486-1500). There are at least two varieties. In 
the Reinmann Cat., 1891-92, Part ii., No. 4432, where a specimen sold for 
245 marks, or ,12 : 55., it is described as "Aeltester Giildengroschen." 

.Catalogue of E^tropean Denominations 209 

Klippe, a generic term for pieces of money struck abroad on a square 

Klippingcr, Swedish square coins, generally money of necessity. The 
face-value is, of course, irregular and arbitrary. A piece of 8 ore of John 
III., 1591, is of the size and weight of a or. 

Koertling, a species of groschen struck at Osterode in Hanover for 
the Dukes of Brunswick-Celle or Zell in the I5th c. 

Koggerdaalder, a silver coin worth 30 stivers, ryth c. IV. Friesland. 
There is a triple koggerdaalder of 1601, struck, as it is supposed, expressly 
for the Diet or Congress of that year. A 20 ducat piece in gold prob- 
ably refers to the same occasion. 

Kopek (Russ. kapeek\ the unit of the later Russian coinage. 100 k. 
= I rouble. 

Kopfchcn, the name conferred on a billon coin of Juliers and Berg, 
1 5th c. 

Kopfcr doppelschilling. See Doppelschilling. 

Kopferzivolfer, a billon coin of Hamm and Osnabruck, iyth c. 

Kopf stitch, a silver coin of the Diocese of Treves, i8th c. 
*Kopy, Bohemian money of account. 

Kornthaler, a silver coin of Hesse-Cassel, I7th c. 

Korsvide, a Danish silver coin, I5th c. 

Kreutzer, or Kraicjar, a billon or copper coin, originally reckoned as 
= 4 pfenningen or 8 heller, and widely diffused through Northern Ger- 
many, Hungary, etc., and even found at Batenborg and elsewhere. It 
is said to have had its genesis in the Tyrol. At a very early date two 
standards were recognised, the heavy and the light kreutzer : the former 
being reckoned 48 to the gulden and 72 to the thaler ; the latter 60 and 
90 respectively. The as sis of Strasburgh and Basle was = 6 kreutzer. 
A piece marked 60 kr. was struck for Strasburgh-in-Elsas about 1685 
with the three fleurs-de-lis, and one of 80 for Anhalt-Bernburg, as money 
of necessity, in 1592. 

Krona, a silver coin of Sweden and Norway, equal to a franc. It 
occurs in the former series in the I7th c. The old krone was = 4 marks. 

Kroncnthaler, a silver denomination of Nassau, igth c., and of 
Bavaria, id. = 5 francs. 

Kruisrijksdaalder, or Kruisdaalder, silver crown or e"cu with the 
Cross of Burgundy, struck by Philip II. for the Netherlands. It is also 
known as the Bonrgonsche Knits Rijksdaalder. 

Kwartnik, the j groschen of Poland, struck under Casimir the Great, 
I333-7 O an( i Vladislas II., Jagellon, 1399-1434, as well as by Louis of 
Anjou for Poland and Red Russia. 

Lam, the Flemish imitation of the French mouton and agnel cTor. 
The former was known in the Low Countries as the groot lam. 

Lammpfenning, a class of copper coins, slightly varying in the de- 
tails in different issues, struck by the Swiss canton of St. Gallen, I4th c. 
See Poole's Cat, 1878, p. 155. 

Land Munze, money belonging to a particular province, as distinguished 
from scheide munze, or money qualified to pass throughout the empire or 

Laub-thaler, the name by which the Germans christened the French 
ecu of 6 livres from the laurel branches within which the shield is enclosed. 
Whelan says that it was also applied to the Prussian thaler with a similar 

2 1 o The Coins of Europe 

Leal, (i.) a silver denomination of Portugal, I5th c.= 10 reaes or reals, 
of which repeated mention is made in documents of that period. In one 
of 1441 it is said that the coin was to pass for 12 r. (ii.) A copper 
denomination of the same country, i6th c., belonging to the Indian 
series, and struck at Goa ; apparently = the dinheiro. 

Leeitendaalder, silver crown with the lion (/cu au lion}. There is a 
rare variety, struck for the town of Utrecht in 1578 during the troubles 
with Spain. See Cat. Cisternes, 1892, No. 1608 of Part i., for a leeuen- 
daalder apparently imitated by an Italian moneyer. 

Leeuengroot, a groot or gros of the same type. Louis of Maele, Count 
of Flanders (1346-84), struck a copper piece of the same pattern as this 
variety of the gros. 

Leijcesterdaalder, the popular name given to the silver crown with the 
reputed head of Dudley, Earl of Leicester, 1 586-96. There is a stuiver 
of same dates ; and the half, fifth, tenth, twentieth, and fiftieth parts as in 
the ecu Philippus, except that there is no fiftieth of the latter. 

Lonona, or Lcmocia, an altered type of the old barbarin of Limoges, 
introduced by Gui VI., Vicomte (1230-63), just prior to his death, with 
his own name on the face, and rejected by his vassals or subjects, who 
made a treaty with his representatives to call in the obnoxious currency, 
" licet esset legalis." 

Leone Mocenigo, a silver coin of 80 soldi struck for Dalmatia and 
Albania by the Venetian Government under Alvigi Mocenigo II., 1706. 
The rev. has Dal mat. Et. Alb. 80. There are the i, j, and \. 

Leone Morosino, a silver Venetian coin struck under the illustrious 
Doge Francesco Morosini (1688-94), perhaps in commemoration of his 
military exploits in the Morea. On obv. he appears kneeling before St. 
Mark with a spear in his hand, and on the rev. is Fides. Et. Victoria. 
There are the divisions. 

Leonina, the 2-scudi d'oro piece struck by Leo XII., 1823-29. The 
scudo d'oro was perhaps also known by the same name. 

Leopard, a gold coin in the Anglo-Gallic series. 

Leopold, the appellation bestowed on the Lorraine gold ducat under 
Duke Leopold (1690-97). There is the double and half. 

Lcopoldone, a silver type of Pietro Leopoldo I. of Lorraine, 1765-90, 
Grand-Duke of Tuscany = 10 paoli. It is a name for the silver scudo 
of this reign. 

Lcpton, the unit in the copper coinage of the Ionian Isles under 
British rule ; of the Greek Republic under Capo d'Istria, 1828-31 ; and 

Lepta of Greek Republic and the Ionian Isles. 

of the kingdom of Greece, when it became the 5th of an obolos. The 
word signifies something very flimsy or thin. The 3O-lepta piece, 
struck by the British Government for the Ionian Isles, 1819, was the 
prototype of the English groat of 1836. Capo d'Istria issued a piece of 20 
lepta in copper. 

Leu, or Lew \livre\ a silver coin of the independent Governments of 

Catalogue of European Denominations 2 1 1 

Bulgaria and Roumania, equal to a franc or lira and 100 bani. There 
are of Roumania the 5 leua, the 2 leua, the i leu, the \ leu (50 bani), and 
a 2o-leua piece or Alexander in gold. 

Liard (?) from Fr. Her, to bind, a copper or billon coin struck in the 
Netherlands and in France in the I7th c., and down to the close of the 
1 8th, generally without note of denomination. There is also the double ; 
and one of Philip V. of Spain, 1709, struck for Brabant, is very unusually 
marked 2 L. for the value. There are ^ liards of Luxemburgh, Reck- 
heim, and many other places ; and a | 1. of the Abbey of Thorn in 
Brabant. In France, on the introduction of the coin under Louis XIV. to 
supersede the double, it was called on the rev. in some of the issues, for 
the sake of distinction, Liard de France. 

* Libra Jaqnesa, Spanish, silver, value y>. id., money of account in 
Arragon and the Balearic Isles. Comp. Jaca in Cat. of Mints, and 
Jaques supra. 

Lira, a silver denomination of several of the Italian republics in the 
1 5th c. and down to the present time. The Genoese scudo of silver was 
= 8 lire. The Venetian lira Tron (1471-73) is remarkable as being one of 
the very few coins of this State with the likeness of the doge. Giovanni 
Cornaro II. (1709-22) struck a pattern lira of the ancient type, with his 
titles, and his figure kneeling to r., the ducal bonnet at his feet, and 
above, the Virgin and Child in clouds. The rev. corresponds to the 
current liretta; but the piece, as a whole, was not circulated. Rossi 
Cat., 1880, No. 5436. In 1800-2 the Austrian masters of Venice, pur- 
suant to the Treaty of Campo-Formio, struck there pieces of 2 lire, \\ 
lire, i lira, and f lira, in silver of low standard. Alberico Cibo Mala- 
spina, Prince of Massa-Carrara (1559-1623), struck the terzo di lira, 1587 
and 1592, with In Mac Gloriari Oport. on rev. 

Lira Dalmata, the lira current at Zara, Cattaro, etc., and throughout 
Servia and the adjacent regions. It was probably worth a third less 
than the Venetian one. The term is, of course, the Italian form for the 
local appellation. 

Lira di piccoli, grossi, or perperi, Venetian money of account, prob- 
ably calculable by weight, according to the number of pieces coined to 
the pound in billon, silver, and gold respectively, as the gold, and not 
silver, perpero was doubtless here understood. 

Lirazza, the name of a silver type current at Venice in the latter half 
of the 1 8th c. (1762-97). It was = io gazzette. The rev. has Diligite 
Ivstitiam and a seated figure facing ; in the exergue, X. for the value. 
Comp. Traro. 

Liretta, and the half, a silver Venetian coin struck under Domenigo 
and Aloysio or Alvigi Contarini (1679-83), and down to the close of the 
republic. The later issues are of very base metal. On rev. occurs 
Ivstitiam Diligite, and a figure of Justice with the scales. Domenigo 
Contarini struck pieces in silver of 20, 18, and 4 lirette for Zara. 

Lis, a name applied to a gold piece of Raymond IV., Prince of 
Orange, 1340-93. Sch., xv. 1763, varied from Duby. 

Lis, a silver denomination of France in 1655, with its divisions, and 
at the same time (1655-57) a gold one, with two angels on rev. supporting 
the shield. The lis d'argent was = 20 sols ; on the rev. of one occurs 
Domine. Elegisti. Lilivm. Tibi. There was the \ and the \. Neither 
metal appears to have been reissued after 1657. 

Lisbonino, a gold coin of Portugal, I7th c. = 4000 reis. There are 
the and . 

212 The Coins of Europe 

Livonese, a special currency for Livonia and Essthonia, struck by virtue 
of an ukase of the Czarina Elizabeth, 25th October 1756. It consisted of 
pieces of 96, 48, 24, 4, and 2 kopecks. 

Livra, with its divisions to the i6th, a monetary value or weight, 
current in the South of France, at Toulouse, Bordeaux, Cahors, Rodez, 
Orthez, etc., from the middle of the i3th to the I5th or even i6th c. ; 
chiefly struck in bronze, and perhaps to be distinguished from the 
ordinary series of these monuments, which expressly state their object 
and equivalent. 

Livre, a term for money of account in France, or at least in Paris, 
in the nth c., where we hear of a payment of 100 libra auri. This, 
like the mark, was an idea borrowed from Italy, probably from 

Livrc, or Livre Tournois, the same as the Italian lira, a French silver 
denomination or unit superseded at the Revolution of 1792 by the 
modern franc. The old silver tcu was = 6 livres tournois. We have not 
seen the unit except as a siege-piece struck at Aire-sur-la-Lys in 1641. 
The piece of 10 livres, coined by General Decaen, Governor of the He de 
Bourbon in 1810, was known as \.\ie piastre Dccacn. 

Louis, the name of the gold coin first struck in 1640 at the reforma- 
tion of the French currency under Louis XIII. There is the half, the 
double, the quadruple, and the octuple louis. The last two are of excess- 
ive rarity. The type and denomination continued in vogue till the 
Revolution of 1791. At the Reinmann sale in 1891-92, Part i., No. 155, 
a piefort of the ^ louis of 1644 (misprinted in Cat. 1614) /etched 560 
marks about 28. 

Louis XV. Louis U'or, 1717. 

Luigino, a silver coin of Genoa, 1668, of which one type is varied 
from the georgino; see Cat. Rossi, 1880, No. 1638 ; a second has a 
wholly different reverse with a Janus head and the value, (ii.) A silver 
coin of Maria Maddalena Malaspina-Centurioni, Marchesa di Fosdinuovo, 
1667, with M. Mad. Mai. S. O. W. Dei. Fosd., with a portrait to r., 
and on rev. Et. Redem. Mevs. Dns. Adiutor. 1667, with shield, (iii.) A 
silver coin of Gerardo Spinola, Marchese di Arquata, 1682-94. Cat. 
Rossi, 1880, Nos. 196, 1458. 

*Lunga, the currency of Leghorn, as distinguished from that of 

*Lusbnrger [or rather Lticeburger\, Luxemburgh silver penny [denier], 
temp. King Edward I. ; forbidden in England, temp. Edward III. 

Macuta, mea macuta, and 2 to 12 macutas, etc., Portuguese colonial 
currency struck for Guinea and Mozambique, and probably indebted for 
its name to the Makua or Makuana, the tribes behind Mozambique. See 
an interesting note in Fernandes, p. 266. 

'Catalogite of European Denominations 213 

Madonnina, the 5-baiocchi piece of Pius VI. (1796). There are 
several varieties. 

Madonnina, a silver coin of Genoa, i8th c., with the double and half. 

Magdalon, a gold type of the Counts of Provence, 1434-86, bearing 
the effigy of St. Mary Magdalen. 

Maglia. Comp. Rianchetto. 

Maille, a small coin of base silver common to Antwerp, Brussels, 
Ghent, Alost, Bruges, Courtrai, Douai, Lille, etc., during a lengthened 
period. It was = obole. 

Maille, blanche, noire, parisis, poitevine, tournois, bourgeoise, dif- 
ferent varieties issued under Philip le Bel of France (1285-1314) and 
some of his successors. 

Maille tierce, another name for the third of the gros tournois, struck 
under Philip IV., both of the O long and O round types. 

This piece was also struck by Ferri IV., Duke of Lorraine (1312-28). 

Maille (for, a denomination struck in 1347 for the See of Cambrai by 
Jehan Bougier of Arras, the bishop's moneyer, in imitation of the 
Florentine type, with a legend resembling the original coin. 

It is to be generally observed that the occasional issue of the maille, denier, or 
obole in the superior metal has been thought to proceed from the usage of com- 
pleting by this more convenient method some large transaction on the part of a 
ruler or other prominent personage. 

*Malla, Spanish, copper, 2 Mallas = I Denier [dinhero]. The smallest 
coin at Barcelona. [The Spanish maille.] 

Maley-groschen, a type of the German imperial series in the i3th c. 
= two Bohemian groschen of debased standard. 

Malnco, the popular name for the cast bronze or mixed metal pieces 
of 80 reis struck for the Aqores in 1829 as money of necessity. They 
were made current for 100 r., but were soon superseded. See Fernandes, 
p. 312, where a specimen is figured and the circumstances explained. 

Mancoso, a gold type of Lucca under republican rule, with the name 
of Charles IV. and the shield bearing Libertas. The rev. has the Sanctus 

Mancusus, a gold coin of the ancient Counts of Barcelona, nth c., 
when they abandoned the use of the Arabic currency. 

Mantelet, another name for the petit royal d'or. 

Marabotin, struck by the Almoravides and Almohades, 453-539, a 
name given to the Arabic dirhem or dinar, which circulated in the South 
of France so late as the i ith-i2th c. 

Maravedi, (i.) a gold coin of Sancho I. of Portugal, 1185-1212; (ii.) 
the unit of the Spanish copper money from the time of Ferdinand arid 
Isabella. Philip II. issued pieces of i, 2, 3, 4, and 6 m. But the more 
usual divisions under the later sovereigns are i, 2, 4, and 8. Many of the 
earlier issues are countermarked with higher or lower values. The term, 
like marabotin, is doubtless Moorish, and the currency may well have 
been an inheritance from the Mohammedans. Ferdinand VII. struck a 
piece, corresponding to the 8 maravedi, for Majorca, 1812, with 12 for the 

Marc, a term given in France and Italy to money of account. In 
1093, 9 marcs of silver were given by the King to rebuild a church which 
had been burned. The French probably derived this sort of computation 
from the Italian traders. They substituted the marc for the livre as 
m. of a. under Philip I. 

2 1 4 The Coins of Europe 

Marcella, or lira marcello, the name given to the Venetian silver lira 
or Da dieci [soldi] after the death of Nicolo Trono and accession of 
Nicolo Marcello (1473), when the short-lived practice of placing the 
portrait of the chief magistrate on the coinage determined. The designa- 
tion was continued in later reigns, and under Agostino Barbarigo there 
was the i marcella for colonial circulation. But under Marcello's imme- 
diate successor, Pietro Mocenigo (1474-76), the mint struck two types of 
the lira the marcella and the moceniga or lira moccnigo. 

Marcello, the name which is attached to a silver coin of Francesco 
III., Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, 1540-50. Cat. Remedi, 1884, 1704. 

Marchesino, a small silver type of Ferrara, 1 4th- 1 5th c., under the 
house of Este, Marchesi di Ferrara. The rev. has a small shield with 
DC. Fcrari. A, 

Marchctto and half marchctto, a small copper type struck under the 
Venetian Doge Antonio Priuli (1618-23) and some of his successors. It 
reads on rev. Nosier. Defensor. 

Marcuccio, a Venetian copper coin of low value, struck under the 
Doge Bertuccio Valier (1656-58). 

Mariengroschcn, a variety of this denomination, probably derived 
from Marienburg in Prussia or Marienthal in Franconia. Several of the 
German States struck it and its multiples up to 24. 
*Maricn Gulden, Brunswick. 

Mark, Venetian money of account. See Marc. 

Mark, money of the Prussian abbey of Essen = 26th part of a 

Mark, a coin of Sweden, either of copper or of silver, but more 

Charles XII. Silver mark. 

usually the latter. There is a copper mark of 1591, struck on a broad 
and thin flan. Small pieces in the same metal were issued for the mines 
of Hogenas. 

Mar A, a coin of Denmark. There is a piece of Frederic III., 1651, 
called ////. Marck Eben-czer. In 1670, 4 marks were = i daler, 12 to a 
gold ducat. 

Mark (or marque}, copper money of Mayence, running from I to 12 
kreutzer, with various initials : N\ieues\ T\hor\, G\roszes\ T\lior\, R\ani\ 
T\Jwr\ etc. One has Holzzeichen. These strange pieces are circular, 
oblong, and octagonal. They seem to belong to the iSth c. See Cat. 
Cisternes, 1892, Part i., Nos. 2217-20. A piece of 3 marks was struck at 
Aix-la-Chapelle in 1670 as money of necessity. 

Mark, a modern German denomination and the money of account of 
the empire. It is worth rather less than an English shilling. There are 
the 2 and 5 in silver and the 10 and 20 in gold. 

Marka, pi. markaa, the Russian currency in silver for Finland. There 
are pieces of 2 markaa, I marka, and 50 pennia. 

Catalogue of European Denominations 2 1 5 

Marque, a special designation for coins struck at Bellac by Hugues, 
Comte de la Marche, in and after 1211, with Ugo Conies Marchie. 

Masse (for, a French gold coin first introduced under Philip III. 
(1270-85), and owing its designation to the mace, which the king holds in 
his right hand. The type was continued by Philip IV. only. Comp. 
Reine d'or.* 

Masson, a silver coin of Lorraine, i8th c. It was struck under 
Leopold I., 1690-1729, but only between 1728-29, as its name was derived 
from Masson, the director of the mint in succession to D'Aubonne 

Matapan, the Venetian grosso. See Grosso. 

Matthiasgroschen, a billon coin of Goslar, Hanover. 

Mattier, a coin of Brunswick- Luneburg =13 deniers of copper of 
small module, i8th c. Whelan says that it was = ^ mariengroschen. 

Mechalaer, a Brabantine .coin of the I5th c., equal to i groot. 
There was the double. 

Afedaglia. At Bologna under the Bentivoglio family (i5th c.) it 
seems to have been the practice to combine, as in Germany, the medal 
with the coin. See Cat. Rossi, 1880, Nos. no, 773-74. 
*Medjedeer, Turkish, silver, value 35. 5d., 20 piastres. 
*Meissner Gulden, Saxony, money of account at Leipsic. 

Merovingian money, a term somewhat loosely applied to an 
extensive series of coins, usually of barbarous fabric, and in gold, the 
metal often of a pale colour, which was concurrent with the Byzantine 
gold solidi and besants, and evidently aimed at copying the types of 
Justinian and other emperors. They are uniformly thirds of the solidus 

(tiers de sot), and vary more or less in execution. They were very widely 
diffused over the western portion of the continent of Europe, and were 
intended to supply a convenient medium of exchange for higher values. 
In Southern Italy and in Visigothic Spain the same type was current in 
silver. But the Greek besant itself was also employed for special pur- 
poses at Venice, and possibly elsewhere. There is a piece of this 
kind wjth the name of Canterbury as the place of mintage. One 
result of a comparative absence in England of the Merovingian system 
on any appreciable scale, and of the apparent failure to employ the 
Roman small brass, was that in that country the indigenous silver penny 
and copper styca commenced at a far earlier date than on the Continent, 
and in Southern Britain were probably supplemented by the plentiful 
remains of the anterior British money in copper, tin, and billon. See 
Merovingian Mints in Cat. of M. 

Merovingian moneyers. See Blanchet tibi supra. The names are 
extremely numerous, and many more or less doubtful. In Blanchet's 
list the same person is often cited under variant forms of his name. 

Metica, a native African denomination, adopted, like the parddo, by 
the Portuguese Colonial Government in some of the currency for Mozam- 
bique or for East Africa. Compare Barrinba. 

2 1 6 The Coins of Europe 

Mezzanine, a silver coin of Venice, first struck under Francesco 
Dandolo (1328-54). There are varieties. 

Michaels gulden, a silver denomination of Bernmunster. 

Mijn Heerens - stuiver, a billon coin of the Bishops of Utrecht, 
1 5th c. 

Millares, or Moneta miliarensis, silver pieces = 10 deniers, struck by 
Berenger de Fredol, Bishop of Maguelonne in 1262-63, for the benefit of 
those in his diocese trading with the East. They were imitations of the 
Arabic dirhem, and in 1266 drew from the Holy See a bull rebuking the 
bishop for his impiety. 

*Milrea, Portuguese, gold, value 45. 5d. 

*Milrei, Portuguese, silver, value 45. 5d., 1000 or 960 reis. Whelan 
adds that in Brazil the value was reduced to 2s. id. 

Mining-pieces, money of two classes : (i.) that coined for mines, and (ii.) 
for the miners. The former are generally of silver, and often of large 
size and elaborate and artistic design. They occur in the Brunswick, 
Saxon, and Sicilian series. The latter are usually of copper and of low 
values, and belong to Sweden, the North of France, etc. The earliest 
coin of this widespread fabric which we have seen is an extremely 
rare 2-thaler piece, with the name and titles of John Casimir, Duke of 
Saxe-Coburg, Juliers, CleVes, and Berg, 1629. The obv. has the Duke 
on horseback, and the rev. the usual many-quartered shield. There is 
another of later date belonging to Wismar = \\ th., and we have 
engraved, for the beauty of its condition and the uncommon type, one of 
Brunswick, 1657. Probably the view of Blanchet {Manuel, 1890, i. 105), 
that the coins of the Carlovingian epoch with Metal. German, are 
ascribable to the product of the mines of Bohemia and the Hartz, is 

Minuta, apparently the recognised appellation of a small billon coin 
of Genoa, i5th c. 

Minuta, or Menut, a small copper piece struck by Louis XIII. 
and XIV. of France during the occupation of Cataluna (1642-48) at 
Oliana, Puigcerda, Vique, Agramont, Perpignan, and in several varieties. 

*Miobolo, Ionian Islands, copper [? the obolos]. 

Mirtilon, the epithet for a double louis of Louis XV., with the two 
interlaced cursive Ls between two palm-branches. 

Mistura, the name assigned to billon money struck at Avignon under 
Gregory XIII., Sixtus V., and Clement VIII. (1572-1605). 

Mite, a copper or billon coin of very small value current in Brabant 
and Holland. Louis of Maele, Count of Flanders, 1346-84, struck a 
billon mite with Fl. There are the multiples of three, four, six, and 

Miten of Ghent, 1583-84. 

twelve. A piece of 12 miten or myten of Ghent in copper is cited by 
Sch., Cat. ix. 420, and another of Brussels, 1593, xiv. 290^. Comp. 


Catalogue of European Denominations 2 1 7 

Mitte royal tournois, a French billon coin struck under Philip III. 
and IV., 1270-1314, with the titles and a forked cross on obv., and on 
rev. a castle without a legend. 

Mocenigo, the name given to the Venetian lira or silver piece of 10 
soldi (Da Dieci) after the Doge Pietro Mocenigo (1474-76), and appar- 
ently continued, like the marcello, in the following reign. 

Moidore, or Moeda (Moneta, money), a gold Portuguese coin struck 
both for the home currency and for the colonies. It seems to have been 
recognised as a name for a definite piece in the i8th c., and was equal to 
4000 reis, or about 275. English. There is the ^ (mimoeda) and the j 
or qitartinho. 

^Monaco, Italian, silver, value 45. 4d. [The local name Tor the scudo 
at Monaco.] 

Moneta, a token of value issued under recognised or asserted authority. 
It is a term which is common, with slight modifications, to all the 
European languages of Latin origin ; and the idea is also found in the 
most ancient Oriental, Arabic, and Mongolian systems of currency or 
exchange, as in the Tartar word tengha, an emblem, which is reproduced 
in the Russian tantgha, the source of the well-known piece called a 

Moneta palatina, or palaci, a silver denier, sometimes erroneously 
ascribed to Charlemagne, but more probably belonging to the reign 
of Charles the Simple (898-923), bears on reverse this reading. The 

words may have originally referred to the old rank of the house of Pepin 
as mayors of the palace, and illustrate the importance of the royal 
precincts even down to a much later epoch. The Palace is specified 
among the Carlovingian mints in the Edict of Pitres, 864, and at that 
period signified the royal abode for the time being. The elaborate and 
far-stretching system germinating and centring in the residence of the 
prince was the basis of the territorial terms palatine and palatinate. 
Such families as the Carrara at Padua, the Scaligers at Verona, the 
Gonzage at Mantua, and the Visconti (Vicecomites) at Milan were at the 
outset merely imperial delegates or representatives. A silver denier of 
Raymond, Count of Toulouse and Provence, describes him as Comes 

Moraglia, a copper denomination, i6th c., of Agostino Tizzone, Count 
of Desana, with Moneta Deciensis on obv., and on rev. S. Germanvs. with 
an effigy of the saint facing. 

Mordowkis, imitations of kopecks by the Mordevas and others for the 
purpose of embellishing their dress. 

Morveux, a variety of the silver teston of Charles IX. of France, with 
a laureated bust, below which are A and O ; it is supposed to have been 
struck at Orleans by the Huguenots. 

*Mostoska, Russian, copper, 4 to a kopeck. 

2 1 8 The Coins of Europe 

Mourisca, an early Castilian coin, current in Portugal = 2| libra or 
libras. There was the double. I4th-i5th c. 

Mouton, the name of a gold coin struck in France intermittently from 
the reign of Philip IV. to that of Charles VI. (1314-1422), and imitated 
by Louis de Maele, Count of Flanders (1346-84). It is otherwise known 
as the Agnel, the type being that of the paschal lamb. There is the 
i or petit agnel. 

Munzlamm. See Lammpfenning. 

Miinz-rccht, the right to strike money, a commercial privilege which, 
like the mark-recht, or title to a market, was conferred in Germany and 
the Netherlands under a variety of conditions, as regarded the share of 
the accruing advantages. 

Murajola, a papal silver coin of the i6th c. See Cat. Rossi, 1880, 
No. 601. 

Miiterken, a piece of 6 mites. Billon, i6th c. Nimmhcgen, etc. 

Napoleon, the name conferred on the 2o-franc gold piece under 
Napoleon I. (1805-15), and still associated with it. 

Negenmanneke, a type of dute or doit, current in the Southern Nether- 
lands under the Spanish and Austrian rule. 

Ncu-groschcn, a Saxon denomination (1847) for a new standard, the 
groschen = 10 pf. There are the pieces of 2 neu-groschen, i, and \. 

Niquet, a type of the French double tournois of billon with a Us 
surmounted by a crown (Charles VI., 1380-1422). 

Niquet, an Anglo-Gallic billon coin of Henry VI. of England, with H. 
Re.v. Angl. Heres, Franc, and a leopard under a Us. 

Niquet, a billon coin of Besangon, 1 4th- 1 6th c., with the half. It is 
one of those which bear a posthumous portrait of Charles V. of Germany, 
who in 1 533 authorised the representatives of the Burgundian family of 
Bouhelier to strike this type with their own names and arms, and in this 
document speaks of the niquet as anciently current in Burgundy. 

Noble, a gold coin struck for various provinces of the Netherlands in 
the 1 6th c. on the model of the rose-noble of Edward IV. The original 
imitation that of Gorcum or Gorinchen followed the lines of the 
English piece very closely. See Schulman, De Imitation des Monnaies 
Etrangcres aux Pays Bas Mcridionaux, 1892. There are the half and 
quarter of the later copies ; but none is at present known of the Gorcum 
one. Schulman, Cat. ix. 117, cites a \ noble schuijtken of Philip the 
Good and Maximilian (1482-97). In the Proposal addressed to Henry 
VIII. of England by Nicolas Tyery in 1526 for a new Irish coinage, this, 
the salute, the maille, the denier, the Hard, etc., are named as projected 
denominations. It is perhaps remarkable, looking at the intimate rela- 
tions between Edward III. and the Netherlands and the monetary treaty 
of 1345, that the Flemings or Hollanders did not attempt to copy so 
admirable a type even more promptly. 

Nomine Domini or Domini Nomine, a phrase and title which consti- 
tuted the prototype of Dei Gratia. The words almost invariably occur 
in initials only, N.D. or D.N., and are found on the coins of the Ostro- 
goths in the 6th c. Eudes, King of France (887-98), adopted the form 
Gratia Domini, which ultimately became the modern and Western 
development of the notion, as contrasted with the Oriental or Moham- 
medan feeling resident in the original dictum. 

Nitmmus (Gr. v6[j.os, vtpeiv}, like the German scheide miinze, anything 
intended or suitable for distribution ; the perhaps nominal unit of the 

Catalogue of European Denominations 219 

Byzantine bronze coinage, which circulated in Greece, Asia Minor, 
Southern Italy, and Sicily from the 7th to perhaps the loth c. There 
were the multiples of 5 (pcntamimmo), 10 (decanummo), 20, 30, and 40, 
the last being = follaro or doppio follaro. The respective values are 
usually indicated by Roman numerals. 

Obole, obolos, obool, the term applied to the half danaro or denier by a 
sort of analogy with the ancient Greek standard or division of value. 
The moiety of the Carlovingian denier is usually so called. It is more 

frequently than otherwise employed from an ignorance of the correct 
denomination. Compare, however, Obnlus. 

Obolino, a name for an obolo of smaller module. It is always 
questionable how far these terms were sanctioned by authority or by 
contemporary usage. 

Obolos, a piece of 5 lepta in the modern Greek currency. 

Obnlus, and the half, a silver denomination of Hungary under Bela 
IV., 1235-70, with the word between two lions' heads. Also the name 
expressly conferred on certain pfennigen of 1378 struck by the Margraves 
of Moravia at Glatz with I. G\lacensis\ O\biilus\. The obulus continued 
to be the Hungarian unit during centuries, and was = \ denier. 400 
went to the Hungarian florin of gold by virtue of the Edict of Buda, 

Ochavo, the half quarto or cuarto in the Spanish monetary system under 
Ferdinand and Isabella (1476-1504) and their successors. The same 
name, or octavo, appears to have been identified with the third brass 
Roman coins which, in the absence or dearth of other currency, long 
passed in Spain and the South of France as an equivalent for the local 
money. Whelan mentions that the word is locally corrupted into chavo 
or chovy. 

*Ochosen, Spanish. The smallest gold coin. 

Oertli, a Swiss name for the j gulden, 1 7th- 1 8th c. 

Oirt Stuver, an ecclesiastical coin or token. Billon or base silver. 

Oncia, mezza oncia, and quarto di oncia, a silver denomination of the 
Knights of St. John at Malta, of the Two Sicilies, and of the Dukes of 
Savoy, 1 8th c. Vittorio Amedeo II. (1713-18) had the 2-oncie piece. 
The oncia of the Bourbon Kings was coined from the local mines, and 
occurs both of thick and widespread module, the former the scarcer, 
and of the dates 1733 and 1791. The Maltese oncia, the \ and j, were 
= 30, 15, and "j\ tari. The type seems to have been struck only by 
Emmanuele Pinto, Grand Master, 1741-73. 

Ongaro. See Ungaro. 

On-le-vault, the denier blanc of Cambrai = 2 deniers tournois, coined 
in 1347 by Jehan Bougier of Arras for the Bishop of Cambrai. The 
denier noir of the same coinage was called valtan, which seems to have 
an allied sense. They were something which supplied a popular want. 

22O The Coins of Europe 

Onsa. See Livra. 

Oortje, oordje, or oorf, a double plack or double Hard. 

Or, pi. ore, an early Norwegian coin originally 24 penningen and 
the loth of the silver mark, but afterward reduced or debased, and 
practically equivalent to the Danish and Swedish pieces. 

Or, pi. ore, a Danish coin originating in a common source with that of 
Sweden, but apparently never issued to pass current for so high a value, 
as a modern piece of 5 ore is only equal to the 4th of an early Swedish 

O'r, pi. ore, a Swedish copper coin, which dates back to the time of 
John III., 1569-92, and underwent certain changes of module and weight, 
till it was restored to something like the i6th c. standard in the time of 
Frederic I. (1718-49). The ore coined in the first half of the iyth c. were 
derived from the copper of the mines of Dalecarlia in N. Sweden. 

Ortclin, the J pfenning of Strasburgh, I4th c. 

Ortsthaler, or quarter thaler, a Saxon denomination of 1661, with the 

Ortug, a Swedish coin struck in the I5th c. at Stockholm under Carl 
VIII. (1448-70). 

Ortug, a Norwegian coin = 8 penningen. Probably similar to the 

Osella, a term applied to a long series of coins in all metals, but usually 
in silver, struck by the Doges of Venice and by the Dogaresse for distri- 
bution as presents. Among these are some of the most varied, artistic, 
and pleasing examples of Venetian numismatic art. The osella was 
struck from the time of Antonio Grimani (1521-23) down to the close, 
with the exception of the reigns of Nicolo Donato (1618) and Gio- 
vanni Cornaro (1624-30). This was, after all, only a form of the practice 
existing in other parts of Europe. The first gold osella occurs under 
Alvigi Mocenigo (1570-77), and was struck to commemorate the victory 
at Lepanto. One in bronze, struck in 1585 by Nicolo da Ponte, seems to 
have been intended as a memorial of the foundation of the Rialto Bridge. 
On the rev. we read Fvndamenta. Facta. Prid. Kal. Ivnii. 1585. The 
Dogaressa also coined oselle at Venice in her own name. There is a 
silver one of the consort of Marino Grimani (1595-1606), which reads on 
obv. Mavrocena. Mavrocena. [portrait of the Dogaressa to 1.], and on rev. 
Mvnvs. Mavroccnae. Grimanae. Dvcissae. Venetiar. 1597. There was 
the double osella in gold and in silver, and the osella di Murano in gold 
and silver. 

Pagode, a gold coin struck by France under Louis XV. for Pondi- 

Paolo, the loth of the silver scudo, and equivalent to the giulio, a 
silver denomination of the dukedom of Ferrara (i6th c.), of the popes, and 
of the Dukes of Tuscany of the house of Lorraine. Ercole II., D'Este, 
Duke of Ferrara (1534-59), struck several varieties. The Tuscan paolo 
in 1830 was = 5th of a silver florin. There is the piece of 2 paioli. Cat. 
Rossi, 1431. 

Papetto, a silver papal coin struck by Pius VII., Gregory XVI., and 
Pius IX. There is the half. 

Par, pi. para, the copper currency of the modern kingdom of Serbia 
or Servia. 100 para are = i dinar. The denomination is of Turkish 
origin, and used to be employed in the Russian provinces of Moldavia 
and Wallachia, 1771-74. The Russian piece was 3 dengi. 

Catalogue of European Denominations 2 2 1 

Pardao, pardoes, a gold Portuguese colonial coin of the i8th c. = 5 
tangos, or about 320 reis. 

Pardao or Xerafin, the rupia of Goa, worth 300 reis. There is 
the meo p., and a variety known as the pardao de Dio, 1806, from the 
legend. i8th c. From a document of 1548 it appears that the piece was 
originally struck on a square or irregular flan ; it was perhaps, like the 
macnta in Africa, an evolution from the native coinage. 

Parisis, the name originally attached to French coins of the Paris 
standard, fixed under Philip Augustus at j above that of Tours. It con- 
tinued in use in such parts of France as were subject to the Crown down 
to the time of Louis XIV. ; but it gradually lost its technical significance. 
There were the p. d'or, the p. d 'argent, the p. noir, and the denier and 
sol parisis. There is a very rare double/, d^ argent of Charles IV., 1328, 
with Moncta Duplex on rev. -Louis XI. struck a variety called the/, de 
I'anmonerie. The/, d'or first appeared in 1329. The denier and sol p. 
were imitated by the Dukes of Lorraine in the I4th c. See one of Ferri 
IV., 1312-28, figured in Cat. Robert, 1886, No. 1298. 

Parpajola, or parpaillot, a coin common to Switzerland, Italy, and 
Savoy. It was struck at Asti by Louis XII. of France and Charles V. 
of Germany. There is the half. The earliest are of Swiss fabric ; Berne, 
and the Swiss generally, abandoned the type in 1528. At Correggio, in 
Italy, the piece seems to have been = 3 soldi. 

Patdca, a Portuguese coin of the 1 7th- 1 8th c. = 320 reis. They exist 
of the reign of John IV. (1640-56), and are frequently countermarked 
with higher or lower values. 

Patdca, a copper Portuguese denomination = 2 cuartos. 

Patacdo, a silver Portuguese coin of the i6th c. (1555), struck for, and 
presumably at, Goa, and perhaps the prototype of the rupias of thick 
fabric of later date. Fernandes alludes (p. 333) to zpatacdo of fine silver 
of the present century, popularly known as a canello 4 cruzados, and 
weighing an ounce ; but he could not refer to an example. 

Patacchina, a silver coin of the Republic of Genoa during the French 
occupation (1396-1406). It bears the titles of Charles VI. of France and 
of Conrad, and the quartered arms of France and Genoa. There are 
several varieties. 

Patacon, or patagon, a name apparently common to the Brabantine 
and Portuguese series, 1 5th- 1 8th c., but probably of Portuguese origin. 
The silver dollar = from 600 to 640 reis. The word signifies the same as 
piefort, or a heavy foot, the coin weighing an ounce ; hence the sobri- 
quet of leg-dollar. ' The Low Country patagon was = 50 stuivers. 

Patacon, the Portuguese heavy copper piece of 40 reis, early igth c. 

Patard, a Brabantine billon coin ( = Dutch stuiver), with the quad- 
ruple, double, and half, in the I5th c., struck at Antwerp, Malines, Cam- 
brai, etc. The e"cu d'or of Cambrai was worth 40 p. The bishops of 
that See and of Lidge issued pieces of 30 p. in silver, and Philip le Beau, 
Duke of Burgundy (1495-1506), the -eighth of a p. for Luxemburgh, 

Patard, a billon coin of Louis XI. of France, struck for Perpignan. 
There are two varieties. A demi-patard occurs in the Franco -Italian 
series of Louis XII. for Milan (1499-1513). Henry II. struck it for Pro- 
vence with P. beneath two lis and the Prove^al cross. 

Patte dole, a variety of the gros blanc (a type of the old g. tournois of 
a larger module), struck under Jean le Bon (1364-80) of France, with an 
expanded Us. 

222 The Cains of Europe 

Pavilion, a gold coin of the French and Anglo-Gallic series. Of the 
latter there are two types, both struck at Bordeaux. 

Peqa, a gold Portuguese coin under Maria II. (weight, 145 gr.) 
with a diademed bust to left on obv., and on rev. a shield resting on 
foliage. Another name for the dobra. 

Peerdekc, ^\.pccrdckcn, the third of the snaphaan. Silver. Nimmhegcn, 
Groningen, etc. There is a scarce one of Zutphen with Fata Viam In- 
venient, and Mom. Nova Civita. Zvtpha. in the iSth c. 

Peeter, or Pietre, a gold coin of Louvain, Brabant, I4th c., imitated 
by Jean d'Arkel, Bishop of Liege and Duke de Bouillon, 1364-78. The 
name was due to the effigy of St. Peter. 

Pegione, a silver coin of the Visconti, Dukes of Milan, I4th c. On 
obv. occurs J?. Ambrosio Mcdiolan, and the saint seated ; and on rev. 
Comes. Virtvtvm D. Mediolani. 

Penni, pi. pennia, a Russian copper coin struck for Finland = a 
French centime. There is the i penni, 2 pennia, 5 pennia, 10 pennia. 

Peregozi, the local name given in a document of 1276 to the currency 
of Perigord, otherwise described as pierregordins. A variety of the 
denier. In 1305 two Florentines engaged to supply to the Count 20,000 
marques of white money of pierregordins between the 2oth May and the 
25th July. 

Pcrpcro, and the half, silver denomination of Byzantine origin, intro- 
duced into the Republic of Ragusa in the I3th c. or thereabout. Also 
a gold value used at Venice as money of account. 

Peseta, a Spanish silver denomination = in 1774, 2 reales ; in 1868, 92 
French centimes, the piece corresponding to the French livre. It was 
struck during the Peninsular War at Barcelona, and in 1873, during the 
Revolution, at Cartagena. In 1874 the younger Don Carlos struck, 
apparently out of Spain, probably in Italy, a piece of 5 pesetas with 
Dios, Patria,y Rey on rev. There was a reissue of it in 1886. Of the 
Barcelona series of 1811 there are the 5 p. and i p. in silver, and the 
1 6 reales or 10 p. and 20 p. in gold, bearing dates between 1809 and 
1813. Two 5 p. pieces of 1821 and 1823 were issued for circulation in 
the Balearic Isles. By the law of 1868 the peseta replaced the escudo as 
the monetary unit and money of account. 

Peseta, a silver denomination struck by Christian VII. of Denmark 
in 1777 for Iceland, Greenland, and the Feroe Islands. 

Peso, the name of a silver siege-piece struck for Girone, in France, in 
1808 during the Peninsular War. 

Pezza, a gold coin of the Medici family, Dukes of Florence or 
Etruria. There is one of Cosmo III., 1718, struck at Leghorn, somewhat 
similar in type to the scudo of silver which is known under the same 
name. It bears a rosebush and the legend Gratia Obvia Vltio Qvcesita. 
It was known as the pezza d'oro delta rosa. Of the silver there are 
earlier examples in the same reign. 

Pezzetta and mezsa-peszetta (Fr. piecctte), billon currency of Monaco, 
1 8th c., and of the Swiss canton of Fribourg, id. the single and 
double pezzetta or piecette. 

Pfaffenfeindthaler, the name applied to a silver siege-piece or money 
of necessity (1622) struck during the Thirty Years' War. 

Pfenning, penning, or fennig, a copper coin of North Germany and 
the Low Countries, equivalent to the French centime. In Alsace or 
Elsas it occurs in the I4th c. A copper series of \, i, 2, 3, 4, and 5 pf. was 

Catalogue of European Denominations 223 

in use in Cuilemborg in 1590-91. Saxe-Meiningen struck a piece of \\ pf. 
in 1740. There is a vierstuiverpenning or 4-stuiver piece, and in 1848 
the Netherlands issued a negotie-penning of 10 gold florins (Schulman, 
Cat. xv. 877). The coin entitled a Brodt Penning, 1789, was employed 
at Cologne for distribution among the poor during a scarcity ; the Anglo- 
Saxons and Hollanders had an analogous currency. On an early speci- 
men belonging to Utrecht we read Dit is der Armen Pe., and (on rev.) 
Moneta. S. Martini. from the legend of St. Martin and the beggar. 

Pfenning, a silver denomination mentioned in a grant from the 
Emperor Charles IV., in 1363, to the town of Wertheim in Baden. 

Pfetmanchen, a small coin of the Prussian abbey of Essen, I7th c. 
The I2oth part of a reichsthaler. In the Diocese of Treves it was a term 
applied to the albus. Comp. Mark. 

Phenix, the name of the silver coin struck by President Capo d' I stria 
under the Greek Republic, 1828 = rather less than a lira. An appro- 
priate appellation for a coinage significant of national revival. 

Philipsdaalder, silver crown struck by Philip II. of Spain for the 
Netherlands. There are the divisions down to the 4oth part. See next 

Philippus, and the half, a name given to the silver crown and its 
divisions struck by or for Philip II. of Spain during his occupation of 
the Low Countries. There is the half, fifth, tenth, twentieth, and fortieth 
parts. The last was 20 mites. A type of the Philippics or daalder, with 
his portrait and titles, was struck at Antwerp after the relinquishment of 
the Low Countries of Flanders by the Spaniards in 1580. There is a 
pattern evidently issued posterior to the occupation of Portugal by 
Philip, as the shield quarters the arms of that kingdom. Indeed it is 
remarkable that so late as 1593 coins with the name of this prince con- 
tinued to appear in the country, where he had made himself so deservedly 
obnoxious, side by side with those associated with comparative political 
freedom. But the circulation of Spanish, as well as of Austrian, money 
in this oppressed region was not arrested till the end of the iSth c. 

Piastre, a Spanish silver coin of eight reales. It dates from the reign 
of Ferdinand and Isabella ; comp. Piece of Eight. The Medici of 
Florence coined both the gold and silver piastre ; the gold p. of Cosmo 
II., 1610, engraved by Scipione Mola, is considered the chef d'&uvre 
of the Florentine mint. The Turkish p. is a totally different piece, 
worth about 3d. 

Piataltinik, the Russian 15-kopeck piece. 

Piatar, a piece of 5 Russian kopecks of large module, struck from 
1758 down to the beginning of the present c. 

Piatatchek, the Russian 5 -kopeck piece in silver. 
*Picchaleon, Sardinian, copper. The centesimo. 

Picciolo, a small copper coin of Malta, first struck without, and then 
with, the name. Apparently = i grano. There is a piece of 3 pice. 

Piece of Eight. See Real. 

Piedfort, or Piefort, an expression frequently employed to denote pieces 
of money struck on an unusually thick flan. Patterns have more often 
than not been issued on the Continent in this shape, and the piedforts in 
the French series are particularly numerous. Some evidently passed 
current. But among the Germans and Low Country numismatists the 
term is sometimes applied to what appears to be more properly a double 
piece ; not one of small thick module, but of twice or thrice the usual 

224 The Coins of Europe 

Piedquailloux, the sobriquet of a Hard struck under Henry IV. of 
France, having H. crowned between three Us, and on rev. a hollow 
cross. . 

Pierregordin. See Pcregozi. 

Pignatelles, the term applied to the pieces of 6 blanques struck by 
various personages in France during the political anarchy about 1 586, 
and down to 1 595 or later. They were nominally = 24 deniers, but fell to 
half their value. 

Pilarte, a billon coin of Portugal, first struck by Fernando I., 1367-83, 
and = 2 dinheiros. 

Pinto, a gold Portuguese coin of the i8th c = 4oo reis. There is one 
of 1721. It was = the cruzado nuevo of later date. 

*Pistareen, Spanish, silver, value iod.; the fifth of the dollar, 4 reales. 

Pistole=% thaler, a very early gold denomination of Spanish origin, 
and thence introduced into the coinage of the Netherlands under the 
house of Nassau ; into the Duchy of Lorraine (the pistole, the double, 
and the half) under Charles III. (1545-1608) ; into the Scotish currency 
during the colonisation of Darien ; and into Switzerland. The canton of 
Geneva had the pistole and the triple pistole. There is also a pistole of 
the first King of Wiirtemburg, 1810, and a double one of Carl, Duke of 
Brunswick, 1828, with Zehnthaler on rev. The lo-thaler piece of Jerome 
Napoldon, King of Westphalia, 1812, is sometimes called a double 

Pite, or pougeoise, an early currency of Savoy under the Count 
Aimon (1329-43). The unit was = i obole ; 4 made a fcrt or fort d lane 
and 12 a gros domain. The value is indicated by points. 

Plappart, early currency of some of the Swiss cantons and of the city 
of Strasburgh. There is the half. A plappart of 1424 for St. Gall is the 
oldest dated piece in the Swiss series. Berne relinquished the type in 
1528. Comp. Blappert. 

Plaque, plak, or plack, the ^ butken or ^ groot; a billon coin of which 
the value probably varied in different places at different periods. There 
is a piece of 12 plakken struck by Philip II. in 1560 for Overijssel. 

Plaque, great or grande, a billon or silver coin current, 1 4th- 1 5th c., 
in Brabant, the Bishopric of Liege, Lorraine, and France. There is an 
extremely rare one of Marie de Blois, Regent of Lorraine, 1346-48. The 
g. pi. was first struck in France under Charles VII. (1422-61). 

Plaqitette, a silver coin of the Bishopric of Lie"ge, i6th c. Sch., Cat. 
ix. 464. The diminutive of plague. 

Plotar, a Swedish siege-piece of 1715 and 1747 in copper, intended to 
pass for a silver daler or \ daler. 

Poillevilain, a nickname given to the gros tournois a la queue, struck 
under Jean le Bon, 1350-64, after the master of the royal mint. 

Poitcvin, a name given to the denier current in the ancient county of 
Poitou. In 1265 Alphonse, brother of Louis IX., struck as Count of P. 
poitevins nouveaux with a demi-lis for France and the arms of Castile, 
and the legend Pictavie. Et. Thol. (Poitou and Toulouse). 

Polk, pi. polker, a billon currency of Brandenburg and of the Kings of 
Sweden for East Prussia and Poland. See Driepolker. 
*Polpoltin, Russian, silver, the quarter rouble. 

Poltina, or poltinink, a Russian silver coin = rouble. 

Poltorak, a Polish denomination for the 24th of the talar. It may be 
the same as \hepolturat, described by Whelan as Hungarian copper. 

Poltur, pi. poltura, money of necessity of Hungary and Transylvania, 

Catalogue of European Denominations 225 

early iSth c. (1704-6). There are pieces of i, 10, and 20 p. Maria 
Theresa also struck the unit. 

Poluska, pi. poluski, and the half =| and j kopeck, small copper pieces 
struck for Siberia under Peter the Great and Catherine II. Perhaps it 
was originally a provincial currency. 

Popolino, a name borne by the silver florin of Florence, struck in 1307. 
They resembled the gold in type. 

Pore-epic, a type of the gold ecu coined under Louis XII. of France 
(1497-1515), and reissued by a few of his successors. Louis introduced 
into his Franco-Italian series &gros au p. struck at Milan, with St. Am- 
brose on obv., and a porcupine under a crown on rev. 

Portitgaloser, a gold denomination of Denmark, i6th c. = 10 crowns. 
A^ portugaloser of Christian IV., 1592, brought 275 marks=^i3 : 155. 
at the Reinmann sale in 1891-92. On the obv. the inner circle reads 
Nach Portvgalischen. Schrot. V. Korn. 

Portuguez, a gold Portuguese coin = 10 cruzados or 3900 reis, and 
weighing generally about 712 gr. It was first introduced, after the 
important discoveries and conquests of the Portuguese in America and 
Asia, by Emmanuel (1495-1521) with a unique historical legend: Primus 
Emanuel R. PortugallifB Alg. Citra Ultra in Africa Dominus Guinee In 
Commercii Navigatione ^Ethiopia Arabice Persice India\e\. This 
reading is derived from Fernandes, Memoria, 1856, p. 113. Mention else- 
where (p. 123) occurs of pieces of 15 cruzados struck by Emmanuel at 
the request of Pope Leo X. But these are not known to exist. The 
Portuguez itself of the original type has the appearance of a coin not 
intended for general circulation, and that of John III. offers a modified 
legend. Both, but especially the first, are extremely rare. 

Portuguez, a silver Portuguese coin of the early part of the i6th c. 
(1504), with the half, respectively = 400 and 200 reis. Said to have been 
struck from the dies of the p. di ouro. Fernandes (Memoria, 1856, p. 
115) cites authorities to prove the production and existence of these 
coins ; but no examples seem to be at present known. Perhaps they 
were never circulated. 

Pougeoise, a variety of the \ obole current in the 1 3th- 1 4th c. in 
Poitou, Puy-de-D6me, and other parts of France, as well as in Savoy, 
where it was also called %.pite. Some of the small coins of the Bishops of 
Puy bear Poles. Puei. or Poles del Pueij and an obole, or the \, struck at 
Acre, perhaps by a French crusader, has the reading Pvges. The name 
was doubtless derived from Le Puy. 

Pougeoise. See Pite. 

Pouly, Russian copper money, from poul, leather, from which it was 
doubtless an evolution. 

Prdmie (prcemia, prizes), coins struck in Germany and Switzerland to 

distribute at schools, usually \ thalers. 


226 The Coins of Eiirope 

Prcrvinois, the product of the mint at Provins, Champagne, which 
attained a wide celebrity and acceptance down to the I3th c., although 
it was not distinguished either by originality or by excellence. Under 
Thibaut IV., Count of C., 1225, what were called the nouveaux proviruris 
were issued, with the pcigne or degenerate head surmounted by three 
towers, a recollection of the Touraine source of the Champagnois 

Publica "^ tornesi, a small copper coin of the Two Sicilies, 1 7th- 1 8th c. 
The name refers to the prevailing idea of the base metal being issued for 
the general convenience. 

*Pulslaty, Hungarian, silver, the half florin. 

Pyramiden-thaler, a thaler in the Saxon series struck to commemorate 
a death or other event in the royal family, with an inscription in the form 
of a pyramid on the reverse. 

Quarantano, or piece of 40 soldi, a silver denomination of the 
dukedom of Parma under Ranuccio II., 1646-94. The rev. has 
Monstra Tc Essc Matron, and the Virgin and Child supported by 
two angels. 

Quartarolo, and the double, a Venetian bronze or copper denomina- 
tion of the 1 3th and following c. It seems to have been first introduced 
under the Doge Pietro Ziani (1205-28), and the double under Lorenzo 
Tiepolo (1268-74). The quartarolo was also struck at Verona by the Duke 
of Milan during his temporary occupation. 

Quartinho. See Mocda. 

Quartino, a silver denomination of the duchy of Parma and Piacenza, 
and of other independent Italian States. 

Quartino d'oro, the fourth of the sat do, struck under Pope Benedict 
XIV., 1740-58, Anno I. 

Quarto, a silver denomination of Reggio under the Este family. The 
j scudo. 

Quarto, a copper denomination of Spain. Compare Ctiarto. From 
1 80 1 the British Government struck copper pieces under this name for 
Gibraltar, and during part of the period, between 1808 and 1811, the 
French introduced a coinage of A, I, 2, and 4 q., with and without date. 
Some of these are extremely rare. In 1754, or earlier, the Spaniards had 
a currency of quartos for Cataluna. We have seen the I, i$, 2, 3, and 6 
q. of various dates down to 1841. 

Quattrino, a billon, and afterward a copper coin of Venice, Rome, 
Florence, Reggio, the Two Sicilies, etc. The quattrino of the popes was 
often distinguished as quattrino Romano. There is a piece of 3 quattrini 
of Cosmo III., Grand-Duke of Florence, 1681. The Venetian quattrino (in 
copper) was not introduced till the reign of Fr. Foscari (1423-57). In 
some political dissension at Florence in or about 1417, after the election 
of Martin V. to the papal chair, a popular ballad contrasted his Holiness 
not very favourably with his opponent Braccio di Mentone, Lord of 
Perugia. In this fugitive composition there is a curious reference to the 
quattrino : 

" Braccio il valente, 
Che vince ogni gente : 
Papa Martino 
Non vale un quattrino." 

Quattrino Pantcrino, a Lucchese variety of this piece with the arms 

Catalogue of European Denominations 227 

of the Republic supported by a panther. There is no legend. Remedi 
Cat., 1884, No. 1626, dated 1691. The same Government put forth other 
types of the quattrino in copper with the figure of St. Paulinus. 
Quern. See Tern. 

Rabenpfennig. See Rappen. 

Raderalbus, a type of the albus or blanque current in the dukedom 
of Juliers, I4th c, and in that of Berg, i5th c. One of Adolf, Duke of 
Berg, 1408-23, is cited by Sch. xiv. 456. 

Raderschilling, a schilling of the same type, current in the diocese of 
Treves, i6th c. 

Raitgroschept) a copper coin of Bohemia, 1 6th- 1 7th c. We have met 

with them of 1572, 1583, and 1605. 

Rapp, rappen, a small billon coin of Switzerland, equal to a ^ centime. 
10 r. appear to have been=i batz. The word is traced to Raben, or 
crow ; a crow's or raven's head appearing on what was thence termed the 

* Rathsprcesentger, German, silver, value 8d. Aix-la-Chapelle. 

Rathzeichen, a silver denomination issued under the authority of the 
city of Cologne, 1730. There are two or three varieties. 

Raymondine, or Raymondesquc, an appellation for the local money of 
Albi in the Toulousan, from the presence on all the coins of the name of 
Raymond, a Count of T. in the loth c. 

Real, originally a Spanish silver coin, worth about \ franc, or 5d., and 
apparently issued for the first time, with the double, under Ferdinand 
and Isabella, in a variety of types. It is possible that the coins of the 
same name in silver and gold, struck in the Low Countries during 
Spanish sway, were also known as reales ; but terms are often misapplied 
by the authorities. A piece of 50 reales in silver was struck at Segovia 
at various dates by Philip III. and IV. and Charles II., and one of 100 
in gold by Philip IV., of Spain. In the Franco-Spanish series we have a 
piece of 5 reaux, 1641. A small silver piece, named on the face a reaal, 
was struck for the Dutch settlement of Cura^oa in 1821. Also a Portu- 
guese silver and copper denomination, 1 3th- 1 6th c. The former was 
= 10 dinheiros or 40 reis. There was the r. dobrado = 80 r. or 4 

Reale, a type struck by the Counts of Provence, of the house of 
Anjou, in imitation of the Sicilian augustale of the Emperor Frederic II., 
1 3th c. 

Regalis Aureus, the original name given to what was subsequently 
known as the royal d'or. It appears to have been first struck by Louis 
IX. at Noyon. 
*Regensburger, Ratisbon money of account. 

228 The Coins of Europe 

Regiments thaler, the name of a silver coin struck at Ulm, during 
the Thirty Years' War, in 1622. 

Rei, rets, the unit of the Portuguese monetary system and the money 
of account. The value has varied at different periods, but the coin 
approximately represents the French centime and Spanish centime. The 
lowest multiple with which we have met is a \\ piece of 1695, and the 
highest is the dobra = 20,000 r. 4000 r. = i moeda. There is a very 
scarce piece of 18 r. struck under John IV. 

Reichsthaler, royal thaler, a thaler struck either by, or under, the 
authority of the German emperors. 

Reine (for, a name, probably a popular one, bestowed for some un- 
explained reason on the petite masse d'or of Philippe III. of France, 
1270-85. It has been conjectured, on the other hand, that it was 
struck by Louis IX. in honour of his mother, Queen Blanche, and 
that it is the denier or florin d'or a la reine mentioned in ordinances 
down to the time of Philip le Bel. No coin, specifically so termed, is 

Resellado, the word on a 5-peseta or lo-reales piece of Ferdinand 
VII., 1821, indicating a recoinage. 

Rigsbankdaler, Royal Bank daler, a Danish silver coin. 

Rijdcr, a name probably applied in the Low Countries to any money 
bearing a horseman as part of the type. The gouden-rijder is equiva- 
lent to the French cavalier and the Scotish rider of James VI. Schul- 
man, Cat. xiv. 51, describes at some length an inedited one of Willem 
V., Count of Holland (1349-89), struck for that province. There is the 
half. At a later period the denomination underwent two successive 
changes : a transfer to a smaller and thicker flan about 1580, and, again, 
to a broader and thinner one about 1615. A pattern of this latter 
variety in piefort, dated 1620, weighs 19 gr., and varies from the ordinary 
coinage. Comp. Snaphaanschelling. 

Rijderdaalder, silver crown with horseman, i6th c. S 1 Heercnberg. 

Rijderguldcn, properly, we apprehend, a silver coin of that denomina- 
tion, having on one side a horseman. 

Robustus, a term apparently applied to the silver crown of thicker 
module struck in the Low Countries in the i6th c., similar to the thaler 
of Sigismund of Austria, 1484. 

Robustus, a coin with its half and quarter, temporarily current in 
Flanders in the i6th c. Sch., xii. 192-94. Comp. Antwerp in Cat. of 

Roda. Comp. Bazaruco. 

Rolabasso, a silver type of the Marquises of Saluzzo, early i6th c., 
with the titles on obv. and an eagle bearing a small shield in claw, and 
on rev. Christvs Rex : Venit in Pace : Homo : Factvs. 

Rollbatzen, or Rollbatz, currency of the Bishops of Passau, Bavaria, 
in the i6th c. 

Roosschelling, or escalin H la rose, a silver coin of W. Friesland, 
1 7th c., with the legend enclosed in leaves, flowers, and fruit. Comp. 
*Rosina, Tuscan, gold, value i8s. 3d. Mezza Rosina. 

Rothklippe, Danish siege-money of the i6th c. 

Rouble, a Russian silver coin, originally struck under Peter the Great, 
and much improved in 1717. There is a rare and fine pattern for a new 
coinage in 1707. The word is derived from v. roobet, to cut, and pre- 
serves the tradition of the primitive money of leather cut into strips, and 

Catalogue of European Denominations 229 

stamped with values. Catherine I. in 1726 struck a large square rouble 
in copper, and Nicholas I. for the first time introduced pieces of 3, 6, and 
12 roubles in platinum. Under Alexander I. roubles and \ roubles were 
struck by Bolton at Birmingham as an experiment prior to the introduc- 
tion of a similar press at St. Petersburgh. 
*Roup, Polish, silver, value 5d. 

Royal, or Aureus Regalis, a gold coin of France, first struck under 
Louis IX., and continued by some of his successors down to Charles V., 
of whom, however, no specimen is at present known. Philip III. struck 
a petit r. and Philip IV. a double r. 

Royalin, and pieces of 2, 4, and 8 r. Money struck by France under 
Louis XV. for Pondiche"ry. 

Rozenbeker, a silver or billon variety of the groot, current in Brabant 
in the I4th c. There were convention rozenbekers and the \ between 
Joanna of Brabant and Philip le Hardi (1384-89). The name appears 
to be derived from Roosebeke, a village near Ypres. But the same 
denomination was struck, later on, at Antwerp, both in gold and 

*Rubic, Turkish, gold, value is. gd. ; 35 aspers. Rubich. 
*Runstyck, Swedish, copper, value one-sixth of a farthing. 

Ruspo and mezzo ruspo, a gold denomination of Gio. Gastone de' 
Medici, Grand-Duke of Florence (1723-37), and his successors of the 
house of Lorraine. The type gives on obv. the titles and lily, and on 
rev. the seated figure of St. John to 1. 

Ruspone, apparently the same as the ruspo. 
*Ryks-Ort, Danish, silver. 

S.R'J.A. Sancti Romani Imperil Archidapifer. 

S.R.I.P. Sancti Romani Imperil Princeps. 

Saiga, the name of certain silver pieces in the so-called Merovingian 

Saint Andriesgulden, a gold coin of the Counts of Holland, I5th c. 
It occurs with the name of Philip le Bel of France and the legend Co. 
Ho. A type of the Hanoverian thaler bears on one side the saint sup- 
porting his cross. There are the divisions. Some have the titles of 
George III. of Great Britain as King of Hanover. 

Saint Maartensgulden, a gold piece struck by the Bishops of 
Utrecht, I5th c. 

S. Thome, a gold Portuguese coin, struck in the Portuguese Indies as 
early as 1548, and in vogue down to the present c. It was = 1500 reis. 
There was the half, and at a later period the double. Under Alfonso 
VI. (1656-83) it is said to be = 4 rupias of Goa. 

S. Thome" novo, a reissue of the old piece in or about 1710 (an order 
for its fabrication is made in 1713). It occurs in the tables published 
by Fernandes, pp. 346-49, and is described as extremely rare, and - 1 5 
pardoes or xerafins of Goa. 

S. Vicente, a gold Portuguese coin= 1000 reis, struck at Lisbon (?) in 
1555 at the time the Inquisition was introduced, with the significant 
legend Zelator Fidei Usque Ad Mortem. There is the half. 

Salute, a silver coin of Sicily under the house of Anjou, which 
adopted this emblem in place of the eagle, and a gold one in the French 
and Anglo-Gallic series. The obv. represents the Salutation of the 
Virgin. The gold salute of Henry V. is of great rarity, that of Henry 
VI. very common. 


The Coins of Europe 

Salvatorthaler, a Swedish silver coin of the i6th and i;th c., having 
the effigy of the Saviour on one side. A similar denomination existed at 
Jever in Oldenburgh. There is the half. 

Sampictrino, the name of the i\ baiocchi piece of Pius VI. (1796). 
There are varieties. 

Sanar, a kind of sol, doubtless in billon, specified in the ordin- 
ance of Charles V. of Spain, 1528, limiting the municipal coinage of 

Sanctus Vultus, the expression found on the mediaeval and later cur- 
rency of Lucca, and apparently intended to apply to the effigy which 
occupies the obverse originally an idealised one of an emperor, but at a 
subsequent period a mere fanciful portrait, usually crowned and bearded, 
and from the latter circumstance conferring on some of the pieces of the 

J3th c. 

i 8th c. 

Lucchese money the epithet barbone. The Sanctus Vultus seems to 
have been an attempt similar to the Dei Gratia movement, to convey to 
the ignorant and credulous majority an impression of some relationship 
between their ruler and the Deity. 

Santa Crocc, a silver coin of Lucca, iyth c. = 25 soldi. The rev. has 
the Volto Santo and a cross. 

Santo Martino, a silver coin of Lucca = 15 soldi, I7th c., with 
Rcspvblica Lucensis, etc., and on rev. the name and legend of St Martin. 

Sassnaer, the name of a type of groot and \ groot struck in 1489 for 
Philip le Bel, Duke of Burgundy, as Count of Holland. Sch., xv. 418-23, 
and xx. 237. 

*Schaaf, Hanoverian. Money of account at Emden. 

Schanthaler, a coin of a commemorative or jubilee character struck 
at an accession, marriage, etc. 

Scheepsschelling (Escalin ait navirc], a silver piece current in the 
Dutch province of Utrecht, and so called from the type of the ship, 
usually in full sail, on obv., 1 7th- 1 8th c. 

Schelling, Fr. Escalin, q.v. 

Schcrfc, another name for the halbling or \ pfenning. Comp. Haller. 

Schild. See Ecu. 

Schilling, a silver coin struck in the dukedom of Prussia and by the 
Kings of Sweden and Poland for East Prussia. It was the currency of 
the Teutonic Order from the I4th to the I5th c. Also a denomination in 
the Swiss cantons of Glarus, Zug, and Zurich. There is a place called 
Schillingsfiirst in Bavaria, and there was a mint there, but apparently 
not an early one. 

Schindcrling, a name assigned to a coin struck at Gratz and else- 
where pursuant to an order of the Emperor Frederic III. in 1461. 
*Schlante, Swedish, copper, value id. Slantar, or Loo Penningar. 

Schmalkaldischer Bundesthaler, silver convention-money of the circle 
of Schmalkalden, Hesse-Cassel, i6th c. 

. Catalogue of European Denominations 231 

Schulpfenning, the money of various values (from a few batzen to 4 
ducats) presented to the pupils at Swiss schools in former times at the 
annual examinations or breakings-up. The practice appears to have 
commenced about 1 560, and in some of the cantons survived till the end 
of the last c. The majority of the pieces are undated, in order that the 
same die might serve from year to year. In Geneva medals were sub- 
stituted for money in 1616. Comp. Pr. The German Catcchismus type 
was probably designed for a similar purpose. 

Schiisselpfenning, a silver coin current in Korbach and Waldeck. 

S chiisselpfenning Heller, a billon coin of the See of Treves, i6th c. 

Schussthaler, a type of the thaler struck by David von Scrapplau, 
Count of Mansfeld, 1610. Sch., Cat. iii. No. 312. 

Schutzenthaler, the term given to the money awarded to successful 
marksmen in Germany and Switzerland. The earliest of the modern 
Swiss series is that of Berne, 1830. In Germany, as well as in Switzer- 
land itself, however, there were earlier productions of this character 
awarded under different circumstances. A square thaler of John George 
II. of Saxony, K.G., 1678, was struck at the inauguration of the new 
shooting-houses ; it has on obv. the gartered shield, and on rev. Hercules 
standing with club and lion's skin. There is an Austrian thaler of the 
same kind, issued for the competition in 1868. 

Schware, pi. schwaren, copper currency of Bremen, iSth-igth c. 
There are pieces of 2^, i, and ^. Five s. were = a grote. 

Schwart groschcn, or black groschen, a term applied to a Saxon denomi- 
nation of 1482. 

Scudo, properly the Italian counterpart of the French ecu, and at the 
outset a. coin in gold or silver with a shield of arms on the reverse. The 
Venetians, besides their gold ducat, had a scudo d'oro under the Doge 
Andrea Gritti (1523-39), with the lion enclosed in a shield ; there are the 
half and the double ; but the type was not continued. The double or 
doppia seems only to have been coined under Nicolo Donato (1618) and 

4 Scudi di oro of Ferdinando Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, 1612-26. 

Giovanni Cornaro (1625-30). The latter reign produced a third 
experiment in the shape of a pattern for a gold piece on a thicker flan 
than the ducat and scudo, but corresponding to the former in module. 
It reads on rev. Noster. Defens. Cat. Rossi, 1880, No. 5295, 99 lire. 
Some very remarkable and covetable specimens of the gold scudo, its 
divisions and multiples, are found in the papal, Tuscan, Mantuan, and 
other series. Pieces of 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, and 12 scudi were struck by the 
Popes and the earlier Dukes of Mantua. A 4-scudi piece in gold of 
Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua (1587-1612), is dated 1600. There 
is a very interesting \ scudo of Florence of Nicolo Guicciardini, gonfalo- 

232 The Coins of Europe 

niere, entering into the class of siege-money, and referable to 1 530, when 
the city was expecting an attack by Alexander de' Medicis. It has on 
obv. lesvs. Rex. Noster. Et. Devs. Noster. with a cross and a crown of 
thorns : in the field, N. and a shield. On the rev. is Senatvs. Popvlvs. 
Q. Florentines., with a shield and the lily. A specimen sold at the 
Rossi sale in 1880 for 255 lire. The scudo d 1 oro del sole was a variety of 
the Genoese gold crown of the Conrad type, with the castle surmounted 
by a sun. The same denomination existed at Lucca. There is one 
dated 1552 with the name of Charles IV. and the Sanctus Viiltus, but 
with Libertas, as usual, on the shield. In silver the Italian States coined 
numerous varieties of the scudo, including the scudo della galera. A 
silver type at Venice, known as the scudo della croce, was introduced 
under Nicolo da Ponte (1578-85) = 140 soldi. There are the half and 
quarter. Cat. Remedi, 1884, No. 1716, describes a silver scudo of 
Ferdinando Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, 1612-26, said to be inedited, with 
Ferdinandos D. G. Dvx. Man/. VI. and a bare-headed bust in armour to 
r., and on rev. Et. Montis. Ferrati. IV., a shield of arms, and below, 
soldi no. The Dukes of Modena (1737-96) struck a triple scudo 
di argento. There is one of 1 739 with Veteris Monumentum Dccoris, and 
a second of 1780 with Proximo. Soli on rev., the latter an inopportune 
motto so near to the close. 

Sechser, a copper denomination belonging to Ravensperg or Ravens- 
burgh, Prussian Westphalia, early I7th c. 

Sechsling, a copper coin of Schleswig-Holstein under Danish rule. 
Equal to two drielings and \ schilling. 
*Sechstels, Saxony, silver, value 5d. ; 4 good groschen. 

Sede Vacantc, a term found on a numerous assortment of papal and 
episcopal coins, while the See was under the control of the senior 
cardinal or the chapter. The later pontifical sede vacantc pieces have 
the arms of the cardinal delegate. There was an actual vacancy at the 
period when Lladislas, King of Naples, took possession of Rome, and 
coined a grosso there (1413-14) ; but the term is not found on the 
money till 1549, in the brief interregnum between Paul III. and Julius 
*Segross, Polish, billon, value 4d. 

Seisino, Franco -Spanish copper money struck at Barcelona and 
Gerona during the French occupation of Barcelona, 1642-48. 

Semis, the half of the solidus, which circulated so widely in mediaeval 
Europe in servile imitation of the imperial gold piece so called. The 
moiety was the least usual. 

Semprevivo, a silver Milanese coin, so called from the plant semprc- 
viva (house-leek), only struck under Francesco II. Sforza (1522-35). 
There were two values, the s. of 5 and of 10 soldi. The same prince 
placed the sempreviva on his trillina. Perhaps it was a favourite emblem 
with him or his moneyer. 

Sesino, a billon, base silver, or copper coin of Venice, Milan, Man- 
tua, Ancona, etc., under the old regime. It continued in use at Mantua 
down to the i8th c. Schulman, xv. 1791, mentions four varieties struck 
by Filippo Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan, 1412-47. The Genoese 
Republic coined a silver piece of 8 sesini in 1653. 

Sesthalf, Dutch, silver, value 5d. 

Sestino, a bronze or copper coin struck in the name of Louis XII. of 
France as King of Naples (1501-3), with Lvdo. Fran. Regniq. Neap. 
R. on obv., and on rev. Popvli Commoditas. 

Catalogue of European Denominations 233 

*Shakee, Turkish, silver, value 3^d. 

* Shustack, German money of account in Prussia, Poland, etc. 

Siege-money, or Money of Necessity, pieces struck in all metals (gold, 
silver, copper, lead, tin), and even in leather and paper or vellum, from 
the Middle Ages. One of the doges of Venice in the I2th c. is said to 
have issued leather tokens during an expedition in the Levant for the pay- 
ment of his fleet. This class of currency was of all forms, often square, 
and usually for artificial or abnormal values. Gold was seldom em- 
ployed, and some of the siege-money in that metal is spurious. The 
earliest, perhaps, was the gold ducat or florin struck at Vienna in 1529 
during the Turkish blockade, with a rough portrait of Ferdinand I. In 

the course of the present Catalogue, and of that of Mints, a large 
number of the known examples is given ; but the monograph of Maillet 
is naturally more complete. It should be observed that money of necessity 
is of two. descriptions : that issued by the besieger and by the besieged ; 
the latter only belongs to the locality itself. Comp. Feldthaler. In 
February 1573-74, during the struggle against Spain, William of Nassau, 
as Stadtholder, directed. the magistrates of Holland, Zeeland, and West 
Friesland, to countermark all pieces in circulation above 7 grooten or 
a i real with an artificial and higher value, the difference being treated 
as a loan to the States for one year. Both prior to this date and long 
subsequently, the practice of counter-marking the money of all countries 
to pass current in the Netherlands seems to have extensively prevailed. 
The perturbed and precarious condition of the States checked the output 
of ordinary currency. 

Silica, or Siliqua, and the half, a denomination in base silver of the 
Gothic and Lombard Kings of Italy (5th-8th c.). Those of the former 
dynasty bear the names of Roman emperors on the obv., and on rev. the 
monogram of the Gothic sovereign, the object being to introduce a 

Uniface Lombard silica or half silica, 7th c. 

change of rulers only by degrees. Whelan says : " Siliqua. The carob 
bean. The carat weight." 

Sixain, the moiety of the douzain, q.v. Francis I. (1515-47) struck 
the sixain a la salamandre couronnee, and we find the denomination 
mentioned in the ordinance of Charles V. of Spain, 1528, relative to the 

234 Th e Coins of Europe 

coinage of Perpignan. Louis XIII. of France issued from the Barcelona 
mint a s. with his portrait in 1642 during the French occupation of part 
of Spain. 

Skefpenning, or Skef, the half of the Norwegian penning. 

Shilling, a Danish copper denomination, with its multiples in silver. 
It seems to have fluctuated in weight and size from time to time. Comp. 
Banco, Courant, and Species. 

*Slet Dollar, Danish. Slecht, a 4-mark piece. 

Snaphaan, a piece of 3 stuivers. Low Countries. There was the \ 
and the j. 

Snaphaanschclling, escalin with horseman (escalin au cavalier), struck 
by Philip II. of Spain for the Netherlands. 

Sol, or Solidus, a gold coin imitated during the Middle Ages from 
Byzantine models, and current in France and Italy. It was less diffused 
than the tremissis or triens. Both were struck for the Lombard Kings 
of Italy and the solidus by some of the emperors. 

Sol, originally a billon, but subsequently a copper coin in the French, 
Swiss, and other series under variant forms of the word. It cor- 
responds to the German solidus, Italian soldo, and Spanish sueldo. 
There is a copper series of i, 6, and 12 sols, struck for the pay 
of the soldiers at Geneva in 1590. The Swiss sol continued in use 
both in copper and billon down to the establishment of an uniform 
currency. Copper pieces of i and 2 sols were issued under the first 
French Republic, 1'an 2, in more than one variety, and of 2 sols 6 
deniers in 1791. The sol was then evidently =12 deniers. There are 
pieces of 3 and 6 sols in billon struck by Leopold II. for Luxemburgh, 
1790, and of i sol in copper. During the siege of Mayence by the repub- 
lican forces in 1793, a coinage took place of I, 2, and 5 sols, apparently of 
French origin, and perhaps for the pay of the troops. During the Penin- 
sular War Ferdinand VII. issued a silver piece of 30 sous with the corners 
clipped, and one of the same value for the Balearic Isles in 1821 and 
1823 of circular form. At Lille (1708) the French defenders struck pieces 
of 5, 10, and 20 sols. 

Soldino, a small silver coin introduced at Venice in the I4th c., and 
subsequently current in other parts of Northern Italy. Louis XII. of 
France struck it at Asti. 

Soldino nuovo, a modified type of the older coin, introduced under 
Andrea Centarini (1367-82). 

Soldino vessillifero, or Vesillifero, a type of the soldino, representing 
the Doge, as standard-bearer of Venice, receiving the banner of St. Mark 
from the patron-saint. It first occurs, we believe, under Andrea Dandolo 
(1328-54). On one side (obv.) we read : Andr. Dandvlo. Dvx., and on 
rev. Vexillifer. Venecia. The piece, which remained in circulation till the 
time of Francesco Foscari (1423-57), was suggested by the Florentine 
dignity of Gonfaloniere. 

Soldo, a copper coin struck for some of the Italian republics, for 
Austrian Lombardy, for the Napoleonic kingdom of Etruria, 1803, for the 
kingdom of Italy under Napoleon, 1806-13, ar >d for the duchy of Lucca and 
Piombino. The soldo appears to be specified in the coronation-oath of 
the Venetian Doge, Giacomo Tiepolo, 1229, but has not been precisely 
identified. The Dukes of Milan made their grossi at different times = 8 
and 5 s. 

Soldo novo da S. Paolino, a billon coin of Lucca, i8th c., with an 
effigy of St. Paulinus on rev. 

Catalogite of European Denominations 235 

Soldone, a billon coin of Venice =12 soldi. In the later issues the 
value is marked in the exergue. 

Soldone, a copper coin of Mantua, i8th c. One of Charles VI., 
Emperor of Germany, has on rev. Soldone di Mantova. \ 732. 

Solidus, originally a billon or base silver, and eventually a copper 
coin of the Teutonic Order, of the Margraves of Brandenburgh as Dukes 
of Prussia, of the Kings of Poland, and of the early Prussian monarchs. 
One of 1529, described as silver, is cited by Schulman, ix. 539, and we 
have before us an exceedingly rare copper example dated 1 568, and 
struck for Lithuania or Livonia. At Metz the copper solidus was current 
in 1655, as well as the ^ and j, and at Dantzic, Thorn, Elbing, etc., it sur- 
vived down to the last quarter of the i8th c. There is a J solidus of 1655. 

Sophiendukaat, a gold denomination of Johann George, Duke of 
Saxony, 1616. 

Sortett-gulden, a silver coin of the Archbishops of Mayence. They 
were also current in the iyth c. 

Sorting, copper currency of Denmark under Frederic III. (1648-70). 

So-vrano, a denomination struck by Francis I. of Austria in 1831 for 
the dukedom of Milan and Austrian Lombardy. Comp. Sovren. 

Sovren, and the double, a gold denomination introduced into the 
Austrian Netherlands by the Emperor Francis. Comp. Sovrano. 

Spadin, a denomination introduced into the episcopal coinage of 
Metz by Renaud, brother of the Count of Bar, bishop from 1302 to 1318, 
who sought to adapt his money in type and weight to that of Bar. 

Spadin, a silver coin of the city of Toul, I4th c., imitated from the 
types of Ferri IV., Duke of Lorraine. 

Species, a standard of currency in certain parts of Germany and in 
the north of Europe, apparently answering to the modern dollar of com- 
merce. There is a i species thaler of Brunswick- Wolfenbiittel, 1783. 
In Denmark and Sweden the form was at first Rigsdaler - species, 
which was abbreviated, when it was sufficiently well understood. The 
weight of this type was formerly by no means uniform or trustworthy in 
those countries ; but the later Kings of Denmark have restored the char- 
acter of this currency. Comp. Banco. 

Spilegroschen, a Saxon denomination for a small silver piece = a 
denier in size and weight, under Ernst, Albrecht, and Wilhelm, Dukes of 
Saxony, 1464-86. Query, a sort of card-counter. 

Sprenger, a piece of two schellinks or \ crown in N. Holland. 

Ssoiuzayia, the name given to early Russian convention -money, 
bearing the titles of two princes. 

Stadtfenning, a pfenning struck for a township. 

Statendaalder,s\\ver crown struck for general currency in the Nether- 
lands during the struggle for independence, i6th c. There is the 

Statenschelling, a coin of the same class for the lower value. Sch., 
Cat. iv. No. 298 ; Cat. v. No. 181 (a proof weighing 9.3 gram.). 

Stellino, a silver coin of Florence, only struck under the reigns of 
Cosmo I., De' Medici (1537-74), to repay the loan from the Genoese. 
On obv. occurs Cosmvs M[edJ] R[ei] P\iublic(Z\ Floren. Dvx II., and a 
portrait to r. The rev. has i". Joannes Batista, and the saint seated. 
The name is due to a star on the obv. as a mint-mark. 

Stephanusdaalder, a daalder or thaler of Nimmhegen, etc., with the 
head or figure of St. Stephen. 

Sterbdenkmunze, a species of German commemorative-money struck 

236 The Coins of Europe 

at the death of a sovereign or other ruler. It passed as ordinary 

Sterling, or Esterling, a term given to the silver unit in the early 
coinage of many European States, and possibly derived from the original 
genesis of the piece in the east of Europe. The usually high standard of 
the sterling may have led to its gradual identification with the only sense 
in which it survives. 

Stick, a small copper piece of Cologne, i8th c. (stich Kohlnisch), which 
seems to have passed current at the Swedish mines of Avestad. 

Stooter, the twentieth of the silver crown, with the reputed head of 
the Earl of Leicester. Plated ; 1 586-87. The same type occurs with the 
titles of Rodolph II., 1577. 

Stothemke, bronze currency of Bulgaria. We have a piece of 2 
stothemke, 1882. 

Strichli-dicken or diken, a silver denomination of the Swiss canton of 
St. Gallen, 1619 = 6 batzen or 24 kreutzer. There is the half. These 
pieces seem to have remained current in more than one variety down to 
1635. In the Townshend Collection there is a pattern of the diken, 

Stubcr, another form of Stuiver, q.v. 

Stuiver, Stufe, Stufer, Stiiber, a billon or copper coin of Germany and 
the Low Countries, corresponding to the French sol or son, the Italian 
soldo, etc. There are innumerable types, as well as varieties of size and 
weight. The stitisch stumer and its moiety were struck in the i6th c. 
in pursuance of the monetary convention between the imperial towns of 
Campen, Daventer, and Zwolle. There are the \ and j, and for the 
Netherlands the double. Pieces of I and 2 stuivers frequently occur 
struck in gold for the United Provinces during the i8th c. Comp. Oirt 
and Oortje. Of the ordinary Dutch stuiver 20 \vere= i gulden or is. 8d. 

Stuiver, a silver denomination used in the multiple form during the 
siege of Amsterdam by the States in 1578, and existing in a series of 40, 
20, 10, and 5 stuivers. There are two or three varieties, and the issue 
appears to have been made in two separate instalments from the silver 
plate of the Old and New Church. We have also the i and \ stuiver 
in copper, and the 48 stuiver in silver struck for Batavia, 1644-45. Prob- 
ably there was also a piece of 24 stuivers in silver ; but we have not yet 
met with it. A double stuiver was struck by the Bishop of Utrecht, 1 5th 
c. A proof struck in copper by the Bishop, Uavid of Burgundy, 1455- 
96, is cited in Schulman, 1880, No. 426. 

Stykke, pi. stykker, same as Dutch stuk, A.S. styca, a Norwegian silver 
coin, the fourth of a rigsdaler courant. 
*Suado, Austrian, silver, value 45. 8d. 

Suanzig, a silver type of Francis of Lorraine, Emperor of Germany, 
1 745-65, with the bust within a laurel wreath. Probably struck at 
Vienna. In Remedi Cat, 1884, No. 1387, the piece seems to be im- 
properly assigned to the Tuscan series. 

Sueldo, the Spanish form of Soldo, struck under Ferdinand VII. 
Whelan says: "12 Dineros = i Sueldo; 12 Sueldos = i Libra, value 

Suskin and Dodkin, the names given by the authorities of London 
and by Stow (Survey of London, 1633, p. 137) to the danari or obole, 
brought by the Genoese and other Italian traders to Galley Quay, and 
prohibited by Parliament, 13 Henry IV. and 4 Henry V. according to 

Catalogiie of European Denominations 237 

Stow. But it was a much older grievance, and arose from the inferior 
standard of the foreign currency. The historian of London recollected 
these pieces in use ; but they were, he says, reluctantly taken. The 
words are of course English corruptions. They were also known as 
Galley halfpence, from Galley Quay in Thames Street, where the Italians 
landed their goods. 

Syfert, Hanoverian, copper, current at Emden. 

Szelong, the Polish and Lithuanian solidus, first of silver or billon, 
subsequently of copper. The original szelong was = 1 2 denarii, and its 
multiples were the dvoiak (double), troiak (triple), czvorak (quadruple), 
and szostak (sextuple). Comp. Solidns. 

*Taija, Spanish, copper, value the 4th of a real. 

Talaro, talari, the designation given to the thaler of Maria Theresa of 
Austria, 1780, which is, or was, periodically re-struck for the commerce of 
the Levant, Abyssinia, Ashantee, etc. 

Tallard, the name given to the silver ecu of Lorraine, i6th c. Cat. 
Robert, 1886, No. 1454. 

Tallero, the Italian thaler. It first appeared at Florence in 1570 
under Cosmo I. De' Medici. The Dukes of Tuscany of the house of Lor- 
raine continued to coin it till the present c. Some of the earlier pieces 
and their divisions have interesting portraits and reverses. The Venetian 
piece of 10 lire, 1797, is occasionally cited as a tallero ; but it is worth at 
least 8s. English money, and is, if anything, a double t. The Rossi 
Catalogue ascribes this appellation to some of the later silver pieces of 
large module, struck about the year 17 50 and afterward, with Repvblica 
Veneta and a personified bust of the republic on rev., and on the obv. the 
name of the doge. But these appear to belong to the Osella series, and 
it may be questioned whether, the portrait varying, it was not intended for 
a likeness of the dogaressa. 

Tanga and meia tanga, Portuguese silver colonial currency for Goa, 
worth 60 and 30 reis respectively of local standard. The t. has on obv. 
bust and titles, and on reverse value crowned. Early i8th c. 

Tarin, a type struck by the Counts of Provence of the house of 
Anjou, 1 3th c. The earliest bear, between two lis, K for Karolus (Charles 
I. of Anjou). 

Taro, a gold denomination of the Arab Emirs of Sicily (loth-nth c)., 
Lombard Dukes, with Opvlenta Salerno. Beneventum, 7th c. ; of the Two 
Sicilies under the Norman rule, nth c. ; and of Amalfi, nth c. The two 
latter types were loans from Mohammedan coins. One of Roger I. of 
Sicily has T on one side for Trinacria. The Amalfitan taro may have 
been struck by a temporary Sicilian ruler or occupier. 

Taro, a small silver coin of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem at 
Malta (i6th-i8th c.). There are pieces of 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, 16, and 30 
tari. The last was = i scudo di argento. There is a very rare 3-tari piece 
of Gregorio Caraffa (1680-90), who had such a romantic escape from being 
executed in lieu of being raised to the head of affairs. Rossi Cat., 1880, 
No. 1814, cites a 2-tari piece of Gio. de Homedes, 1536-53, dated 1553; 
but there is^one of 1538. The Maltese taro was introduced about 1525 ; 
it represented about 8Jd., five = a scudo, but it differed from time to time 
in value and weight ; the i6-taro piece is very rare. Charles II. of Spain 
(1665-1700) struck a 2-tari piece for the Two Sicilies. 

Taro, a copper coin of the Knights of Malta, i6th c. It was confined 
to a few masters. Gio. Paolo Lascaris, Grand Master, 1636-57, struck 

238 The Coins of Europe 

a copper 4-tari piece, seldom found in good state, and usually counter- 
marked. There are several dates, 1636, 1641, etc. 

Tehetvertak, the Russian silver piece of 25 kopecks or J rouble. 

Tercenario, the \ and the \, a copper currency of the Norman Princes 
of Apulia and Sicily, i ith-i2th c. Pieces occur with the value expressed : 
Mcd. Tcrc. and Quarta. Tcrcenarii. 

Terlina, a billon coin struck by Louis XII. of France at Asti. 

Terlino, a coin of Alba in the Abruzzi, i6th c. 

Tern, a small coin of the ancient Counts of Barcelona, the I2th of the 

Ternaria, Vecchia, a value expressed on an Italian token of the i6thc., 
and perhaps concurrent with one in actual money of the same period. 

Tersarolo, or Terzarolo, a billon denomination current at Milan 
under the Visconti, I4th c. There is one of Galeazzo Visconti, as Lord of 
Milan and Verona, with Comes Virtvti'in on reverse. The third of the 

Testoon, teston, testone, tostao, a term applied in different languages 
to a coin with a head or portrait, apart from its strict denomination, and 
eventually given to one of a certain size irrespectively of its proper mean- 
ing. The European testoon is usually of the dimensions of an English 
florin and of the weight and value of a quadruple groat or double julio. 

Thaler, daler, dalar, daalder, tallcro, dollar, a silver coin widely dif- 
fused over the Teutonic countries of Europe, and adopted under varying 
forms of the name elsewhere. Numerous varieties occur in the schau- 
thalcr, klippethaler, I'icariatsthaler, etc. A very remarkable and rare 
one of Saxon type was struck in 1 584, probably at Ruremonde, in the 
name of Rudolph II., as Duke of Gueldres, with Nvmvs. Dvc. Gef Ad. 
Leg. Imper. F. The name is generally supposed to be taken from 
Joachimsthal in Bohemia, where the silver mines were worked about 


1518. But the coin existed long prior to that date. A singular series or 
group of thalers was issued by Ludwig of Bavaria between 1825 and 
1832 on all sorts of public or even personal occasions. They are, as a 
rule, tolerably common, and occur in unused state ; but that having on 
rev. a small full-length of the king standing at a table, on which his 
hand rests, the crown and sceptre at his side, and dated 1825, is valued 
by Schulman of Amersfoort at 135 gulden. A very erotic type is said to 
have been struck by one of the early electors of Saxony in honour of his 

Catalogue of European Denominations 239 

Theler, a spurious copper coin struck at Frankfort in 1703, or perhaps 
later. Obv. has an escutcheon enclosing a cross, beneath which occur 
three annulets ; rev. reads I Theler 1703. 

Timmin. See Trevoux in Cat. of Mints. 

Toison. Sch., Cat. vii. No. 122. 

Tornese, pi. tornesi, a coin of base silver, and subsequently of copper, 
current at a very early period in the Levant, where the Venetians 
acquired a portion of what is now known as Turkey in Europe at the 
commencement of the I3th c. Also a denomination of the Two Sicilies 
and (under the form of turnose) of East Friesland, etc. The term is of 
course derived from the French tournois. There is a piece of 3 t. struck 
for Naples, 1648, and a series of 10, 8, 5 (1797-98, cast), 4, 2, I, and ^ t. 
for the Two Sicilies under the Bourbons and the Neapolitan Republic. 

Tornesello, a bronze coin, suggested by the colonial tornese, and intro- 
duced at Venice under the Doge Ag. Barbarigo (1486-1501). 

Tornez and meo tornez, the Portuguese imitation of the French gros 
tournois under Pedro I., 1357-67. 

Tostdo, tostdes, a Portuguese silver coin = 100 reis, and equivalent to the 
French testone. There is the half or meo tostdo and the gold piece of 5 
tostoes or 500 r. The latter seems only to exist of Henrique I., 1578-80. 
It seems to be improperly designated in the absence of a portrait or head. 
It originally appeared in the I5th c. A countermarked t. of Philip II. 
of Spain as King of Portugal, struck at Lisbon, is cited by Sch., xi. 

Tournois, denier, the unit, first of the silver or billon, and subse- 
quently of the copper, coinage of France. The term tournois is derived 
from the ancient standard of the money of St. Martin de Tours. The 
copper denier tournois was first introduced under Henry III. in 1575, 
and remained, with the double, in use till the middle of the following c. 
The last survival of this currency is in the doubles of Guernsey ; but 
there is no denier. 

Tournois, double, a copper coin of France, i6th-i7th c. = 2 deniers 

Tournois, gros, a coin of fine silver, first struck by Louis IX. (1250- 
70) at the mint of the Abbey of St. Martin, and four silver deniers. 
The type of the obv. is said to be a copy of an Arabic dirhem of Acre of 
1251 ; but the rudimentary chatel seems to be symbolical of the place of 
origin, and may be seen further developed in the early Brabantine gros 
au portail. Philip III., the successor of Louis, 1270-85, struck the 
\ gros or maille tierce, and of the coin itself there are two varieties 
a FO rond and d fO long. The g. t. was imitated in the Low Countries 
and in Germany, sometimes even to the preservation of the Touraine 
legend, especially by the Counts of Holland and the Dukes of Brabant 
and Juliers. The word occurs in the corrupt forms of turnose and tornese, 
q.v., as well as in the Scotish turner. 

Tournois, livre. See Livre. 

Traro, or Da Cinque [soldi or gazzette\ a small Venetian base silver 
coin of 1 8th c. The rev. has Ivdicivm Rectvm and a figure of Justice. 
On the obv. of one specimen occurs : Pax. Tibi. Mar. Evan. M., the 
winged lion to 1., and in the exergue, 1722. 

Tremissis, the third of the solidus or sol of gold. See Triens. 

Triens (tiers de sol), a gold denomination, more properly called the 
tremissis, copied throughout the greater part of Western Europe from 
the 6th to the loth c. It probably sprang from a German or Netherland 

240 The Coins of Europe 

source. Desiderius, King of the Lombards, 755-74, struck tremisses 
stellati, so called of course from the star used as a mark or a symbol. 

Trillina, a billon piece of Milan under Galeazzo Maria and Bianca 
Visconti (1466-68) and some of their successors. It appears to have 
been \ of the testonej and the design for both under Lodovico Maria 
Sforza (1494-1500) was made by Leonardo da Vinci during his stay at 
the court of the Duke. The same hand engraved the die for the double 
testone in gold. 

Trouvaille, a word familiar enough to numismatists in connection 
with periodical discoveries under all sorts of conditions of ancient coins 
of all countries, by which new types and varieties are brought to light, 
and rare pieces sometimes made commoner. Copious notices of these 
finds occur in the French and other foreign Numismatic Transactions. 
Two of the most important of recent years were those of early papal 
danari at Rome and of early French royal and feudal money in the Rue 
Neuve du Temple at Paris. 

Tutn, a Brabantine and Dutch billon coin of the I4th and I5th c. 
The single and double groot or groat of the type of the lion enclosed in 
a hedge. 

Turnosc, a silver coin of Frankfort-on-the-Maine, East Friesland, etc., 
a degenerate type of the gros tournois. It occurs as a coin of the Counts 
of East Friesland as early as 1 504. Comp. Tornese and Wapenturnose. 

Tivccblanksfcnning, a piece of two plated pennings or pfennings, cur- 
rent in Brabant in the i6th c. There are some with the head of Charles 
V. of Spain (1515-56). 

Tvueeguldenstiik, a piece of two silver gulden or florins. It occurs 
with variations, and seems to be similar to the Leeuendaalder or Lion- 

Tynf, or tymf= 18 Polish groschen, a billon coin of Poland and 
Prussia, i8th c., and the name of certain pieces struck by Elizabeth of 
Russia during her occupation of part of Prussia, 1759-62. The Polish 
tynfs were struck by Augustus III. at Leipsic. There is one of Frederick 
II. of Prussia, struck at Konigsberg in 1752. Blanchet (ii. 194) states 
that Peter the Great struck the tynf ; but this is doubtful. 

Ungaro, or Ongaro, the Italian name for the Hungarian gold type of 
Matthias Corvinus, with the Virgin and Child, imitated both by several 
of the Italian States and in the Low Countries. We find it struck at 
Correggio in the Modenese, 1 6th- 1 7th c., and by Cosmo III. of Tuscany, 

Unicrijksdaalder, the rix-dollar of the Low Countries, issued con- 
currently with the Spanish money (1586-87). 

Vacquette, or bacquettc, a billon piece struck by the Vicomtes de 
Beam in the early part of the I5th c., with a cow as the type ( = obole or 
petit denier). The piece under this name long continued in use, and 
was coined under Henry IV. of France and Navarre for Beam, with two 
crowned H.'s and two cows in the field. There is an imitation of the 
gros de Nesle, 1 587, with three cows in the field. 

Valtans, the name which we find given to certain billon deniers of 
Cambrai, 1347 = 1 denier tournois. Comp. On-le-vault. 

Velddaalder, a daalder or thaler struck for military emergencies. One 
of Groningen, 1577, was so termed. Comp. Feldthaler. 

Vereinigungsthaler, a denomination of Anhalt-Dessau, 1863. 

Catalogue of European Denominations . 241 

Vereins miinze, currency common to a group of districts and towns, 
or to a country. See Convention-Money. 

Vertugadin, the name or sobriquet bestowed on the e"cu d'argent of 5 
livres-, issued by Louis XV., with the circular shield surmounted by a 
crown. There are the ^, j, -fa, and -fa. 

Vessillifero. See Soldino vessillifero. 

Vterch, irierchen, billon coinage of the Dukes of Pomerania of the 
branches of Stettin and Wolgast, 1492. The vierch was apparently = \ 

Vierer=4 deniers or denarii, a small coin of the Swiss canton of 
Berne, introduced in 1828. Also of Strasburgh-in-Elsas. 

Vierlander, the double groot or gros, so named from enjoying a cur- 
rency in four States. Philip le Bon, Duke of Burgundy (1433-67), as 
Count of Holland, struck the vierlander and the double or piece of 8 

Vikariat thaler, a denomination applied to the money issued by the 
Electors, Vicars of the Empire of Germany, during an interregnum. 

Vintem, a copper Portuguese coin 20 reis, struck for Guinea. 
There are the multiples of 2, 4, 6, and 12, the last = 240 reis. 

Vintima, a piece of 20 soldi in silver struck by General Paoli for 
Corsica during the republican epoch (1755-69). 

Vizlin, the name by which a silver coin equivalent to the thaler was 
struck at Ragusa in Dalmatia down to the close of the i8th c., with the 
bust of the emperors and finally that of Liberty, which is borrowed from 
the effigy on the thalers of Maria Theresa. 

Vlieger, a piece of four patards. Base silver. i6th c. Brabant. 

Vlieguyt, the name of a Brabantine billon piece struck in the I5th c. 
by the Seigneurs of Vilvorde. A denier noir or swaarte. 

Voetdrager, a name for the groot in circulation within the dominions 
of the Counts of Holland, I3th-i4th c. Silver. 

Vuurijzer. See Briquet. 

Wapcnturnose, a type of the gros tournois struck in the feudal 
county of Berg in the I4th c., with the arms or ivapcn of the Count. 

IVaydir, apparently the fifth of a glockengulden or bell-thaler. 

Weidertaufer thaler, the thaler of the Anabaptists, struck at Munster 
in 1534. 

Weight, poids, pezza, etc., a term given to metallic standards, which 
represented the legal balance of current coins, and became in some places 
and instances interchangeable with the coins themselves. In the South 
of France and on the borders of Spain, from the I3th to the I5th or i6th 
c., the livra and its parts in bronze was in general employment as a 
test of the authenticity of the multiform currency, and also, it may be 
apprehended, as an actual coinage ; a conspicuous feature is the presence 
of dates, which begin as early as 1238. By a natural transition the 
record of the prescribed weight was afterward transferred to ordinary 
money, and in some countries this practice still continues. The chrono- 
logical fixture of the issue was obviously of importance as an aid in 
identifying the weight with its counterpart. The gradual fall of such 
expedients into disuse, when the coinage grew less complex, mints less 
numerous, and education more diffused, left no vestige of the old custom 
beyond the suggestive appellations of certain coins, such as peseta, 
drachma, and oncia. The weights of ancient European pieces have been 
preserved and collected on an extensive scale, and include those of 



The Coins of Europe 

many well-known and interesting coins, among which we may mention 
the gold Anglo-Gallic salute of Henry VI. The Franco-Spanish livra 
seems to have conformed to the weight of Cologne, eight ounces troy to 
the Ib. 

Weinachtsthaler, the name of the thaler of 1518, with the portrait of 
Maximilian I. to 1., wearing berretta and the order of the Golden Fleece. 

Weissgroschen, a small silver or billon coin of the Bishops of 

Weisspfenning, a piece belonging to the same class current in the 
city of Cologne. 

Wiegman, a Danish coin of the loth c., similar in weight, value, and 
fabric to the silver penny or esterling. Comp. Hamaland- Wigman in 
Catalogue of Mints. 

WUdemannsgidden, or thaler, a silver coin of Brunswick (with its 
divisions), bearing the curious historical type of the Wild Man. It also 

occurs with two wild men in the same series, and in copper, and with a 

wild man and woman on a silver coin of Schwarzburg, 1791. The 
ordinary type is imitated on a gulden of Gertrude of Bronkhorst, 1577. 

Witpenning, or IVittenpcnning, white or plated pfenning of Wismar, 
Rostock, Stralsund, Wolgast, and other towns in the I4th and following 
centuries. It is named in conventions of 1381, 1403, and 1425 = a 
sechsling or \ schilling. The albus of the N. of Europe. 

Xerafin. See Parddo. 
* Yuzlik, Turkish, billon, value 2| piastres, 3d. 

* Zahl pfennig, German, brass, the jeton or reckoning penny. 

Zanobino, a Florentine imitation of the Venetian ducat by a Zurich 

banker and merchant named Lampronti in 1805, struck with a view to 

employment in the Levantine trade, on the strength of the repute gained 

by the original type. But the speculation failed, and the limited number 

Catalogue of European Denominations 243 

coined are said to have been melted down with very few exceptions. 
Cat. Rossi, 1880, Nos. 1443-44. The piece is figured in Plate IV. 

Zecchino, an Italian gold denomination, properly belonging to Venice, 
where the first was struck during the reign of Gio. Dandolo (1280-89). 
It derived its name from Zecca, the.Venetian form of Giudecca, where the 
mint lay. It was probably suggested by the Florentine piece issued 
some years earlier, and was in its turn copied elsewhere. It underwent 
modifications of type and fabric from time to time. Cristoforo Moro, 
Doge (1462-71), had a copper zecchino of the gold type. Francesco 
Molini (1646-55), Silvestro Valier (1694-1700), etc., issued pieces of 10 z. 
Of Pietro Grimani (1741-52) we have the 24 z. ; of Paolo Renier (1779- 
89) the 12 z. ; and the last Doge, Lod. Manin (1789-97), crowned the list 
with a piece of 100 z. 

Zehner, a loth part of a thaler. Swiss canton of Chur. The acht- 
zehner appears to be a multiple of the same piece ; but Whelan describes 
it as a silver coin of Sweden. 

Zeskin, the name of a silver or billon coin struck by Philip le Bon, 
Duke of Burgundy, in 1428, as Count of Holland. Comp. Suskin. 

Zlote, zloty, a copper coinage of Poland and the former republic of 

Zwaarte and double zwaarte, the Dutch term for the denier noir or 
unplated billon money. 

Zweier, a copper piece = 2 pfennigen, current in Styria in the i6th c. 

* Zweydrittel, Mecklenburgh, silver, value 2s. Two-thirds of rix dollar. 
Danish, value 2s. lod. 

Zwolf-groschen, a copper coin or Kippermiinze of Brandenburgh, 
1 7th c. 


The reader should be admonished that all such lists often begin abruptly, 
and are otherwise imperfect, owing to the absence of full information. Insertions 
between square brackets are supposititious. For farther particulars, for which 
space would be impracticable, see Grote, Miintzstudien, 1877. It must strike 
the attention how very frequent, in the French lines more especially, the changes 
of succession are through the absence of male heirs. 


Dukes of Bavaria 

889 Luipold, Governor of Bavaria 

and of Austria. 

907 Arnoul (Ratisbon, Salzburg). 
937 Eberhard, afterwards Ber- 

thold, brother of Arnoul. 
948 Heinrich von Saxe, brother 
of the Emperor Otto. Heim- 

955 Heinrich II. 

976 Otto I., DukeofSuabia. Otto. 
983-85 Heinrich III. 
985 Heinrich II. (re-established). 

Henrici's or Hinricvs. 
995 Heinrich IV. of Saxony. 
1005 Heinrich V. of Luxemburg?!. 
1027 Heinrich VI., afterwards 


1044 Heinrich VII. 
1049 Conrad I. von Zutphen. 
1053 Heinrich VIII. 

1056 Conrad II. of Franconia. 

1057 The Empress Agnes. 
1061 Otho II., Duke of Saxony. 

1070 Welf I. d'Este. 
iioi Welf 1 1. 

1120 Heinrich IX., brother. 
1126 Heinrich X. 
1139 Leopold. 

1141 Heinrich XI. of Austria. 
1156 Heinrich XII. 
1 1 80 Otho III. von Wittelsbach. 
1 183 Louis I., Duke of Bavaria and 
Count Palatine of the Rhine. 
Otho IV. 

Duke of Upper 


1253 Louis II. 


1294 Louis III 

afterwards empe- 
ror, son of preceding and 
brother of Rodolph, Count 
Palatine of the Rhine. 

1347 Stephen. 

1375 John, Stephen, and Frederic, 

1397 Ernest and William, brothers, 
sons of John. E. W. 

1438 Albert I., son of Ernest. 


The Coins of Europe 

1460 John and Sigismund, brothers 

of preceding. 
1467 Albert II., brother. 
1508 William IV. and Louis V. 

Wilh. et Lod. 

1550 Albert III. A Iberto. 
1579 William II. 
1598 Maximilian I. 

1651 Ferdinand Maria Francis 
Ignatius Wolfgang. 

1679 Maximilian II. 

1726 Charles Albert Joseph, after- 
wards emperor. 

1745 Maximilian III., Joseph. 

1778 Carl Theodore. 

1799 Maximilian Joseph II. 


1805 Maximilian Joseph I. 

1825 Louis I. 

1848 Maximilian II. 

1864 Louis II. 

1886 Regency of Prince Luitpold. 

Counts and Dukes of Berg 

1259 Adolphus VII. Adolphvs. 
1308 Adolphus VIII. Adolphvs. 
1360 William I. Wilhelm. 

1 380 William II., first Duke. Wil- 
1408-23 Adolphus IX. Adolfvs. 

Grand- Duke of Berg 
1806-7 Joachim Murat, brother-in-law of Napoldon I. 

927 Siegfried. 

937 Ge'ron, Count of Stade and 

965 Thierri. 

983 Lothaire, Count of Waldeck. 
1003 Werner. 

1010 Bernard, son of Thierri. 
1018 Bernard II. 
1046 William. 

1056 Odo I., Count of Stade. 
1082 Henry I. 
1087 Odo II. 
1 1 06 Rodolph, brother. 
1115 Henry II., son of Odo II. 
1128 Odo III., son of Rodolph I. 
1130 Conrad von Ploetzk. 
1134 Albert I., von Ascanien. 
1127-42 Henry Przibislav, Prince 
of Servia. 

1156-58 Jakza, pretender. Jaksa 
de Copnie. 

1170 Otto I. Otto. 

1184-88 Heinrich von Gardelegen. 
He. Co. 

1184-88 Otto II., Henry and Albert. 

1188-1206 Otto II. and Albert II. 

1192-1220 Albert II. Alberte. 

1220 John I. and Otto III. 

1266 John II., son of John I. 

1285 Otto IV. and Conrad. Con- 
rad, Otto. Marchio. 

1292 Otto V., Albert III., and Her- 

man. Otto. Alber. 

1293 Albert III. A. 
1298 Conrad I. 
1304 John III. 

1307 Waldemar I. Woldcmar. 
1319 Waldemar 1 1. von Landsberg. 

Some Dated Lists of European Rulers 247 

1322 John IV., brother. 1535 Joachim II. 

1324 Louis I. of Bavaria. Lode-vie. 1571 John Georges. 

1352 Louis II. of Bavaria. Lode- 1598 Joachim Frederic. 

ivich. 1608 John Sigismund, Grand Mas- 
1365 Otto VII. Oott. ter of the Teutonic Order, 

1373 Charles IV. of Bohemia, Duke of Prussia. 

emperor. 1619 Georges William. 

1378 Wenceslas of Luxemburgh, 1640 Frederic William. 

emperor. 1688 Frederic III., first King of 
1411 Sigismund of Luxemburgh. Prussia, in 1701. 

1415 Frederic I. von Hohenzollern, 1713 Frederic William I. 

Burgraf of Niirnberg. 1740 Frederic IV. 

1440 Frederic II. Fredericvs. 1786 Frederic William II. 

1470 Albert III., Achilles. Albt. 1797 Frederic William III. 

1486 John Cicero. Johs. 1840 Frederic William IV. 

1499 Joachim, with his son Albert. 1861 William Louis. 

Joachi et Alb. 1888 Frederic V. 
1513 Joachim I. Joac. P. William III. 

Dukes of Brunswick 

1139 Henry the Lion, m. Matilda 1252 Albert. 

of England. 1278 Albert II. 

1195 Henry the Long and William, 1318 Otto, Magnus, and Ernest. 

sons. 1368 Magnus II. 
1213 Otto, son of the latter. 

Brunswick- Wolfenbiittel 

First Branch 

1409 Henry I., son of Magnus II. 1514 Henry IV., son of Henry 
1416 William I. and Henry II. II. 

1482 Frederic I. and William II., 1568 Julius. 

sons of William I. 1589 Henry Julius. 

1495 Henry III. and Eric, sons of 1613 Frederic Ulric. D.s.p. 

William I. 

Second Branch 

1634 Augustus, son of Henry of 1735 Ferdinand Albert Charles, 

Luneburg son. 
1666 Rod. Augustus, and his 1780 Charles William Ferdinand. 

brother Antony Ulric. 1806 William Frederic 

1 704 The latter alone. 1815 Charles Frederic William. 

1714 Augustus William. 1830 William, brother. D.s.p. 
1731 Lewis Rodolph. 


The Coins of Europe 


1409 Bernard, son of Magnus II. 

of Brunswick. 

1434 Otto and Frederic, sons. 
1478 Henry I f0 

1532 Ernest } 
1546 Henry and William, sons of 

1592 Ernest II., son of William. 


sons of 


161 1 Christian 

1633 Augustus 

1636 Frederic II. >, 

1648 Christian Lewis I 

1665 George William / 

1705 Sophia-Dorothea, m. in 1682 
George Lewis of Hanover, 
afterwards George I. of 
Great Britain. 

Counts and Dukes of Cleveland 

1347 John. Johannes. 

1368 Adolphus III. Adolphvs. 

1394 Adolphus IV., Duke in 1417. 


1448 John I. lohs. 
1481-1521 John II. lohs. Senior., 


1511 John III. 

1539 John William I. Joan. Gvili. 

1562-1610 John William II., Duke 

of Cldves, Juliers, Berg, etc. 


Counts and Princes of East Friesland 

1441 Ulric I. Vlricvs. 
1466 Enno I. E?no. 
1491 Edzard I. Edzard. 
1528 Enno II. 
1540 Edzard II., 

with Christopher 
and Johann ; 

withjohann alone. 

1599 Enno III. 
1625 Rud. Christian. 
1628 Ulric II. 
1648 Enno Ludwig. 
1660 George Christian. 
1665 Christian Eberhard. 
1708 Georg Albrecht. 
1734-44 Carl Edzard, Prince of East 

Kings and Emperors of Germany 

800 Charlemagne. 

814 Louis le Debonnaire. 

840 Lothair I. Louis the German. 

876 Carloman. Louis the Young. 

88 1 Charles le Gros. 

887 Arnould, natural son of Carlo- 

899 Louis, son. 

912 Conrad I., King of Germany. 
Charles the Simple, King of 
France and Lorraine. 

919 Henry the Fowler. Hen- 

936 Otho I., King of Germany ; 
King of Italy, 961 ; empe- 
ror, 962. Oddo. 

961 Otho II., King of Germany ; 

emperor in 973. Otto. 
983 Otho III., King of Germany ; 

emperor in 996. Oddo. 
991-7 Otho III., and Adelaide, 

his grandmother. Otto. Rex. 

Adaldcida or Ahtaltet. 
1002 St. Henry II. of Bavaria, 

King of Germany ; King of 

Italy, 1004 ; emperor, 1014. 

1024 Conrad II., the Salic. C/ti'on- 


1039 Henry III., King of Bur- 
gundy in 1038 ; emperor in 


Some Dated Lists of European Rulers 249 

1056 Henry IV., King of Germany ; 
emperor in 1084. 

Rodolph, Duke of Suabia, 

Herman of Luxemburgh, pre- 

Egbert, Margraf of Thur- 

ingen, pretender. 
1106 Henry V., emperor in mi. 
1125 Lothair, Duke of Saxony; 

emperor, 1133. 
1138 Conrad III. of Hohenstaufen. 

1152 Frederic I. Barbarossa. 


1169 Henry VI., King of the Ro- 
mans ; emperor, and King of 

Italy and the Two Sicilies. 

1198 Philip, a Tuscan nobleman, 

King of Germany. Philipi's. 
Otho IV., King of Germany 

and Italy, and emperor. 

1212-50 Frederic II., son of Henry 

VI. Friderici's. 
1222 Henry of Suabia, King of the 

Romans. Deposed in 1235. 
1246-8 Henry Raspe of Thuringen. 
1247 William of Holland. 
1250-4 Conrad IV. 
1257 Richard, Earl of Cornwall, 


Alfonso V., King of Castile. 
1273 Rodolph of Habsburgh. 

Rvdolph. Rom. Re.r. 
1292 Adolphus of Nassau. Adol- 

1298 Albert I. of Habsburgh, Duke 

of Austria. Albti's. 
1308 Henry VII. of Luxemburgh, 

King of the Romans and of 

Italy ; emperor. Henricvs. 

1314-22 Frederic of Austria, son of 

Albert I. 
1314 Louis I V. of Bayaria. Lvdo- 

1347 Charles IV. of Luxemburgh ; 

King of the Romans, Italy, 

and Bohemia, and emperor. 

1349 Gunther of Schwarzburgh, 

King of the Romans ; a few 

months only. 

1378 Wenceslas of Luxemburgh. 
1400 Robert, Count Palatine of the 


1410 Jossus of Luxemburgh. 

1411 Sigismund of Luxemburgh; 

King of Germany, Italy, 
Hungary, and Bohemia, and 
emperor. Sigismv'dvs. 

1438 Albert II. of Austria. 

1440 Frederic V. Fri. 

1493 Maximilian I. 

1519' Charles V. Carolvs. Kara. 

1558 Ferdinand I., brother. 

1564 Maximilian II. 

1576 Rodolph II. 

1612 Matthias. 

1619 Ferdinand II. 

1637 Ferdinand III. 
Leopold I. 

1705 Joseph I. 

1711 Charles VI. 

1740 Maria Theresa of Austria, 
Charles VII. of Bavaria. 

1745 Francis I. of Lorraine and 
Maria Theresa. 

1764 Joseph II. 

1792 Francis II. 

1806-71 No emperors or kings of 

1871 William I. of Hohenzollern. 

1888 Frederic. 
William II. 

Landgraves of Upper Hesse and Hessc-Cassel 

1308 Otto. 

1328 Heinrich II. 

1377 Hermann. 

1413 Ludwig II. 

1458 Ludwig III. of Hesse-Cassel. 

1471 Wilhelm I. 
1493 Wilhelm II. 
1509 Philipp. 

1567 Partition into Cassel and 
Darmstadt branches. 


The Coins of Europe 

Electors of Hessc-Cassel 

1567 Wilhelm IV. 
1592 Moritz. 
1627 Wilhelm V. 
1637 Wilhelm VI. 
1663 Wilhelm VII. 
1670 Carl, brother. 
1730 Friedrich I. 

1751 Wilhelm VIII. 

1760 Friedrich II. 

1771 Wilhelm IX., Count of Hanau. 

1802-21 The same, Elector of 


1821 Wilhelm II. 
1847-66 Friedrich Wilhelm. 

Landgraves of Hesse-Darmstadt 

1567 Georg I. 

1596 Ludwig V. (of undivided 


1626 Georg II. 
1 66 1 Ludwig VI. 
1678 Ludwig VII. 

Ernst Ludwig. 
1739 Ludwig IX. 

1768-90 Ludwig X. 

1806-30 The same, Grand-Duke of 

1830 Ludwig II., Grand -Duke of 

1848-66 Ludwig III., Grand-Duke 

of Hesse. 

Landgraves of Hesse- Homburg 

d. 1638 Friedrich I. 

d. 1708 Friedrich II. 

d. 1736 Casimir Wilhelm. 

d. 1751 Friedrich Carl. 

1751-1820 Friedrich Ludwig. 

1820 Friedrich III. 
1829 Ludwig. 
1839 Philipp. 
1846 Gustaf. 
1848-66 Ferdinand. 

Dukes ofjuliers 

1357 Guillaume I. Wilhmvs. 
1361 Guillaume II. Wilhelmvs. 
!393 Guillaume III. Wilhelmvs. 
1402 Reinhold. Rciri. 

1432 Adolphe. Adolf. 
1437 Gerhard VI. Gerhdvs. 
1475 Wilhelm IV. Wilh. 
1511-22 Johann III. Johs. 

1483 Magnus II. 
1503 Albrecht VI. 
1547 Johann Albrecht I. 
1576 Johann V. 

1592 Johann Albrecht II. 
1622-33 Albrecht von Waldstein. 
1636-95 Gustaf Adolf. 

Some Dated Lists of E^tropean Rulers 251 

Dukes and Grand-Dukes of Mecklenburgh-Schwerin 

1592 Adolf Friedrich I. 
1658 Christian Ludwig I. 
1688 Friedrich Wilhelm. 
1713 Carl Leopold. 
1747 Christian Ludwig II. 

1756 Friedrich. 
1785 Friedrich Franz I. 
1837 Paul Friedrich. 
1842 Friedrich Franz II. 

Grand-Dukes of Mecklenburgh-Strelitz 

1658 Adolf Friedrich. 
1708 Friedrich III. 
1752 Adolf. 

1794 Friedrich IV. 

1816 Georg. 

1860 Friedrich Wilhelm. 

Counts Palatine of the Rhine 

959 Egon von Ehrenfried. 
989 Herman I., Count Palatine of 

1035 Otto I. 

1045 Henry I., younger son of 
Egon, named Count Pala- 
tine of the Lorraines by some 

1 06 1 Herman II., brother. 

1085 Henry II., son of Henry I., 
Count Palatine of the Rhine. 

1095 Siegfried von Ballenstadt, 

1140 Herman III., Count of 

1143 Willem von Ballenstadt. 

1156 Conrad von Hohenstaufen. 

1196 Henry III. of Saxony, son of 
Henry, Duke of Bavaria. 

1213 Henry IV. 

1215 Louis I. of Wittelsbach, Duke 
of Bavaria. 

1228 Otto II. 

1253 Louis II. 

1294 Rodolph I. and Louis. 

1317 Adolf. 

1327 Rodolph II., brother. 

1353 Ruprecht I., brother. 

1390 Ruprecht II. Rvpert. 

1398 Ruprecht III., emperor in 

1410 Louis III. Lvdivi. C.P.R. 

Dvx Ba. 
1436 Louis IV. 
1449 Frederic I., brother. 
1476 Philip, nephew. 
1508 Louis V. Lvdwic. 
1544 Frederic II., brother. 
1556 Otto Henry and Philip. Otto 

and Phi. 
1559 Frederic III., grandson of 

Ruprecht III. 
1576 Louis VI. 
1592 Frederic IV. 
1610 Frederic V., afterward King 

of Bohemia, married Eliza- 
beth, daughter of James I. of 

Great Britain, 1613. 
1650 Charles Louis I. 
1680 Charles II. 
1685 Philip William of Bavaria- 


1690 John William Joseph. 
1716 Charles Philip, brother. 
1743 Charles Theodore of Bavaria- 

Deux-Ponts ; in 1777 Duke 

of Bavaria. 
1799 Maximilian Joseph, Duke of 

Bavaria ; king in 1806. 


The Coins of Europe 

Electors of Saxony 

960 Herman Billing, Duke of 
Saxony by imperial conces- 

973 Bernard, Duke of Angria. 

1010 Bernard II. 

1062 Otto or Ordulph. 

1073 Magnus. 

1 106 Lothaire of Supplenbourg, by 
imperial concession. 

1137 Gertrude of Supplenbourg 
and Henry the Proud. 
Henry the Lion. 

1 1 80 Bernard III. of Ascania- 
Anhalt. Bernhard. 

1 21 1 Albert I. A. 

1260 Albert II. 

1298 Rodolph I. 

1356 Rodolph 1 1. 

1370 Wenceslas, brother. 

1388 Rodolph III. 

1418 Albert III., brother. 

1423 Frederic I., Margraf of Misnia 
and Landgraf of Thuringen. 

1428 Frederic II. F. 

1464 Ernest. E. 

1486 Frederic III. 

1525 John, brother. 

1532 John Frederic. 

1547 Maurice, grandson of Albert 

1553 Augustus, brother. 

1586 Christian I. 

1591 Christian II., with John 
Georges and Augustus. 

1611 John Georges I., son of 'pre- 

1656 John Georges II. 

1680 John Georges IV. 

1695 Frederic Augustus II. 

1733 Frederic Augustus II. 

1763 Frederic Christian. 

Frederic Augustus III. 


1806 Frederic Augustus I. 

1827 Anthony I. 

1836 Frederic Augustus II. 

1854 John. 
1873 Albert. 

Grand Masters of the Teutonic Order 

1195 Heinrich Walbot. 
1 200 Otto von Kerpen. 
1206 Hermann Bart. 
1 2 10 Hermann von Taiga. 
1239 Konrad, Margraf of Thu- 

1253 Peppo von Osterna. 
1257 Hanno von Sangerhausen. 
1274 Hartmann. 
1284 Bouchard. 

1290 Konrad von Feuchtwangen. 
1303 Siegfried von Feuchtwangen. 
1311 Carl Beffart. 
1324 Werner von Orsein. 
1331 Louis, Duke of Brunswick. 
1335 Dietrich von Altenberg. 
1342 Ludolf von Weitzau. 
1345 Heinrich von Dusemer. 
1351 Winric von Kniprode. 

1382 Konrad I. 

1390 Konrad II. 

1393 Konrad von Jungingen. 

1407 Ulric. 

1410 Heinrich von Pleuen. 

1413 Hermann Gans. 

1414 Michael von Sternberg. 
1422 Paul Russdorf. 

1441 Konrard von Erlichshausen. 
1450 Ludwig von Erlichshausen. 
1467 Heinrich III. 
1470 Heinrich IV. von Richten- 


1477 Martin von Wetzhausen. 
1489 Johann von Tiefen. 
1498 Frederic, Duke of Saxony. 
1512 Albert, Margraf of Branden- 

burgh, first Duke of Prussia. 

Some Dated Lists of European Rulers 253 


Margraves, Dukes, and Arch- Dukes of Austria 

928 Leopold. 

983 Albert I. and Henry, brothers., 

Leopold II. 
1040 Leopold III. 
1044 Albert II. 
1056 Ernest. 
1075 Leopold IV. 
1096 Leopold V. 
1136 Henry II., first Duke of 


1177 Leopold VI., brother of pre- 

1194 Leopold VII. 
1246 Frederic II. F. 
1251 Ottokar, King of Bohemia in 

1273 Rodolph I. of Hapsburg, 

afterwards emperor. 
1308 Albert, Duke of Austria and 

of Styria, emperor. 

1330 Albert II., brother of preced- 
ing. Dvx Albertvs. 

1358 Albert III. 

1395 Albert IV. and William. 
W. A. 

1404 Albert V., emperor. 

1404-10 Ernest. Ern. 

1406-1 1 Leopold IV. and Albert V. 
L. A. 

1406-39 Frederic IV. F. 

1411 Albert V., emperor 1438-39. 

1453 Ladislas, King of Hungary. 
L. R. 

J 457-63 Albert VI. Albertvs. Archi- 
dvs. Avstrie. 

1458 Frederic III., emperor 1452. 
Frid. Ro. Imp. 

1493-1519 Maximilian. Maximili- 
anvs, etc. 

Emperors of Austria 

1806 Francis I. 

1836 Ferdinand L, abdicated in 1848. 

1848 Francis Joseph 1. 

Dukes and Kings of Bohemia 

871 Borzivoi, son of Hustivitus, 

first Christian Duke of 

895 Spitignew I. 
907 Wratislas L, brother. 
928 Wenceslas I. 
936 Boleslas I. the Cruel, brother. 

967 Boleslas II., the Pious. Bolez- 

lavs. Boveslav. 
999 Boleslas III., the Blind. Bo- 


1002 Jaromir. Jaromi. Dvx. 
1012 Udalric, brother. Odalricvs. 


1037 Bracislas I. Bracizlav. 
1055 Spitignew II. Spitilnev. 
1061 Wratislas II., brother, King 

of Bohemia in 1066. Wrat- 


1092 Conrad I., King of Bohemia. 

1093 Bracislas 1 1. , Kingof Bohemia. 

noo Borivoi, son of Wratislas II., 

King of Bohemia. Borivoi. 
1 107 Sautopluk, brother, King of 

Bohemia. Svatopole. 
1 109 Otto of Moravia. Otto Servs 



The Coins of Europe 

1 109 Wladislas, duke. Dvx Wla- 

1125 Sobieslas I., duke. Dvx Sva- 

1140 Wladislas II., duke ; king in 

1157. Wladizlavs. 
1174 Sobieslas II. 
1 1 80 Frederic, duke. Dvx Frid- 


1190 Conrad Otto, grandson of 

Conrad I. 

1191 Wenceslas II., son of Sobies- 

las I. 

1192 Przemislas Otakar I., king in 

1 200. Rc.v Otackan's. 

1193 Henry Bracislas. 
1 196 Wladislas V. 

1230 Wenceslas I. IVenceslavs D. 
1253 Przemislas Otakar II. Ota- 

karvs Rc.v. 
1278 Wenceslas II., King of 

Bohemia and of Poland. 

Wen. Rex. or IV. II. 

1305 Wenceslas III., King of Hun- 

gar y ( 1 30 1 - 5 ). IVenceslavs 

1306 Rodolph. 

1307 Henry of Carinthia. 

1310 John of Luxemburgh. Johes. 
or Johannes Priinvs. 

1347 Charles of Luxemburgh, em- 
peror in 1355. Karolvs 

1378 \Venceslas IV., emperor. W. 

1419 Sigismund, brother. 

1437 Elizabeth and Albert of Aus- 
tria. A. 

1440 Ladislas or Wladislas. 

1458 Georges of Kunstadt, seigneur 
of Podiebrad. Gcorgivs 

1471 Wladislas II., son of Casimir 
I V., K ing of Poland. Wlad- 
islai's Secvndvs. 

1516-26 Louis. Lodovicus Primus. 

Kings of Hungary 

looo Saint Stephen, son of the 

Duke Geiza, and descendant 

of Toxis, chief of the Huns. 

Stcphanvs Rex. 
1038 Peter the German, nephew 

of preceding. Petrvs. 
1042 Samuel Owon or Aba,brother- 

in - law of Saint Stephen. 


1044 Peter the German. 
1047 Andrew I., descendant of 

Toxis. Andreas. 
1 06 1 Bela I. Dvx or Rex. 
1063 Salomon. Salomoni. 
1074 Geiza or Geyeza I., called 

Magnus. Dvx Mvxnas, or 

Gevca Rex. 

1077 Ladislas I. Ladislavs. 
1095 Coloman or Colan. Caiman. 

Lvbanvs or Colvmbanvs 

1114 Stephen II. Ste or Ste- 


1132 Bela II. Bela. 
1151 Geiza II. Geisce Re. 

1161 Ladislas II., usurper, uncle. 
Stephen III. S.V.R. 

1172 Stephen IV. 

1173 Bela III., brother of Stephen 

III. Bela. 

1196 Emeric, or Henry. Hen- 

1204 Ladislas. 

1205 Andrew II. Andreas. 

1235 Bela IV. Bela Qvartvs, or 

1260 Stephen IV. Stephan. 

1272 Ladislas III. Cumanus. La- 

1290 Andrew III. Andreas. 

Charles Martel d'Anjou, pre- 

1301 Wencelas of Bohemia. 

1305 Otto of Bavaria. Ot 'fonts. 

1310 Charles I. d'Anjou. Karo- 

1342 Louis I. d'Anjou. Lvdovicvs. 

1383 Marie d'Anjou. Maria. 

1385 Charles II., the Little. 

'Some Dated Lists of E^tropean Riders 255 

1387 Sigismund of Luxemburgh, 

emperor. Sigismvndi. 
1437 Albert of Austria. Albertvs. 

1440 Ladislas IV. of Poland. 


1441 John Huniades, Governor. Jo- 

hancs N.D.R. Vngarie Gi>. 
1452 Ladislas V. Posthumus. La- 


1458 Mathias Corvinus. Mathias. 
1490 Ladislas VI. Wladislavs. 
1516 Louis II. Lodovicvs. 
1526 John Zapoly, Count of Sce- 

puse. Joani Zapol, or 


1527 Ferdinand I. 

1540 John Stephen, or Sigismund. 

1564 Maximilian I. 

1576 Rodolph II. 

1608 Mathias. 

1619 Ferdinand II. 

1637 Ferdinand III. 

1656 Ferdinand Francis and his 

brother Leopold Ignatius. 
1705 Joseph I., son of the Emperor 

Leopold I. 

1711 Charles IV., brother. 
1740 Maria Theresa of Austria and 

Francis of Lorraine. 

Princes or Waiwodes of Transylvania 

1526 Johann I. Zapoly. 

1540 Johann II. Sigismund Zapoly 

(lohan. Sigism.}, and till 

1560 his mother Isabel, 

guardian. Ysabe. 
1571 Stephen I. Bathory. S.B.D\c\ 

1576 Christof Bathori. Chr. Bath. 

De. Som., or C.B.D.S. 
1581 Sigismund Bathori. Sigt. 

1598-1605 Rodolph II., Emperor 

of Germany. 

1602 Moses Zekel von Semenfalva. 
1604 Stephen Botskay. Stepha 

Bochkay, or Stephanvs. 

1607 Sigismund Rakoczy. Sigis- 

mvndvs Racocii. 

1608 Gabriel Bathory. Gab. or 

Gabriel Bathory. 

1613 Gabriel Bethlen Gabor. Ga. 
Bet., or Gabriel. 

1630 Catherine of Brandenburgh, 

widow. Cath. D.G.N\atd\ 
M\archionissd\ B\randen- 

Stephen Bethlen. Stepha. 

1631 Georges Rakoczy I. Georgivs 


1649 Georges Rakoczy II. Geor. 

1658 Achatius Bartsay. Acha.Bar. 

1660 Johann Kemeny. loan Ke- 

1662 Michael I. Apafi. 

1 682-99 Emerich Tokoli, or Teckly. 
Erne. Thokoli, or Tockel. 

1690-99 Michael II. 

1703-11 Franz II., Rakoczi. Fran- 
cis cvs fl. 


Kings of Poland 

Miecislav, or Miesko, Prince 
of Poland. Mesico. 

992 Boleslav the Great, King of 
Poland. Bolaslav. 


The Coins of Europe 

1025 Miecislav, or Miesko II. 
Misico. Polonii. 

1034 Rixa, widow, regent. 

1040 Casimir I. 

1058 Boleslav II., Smiali. Bzlvas, 
or Blezlvas. 

1079 Vladislav I., Hermann. Vlad- 

1102 Bolislav III., Vouyywousty. 
Dvris Bolczla, etc. 

1139 Vladislav II. Vloavs, or 

1148 Boleslav IV., Kedzierzawy. 

1173 Miesko III., Stary. Mesico. 

1202 Vladislav III., Laskonogi. 

1207 Leszek Bialy, the Wise. 

1227 Boleslav von Wstyliwy. 
Bolczlavs Dvx. 

1279 Leszek II. 

1289 Henrich Lagodny. 

1295 Przemislas. 

1300-5 Wenceslas, King of Bohe- 
mia. Vcn. 

1300-33 Vladislav IV. Lokietek. 

1333 Kasimir III., Wielki, the 
Great. A'. A 1 ., or Kaziniiri. 

1370 Louis d'Anjou. Lodvici. K. 

1 The last resigned in 1795, and 

1382 Vladislas V., Jagello. Wlad- 
islavs Rex. 

1434 LladislasVI. W.R.mVlad- 

1447 Kasimir Jagello. Kasimirvs. 

1492 Johann Albert. /. Alberti. 

1501 Alexander Jagello. Alex- 

1506 Sigismund I. Sigismimd 

1548 Sigismund II., Augustus. 

1573 Henri de Valois, Due d'An- 

Stephen Bathory, Prince of 

1 586 Maximilian of Austria. 

1587 Sigismund III. 
1632 Lladislas Sigismund. 
1648 Johann Kasimir. 

1669 Michael Koribut Wiesno- 


1674 Johann III., Sobieski. 
1696 Interregnum. 
1699 Frederic Augustus I. of 


1704 Stanislas I., Lezinski. 
1709 Frederic Augustus I. again. 
1733 Frederic Augustus II. 

1763 Frederic Christian of Saxony 

1764 Stanislas II., Augustus. 1 

died at St. Petersburgh in 1798. 

Dukes of Courland 

1563 Gothard Keller. 

1587 Friedrich. 

1639 Jacob. 

1683 Friedrich Kasimir. 

1698 Friedrich Wilhelm. 

1711-37 Interregnum. 

!?37 Jean Ernest de Biron. 

1741 Ludwig Ernst V., of Bruns- 
wick- Bevern. 

1759 Carl Christian, son of Fried- 
rich Augustus, King of 

1762 Jean Ernest de Biron again. 

1769-95 Pierre. 

Grand-Dukes of Kief 

988 Wladimir I., Swiatoslavitch. 
1016 Swiatopolk. 

1018-54 Jaroslav I., Wladimiro- 

1073-78 Swiatoslav Jaroslavitch. 

Some Dated Lists of European Rulers 257 

Grand-Dukes of Moscow 

1362 Dmitri Ivanovitch Douskoi. 

1389 Vasili Dmitrivitch. 

1425 Vasili Vasilievitch Tiomny. 

1462 Ivan III., Vasilievitch. 

1505 Vasili Ivanovitch. 

1 533 Ivan IV., Vasilievitch, Tzar of 


1584 Feodor Ivanovitch. 
1598 Boris Feodorovitch Godou- 


1605 Dmitri Ivanovitch. 

1606 Vasili Ivanovitch Chouiski. 
1610 Vladislas Vasa, son of Sigis- 

mund III. of Poland. 
1613 Michael Feodorovitch Ro- 

1645 Alexei Michaelovitch. 

1676 Feodor Alexievitch. 

1682 Ivan Alexievitch, brother. 

Peter Alexievitch, the Great, 

Sophia, sister, at first Regent. 
1725 Catherina I. Alexievna. 
1727 Peter II., Alexievitch. 
1730 Anna Ivanovna. 

1740 Ivan IV., Antonovitch. 

1741 Elisabeth I., Petrovna. 
1762 Peter III., Feodorovitch. 

Catherina II., Alexievna. 
1796 Paul I., Petrovitch. 
1801 Alexander I., Paulovitch. 
1825 Nicolas I. 
1855 Alexander II. 
1 88 1 Alexander III. 


Kings of Sweden 

995 Olaf Skotkonung. Olvf,Rex. 1319 

Zhevm. 1 3S 

1 022 Anund Jacob. Anvnd, Rex. 1361 

S. 1363 

1051 Ernund III. 1389 

1056 Stenkill. 1396 

1066 Eric VII. and VIII. 

1067 Haquin I. 1440 
1080-90 Halstan. 1448 
1080-1112 Ingo I. 1457 
1 112 Philip. 1465- 
1118 Ingo II. 1497 
1129 Suerker I. 1520 
1155 Eric IX. 1523 
1161 Charles VII. 1560 
1167 Cnut. Kanvtvs, Rex. S. 1568 
1196 Suerker II. 1592 
1208 Eric X. or XI. Er. 1604 
1215 John I. Ihs. Hesn. 

1250 Waldemar. Walr. 1611 

1275 Magnus I. M. 1632 

1290 Birger. 1654 

63 Magnus II. M. 

9 Eric XII. 

Haquin II. 



Eric II. of Pommern. 


Christopher. Kristofer. 
70 Charles VIII. Knutsvn. 
64 Christiern I. Crissternne. 
7 Interregnum. 
1501 John II. of Denmark. 
Christiern II. 
Gustavus Vasa. 
Eric XIV. 
John III. 

Sigismund III. of Poland. 
Charles IX., Duke of Suder- 
mania. . 

Gustavus II., Adolphus. 
Charles X., Gustavus. 


The Coins of Europe 

1660 Charles XI. 

1697 Charles XII. 

1719 Ulrica Eleonora, sister, and 

Frederic of Hesse-Cassel. 
1751 Adolphus Frederic II. 
1771 Gustavus III. 
1792 Gustavus IV., Adolphus. 

1809 Charles XIII., Duke of Suder- 

mania, uncle. 

1818 Charles XIV., Bernadotte. 
1844 Oscar I. 
1859 Charles XV. 
1872 Oscar II. 

Kings of Denmark 

935 Harold II. 

985 Sven Tveskaeg, King of Den- 
mark and England. 
1014 Canut. 
1035 Harthacanut. 
1042 Magnus. 

1046 Magnus and Harald Haar- 


1047 Sven Aestrithson. 
1076 Harold Hein. 
1080 Canut II. 

1086 Olaf Hunger. 
1095 Erik Hezegod. 
1104 Niels. 
1134 Erik Emune. 
1137-47 Eric Lam. 
1138-41 Olaf. 
1147-57 Sven Graths. 

Canut V. 

1 154 Waldemar I. 
1182 Canute VI. 
1202-41 Waldemar II. 
1232 Erik Ploupennig. 
1250 Abel. 
1252 Christopher I. 
1259 Erik Glipping. 
1286 Erik Menved. 
1319-33 Christopher II. 
1340 Waldemar IV. 

1376 Olaf Haakonson. 

1387 Margaret, Queen of Den- 
mark, Sweden, and Norway. 

1396 Erik of Pommern. 

1440 Christopher III. of Bavaria. 

1448 Interregnum of a few months. 
Christiern I. of Oldenburgh. 

1481 John. lohs. 

1513 Christiern II., King of Swe- 
den, 1520. 

1523 Frederic I. of Denmark and 

1533 Interregnum. 

1534 Christiern III. of Schleswig- 

1559 Frederic II. 
1588 Christiern IV. 
1648 Frederic III. 
1670 Christiern V. 
1699 Frederic IV. 
1730 Christiern VI. 
1746 Frederic V. 
1766 Christiern VII. 
1808 Frederic VI. 
1839 Christiern VIII. 
1848 Frederic VII. 
1863 Christiern IX. of Sonderburg- 


Kings of Norway 

933-35 Erik I., Bloddxe. Eric. 

995-1000 Olaf I., Tryggvesson. 

Onlaf, Rex Nor. 
1000-1014 Sven Tjugeskegg. 


1000-1015 Erik Haakonsson Jarl. 
Olaf Svonske. Olvf. 
Rex Zbevgx. 
1014-15, 1028 Knut. Cnvt. Rex 


1015 Haakon Eriksson Jarl. 

'Some Dated Lists of European Rulers 259 

1015-28 Olaf II., Haraldsson. 

Vnlafi + E + A nov. 
1035. Magnus I., Olafsson. Mag- 

nvs. Rex Nar. 

1046 Magnus I., Olafsson, and 

Harald III., Sigurdsson. 
Mahnvs. Aralt, Rex. 

1047 Harald III., Sigurdsson. 

Harald, Rex No., or Arald. 

Rex Nar. 

1066-69 Magnus II. 
1067 Olaf III., Kyrre. 
1093 Magnus III. 
1103-22 Eystein I. 
1103-30 Sigurd I. 
1130-35 Magnus IV. 
1130-36 Harald IV. ; Sigurd II. 
1 136-61 Ingo I. 

1 142-57 Magnus V. and Eystein II. 
1161-84 Magnus VI. ; Haco III. ; 

Sigurd III. 

1177-1202 Swerre, competitor. 
1201-4 Haakon IV. 
1205 Ingo II., Baardsson. 
1217 Haakon V. 
1263 Magnus IV., Haakonsson. 

Rex Magnus. 
1280-99 Erik II., Magnusson. 

Haakon V., Magnusson. 

Haqvin. dvx, Norwegie. 
1219 Haakon V., Eriksson. 
1255 Haakon VI., Magnusson. 

Haqvinvs, Rex. 
1380 Olaf V., Haakonsson. 
1389 Erik III. of Pommern. 


Princes of Achaia 

1205 Guillaume de Champlitte. 
1209 Geoffrey I. de Villehardouin. 
1218 Geoffroy II. de Villehardouin. 
1245 Guillaume I. de Villehardouin. 

G. Princeps. 
1278-1285-1287 Charles I. and 

Charles II. d'Anjou. Naples, 

K. R. Princ. Ach. 
1289 Florent de Hainaut and Isa- 

belle de Villehardouin. 

Florens, P. Ache. 
1297 Isabelle de Villehardouin. 

Isabella, P. Ach. 

1301 Philippe de Savoie and Isa- 
belle. Phs. D. Sab. P. 

1307 Philippe de Tarente. Phs. 

P. Ach. Tar. p. R. 
1313 Louis de Bourgogne and 

Mahaut de Hainaut. Lodo- 

vic. D. B. P. Ache. 

1315-16 Ferdinand of Majorca, 

pretender. Fnans. P. D. 

1316 Mahaut de Hainaut, alone. 

Mahav, or Mahavta. 
1318 Jean d'Anjou-Gravina. lohs. 

P. Ache. 
1333 Catherine de Valois-Tarente 

and Robert de Tarente. 
1346 Robert d'Anjou - Tarente. 

Robt. P. Ache. 
1364 Marie de Bourbon and 

1370 Philippe II. d'Anjou-Tarente. 
1374-81 Jeanne of Naples and 
1376-81 Otto of Brunswick. 
1381 Jacques des Baux. 
1383 Interregnum. 
1396 Pierre de St. Exupery. 
1402 Marie de St. Exupery, Regent. 
1404 Centurione Zaccaria. 


The Coins of Europe 

Dukes of Athens 

1205 Othon de la Roche. 
1225 Gui I. de la Roche. 

A then (G.) 
1263 Jean de la Roche. 

1280 Guillaume I. de la Roche. 
Dns G. Dvx Athens. 

1287 Gui II. de la Roche. Gvtot, 

Di>x AtW, or Gi>i. 
1308 Gauthier de Brienne. G. 

Despots of Epirus 
Angelas Com 

1205 Michael I. 

1214 Theodorus Angelus Com 


1230 Manuel. 
1237 Michael II. 

1271 Nicephorus I. 
1296 Thomas. 
1318 Nicolo Orsini. 

1310 IMCOIO ursmi. 

1323 Gio. Orsini. lohs. Despotvs. 

1335 Nicephorus II. 

Signori of Mytilenc and of Aenos in Thrace 

1355 Francesco I. ,Gattilusio. F.G., 
or Franciscvs Gatilvxivs. 

1376 Jacopo Gattilusio. Jacoln>s 

1396 Francesco II. Gattilusio. 

1400 Doimo Gattilusio. Dorinvs 

1449 Domenico Gattilusio. D. 

Domincvs G. 
1459 Nicolo Gattilusio. Nicolavs 

G., or Nyovlaoys. 

Genoese Lords of C/n'o 

1304 Benedetto I., Zaccaria. 
1307 Pala?ologo Zaccaria. 
1314 Martino and Benedetto II., 
Zaccaria. M. and B. Zacha- 

1314 Martino alone. M. Z. 

S[crvus] Impator\is\ 
1362 The Giustiniani. 

Sebastocrators of Thessaly 

1271 Johannes I. Angelus Com- 

1296 Constantinus Angelus. 

1303-18 Johannes 1 1. Angelus Com- 

Some Dated Lists of European Rulers 261 


Seigneurs, Counts, and Dukes of Gueldres 

870 Guichard. 

910 Gerlac I. 

937 Geoffroi. 

978 Guichard II. 

1001 Wiking. 
1025 Guichard III. 
1079 Alix. Otho of Nassau, Count 
of Gueldres. 
Gerard of Nassau. 
1134 Henry. Henricvs. 
1163 Gerard II. G. 
1182 Otho I. 

1207 Gerard III. Gerar. 
1229 Otho II. Otto. 

1271 Raynald I., Duke of Gueldres. 

1326 Raynald II. 

1343-44 Eleonora, regent or guar- 
dian. Alynora Dvcissa. 

1344-61 Edward. Edewardvs. 

1371 Raynald III. 

1372 Mary and William of Juliers. 


1402 William IV. 

1423. Arnould, Count of Egmont. 

1472 Charles le Tdmeraire, Duke 
of Burgundy, the last duke 
of Gueldres having disin- 
herited his heir Adolphus. 


863 Thierri I. 

T^ . fThierri II. 
Dates I T,, TTT 
J Thierri III. 

. \ Thierri IV. 
n VFlorent I. [? de Voogd.] 
1061 Thierri V. 
1091 Florent or Floris II. 
1 1 22 Thierri VI. 
1157 Florent III. Florenz. 
1190 Thierri VII. 

1203 Ada. 

1204 Willem I. 

1223 Florent IV. Florens. 
1235 Willem II. 

1257-58 Florent of Holland, regent. 
1266 Florent V. F. or Florentivs. 
1296 John I. /.or lohes. 
1299 John II. of Hainault. 
1304 Willem III. W. or Gvillelm. 
1337 Willem IV. 
1356 Willem V. Gvill. Gvll. 
1377 Albert of Bavaria. Albert. 
1404 Willem VI. Gvill. Gvillelm. 
1417 Jacqueline. 
1421 John of Bavaria. loJf. 
1428 Philippe le Bon, Duke of Bur- 

1 06 1 Waleran. 
1 08 1 Henry. 
1118 Waleran II. 
1139 Henri II. 
1170 Henri III. 

Dukes of Limburg in Brabant 

1 2 10 Waleran III. 
1226 Henri IV. 
1246 Waleran IV. 
1276 Ermengarde and Raynald, 
Duke of Gueldres. 


The Coins of Europe 

Counts and Dukes of Luxemburgh 

963 Sigefroi, brother of Godefroi, 

Count of Verdun. 
998 Frederic I. 

1019 Gilbert I. 

1057 Conrad I. 

1086 Henri I. 

1128 Conrad II. 

1136 Henri II., the Blind, son of 
Godefroi, Count of Namur, 
maternal grandson of Con- 
rad I. Hanri. 

1196 Guillaume I. 

Thibaut, Comte de Bar. 

1214 Ermesinde de Luxemburgh 
and Waleran, Duke of Lim- 

1226 Henri III., Count of Luxem- 
burgh and of Ligny, Marquis 
of Arlon. Hanri. 

1280 Henri IV. 

1288 Henry V., emperor in 1308. 
H. or Hcnricvs. 

1309 John, the Blind, King of Bo- 
hemia and Poland. 

1346 Charles, King of Bohemia 
and emperor. Karol. 

1353 Wenceslas, first duke, and 
Jeanne. Wincel. 

1383 Wenceslas 1 1., emperor. Wen- 

1388 Jodocus of Moravia, emperor. 
lodoc. March. Dns. Moraine. 

1402 Louis d'Orleans. 

1407 Jodocus restored. 

1411 Anthoine de Bourgogne, Due 
de Brabant. Ant/to. 

1415 Elizabeth of Goerlitz and John 
of Bavaria. Elizab. loh. 

1451 Philippe le Bon, Duke of 
Burgundy, by purchase. 

Counts of Namur 

908 Berenger of Lomme. 
973 Ratbode I., Count of Lomme 
and Namur. 

Ratbode 1 1., Count of Namur. 
Albert I., his brother. 
1016 Albert II. 
1037 Albert III., Count of Namur 

and Brugeron. Albertvs. 
1105 Godefroid. 

1139 Henri I., the Blind. Einric. 
1189 Baudouin V. 
1196 Philippe the Noble. 
12 1 2 Pierre de Courtenay et Yo- 

1216 Philip II. 

1226 Henry II. 

1229 Margaret and Henry of 


1237 Baudouin de Courtenay. 
1263 Gui de Dampierre. G. or 


1297 John I., Heervan Slijs. lohes. 
1331 John II., lo. 

1335 Guido. G., or Giydo. 

1336 Philip III. Phis. 

1337 William I. 
1391 William II. 
1418 John III., 

called Thierri. 

1814 Willem I. 
1840 Willem II. 

Kings of the Netherlands 

1849 Willem III. 
1889 Wilhelmina I. 

The grand-duchy of Luxemburgh has passed to the Duke of Nassau. 

Some Dated Lists of European Rulers 26, 

Seigneurs of Reckheim 

1397 Willem I. 

1400 Willem II. 

1442 Willem III. 

1480 Isabel and John of Pirmont. 

1501 Gerard of Pirmont. 

John of Pirmont and Anne de 

la Marck. 
1541 Robert de la Marck. 

1545 John of Hamin. 
1 6th c. The Vlodorp family. 
Herman van Lynden. 
1603 Ernest. 
1636 Ferdinand. 
1665 Francois Gobert. 
1703-8 Ferdinand Gobert. 

Counts of s* Heerenberg 

1331 Adam III. Ade. D. Mote. 

Margaret, his widow. Mar- 


1354 William I. Wilhelmvs. 
1387 Frederic III. Fredericks. 
1416 William II. Wilhelm, Dn. 

de Berge. 
1465. Oswald I. 

1506 William III. 
1511 Oswald II. Oswald. 
1546 William IV. Gvil, etc. 
1577 Frederic of Berg. Fre. C. D. 

Mo., etc. 

1626 Henry. Henricvs. 
1627-31 Herman Frederic. Her. 


Bishops of Utrecht 

870 Odibald. 

goo Egibold. 

901 Ratbod. 

918 Balderic. 

977 Folkmar. 

991 Baudouin. 

995 Ansfrid. 
1010 Adelbold. 
1028 Bernold. 

1054 Wilhelm. 
1076 Conrad. 
1099 Burckhard. 
1113 Godebald. 
1128 Andrew de Cuyk, adminis- 

1138 Heribert. 
1152 Herman. 
1 1 56 Godefroi. 
1178 Baudouin. 

1196 Arnould. 

1197 Thierri I. 

1198 Thierri II. of Namur. 
1213 Otho I. of Gueldres. 
1215 Otho II. of Lippe. 

Bernoi, or Ber- 




1228 Willebrand. 
1235 Otho III. 

1249 Godwin. 

1250 Henry of Vianen. Henri- 


1267 John I. of Nassau. 
1288 John II. of Zirk. 
1296 Willem II. 
1301 Gui of Hennegau. 
1312 Jacob. 

John III. of Diest. 
1317 Frederic II. 
1341 Nicolo Capucci. 

John IV. of Arkel. 
1364 John V. 
1371 Arnould of Horn. 
1379 Florent. Floren. 
1393 Frederic III. Frederic. 
1425 Suederus. 
1433 Rodolph of Diepholt. Rodlp. 

1456 Gisbert. 

1457 David de Bourgogne. 
1496 Frederic of Baden. 
1519 Philippe de Bourgogne. 


Dat f s ) Bruno I. 

The Coins of Europe 

Counts of West Fries! and 

1038-57 Bruno III. 
1057-68 Egbert I. 
1068-90 Egbert II. 

Kings of the Belgians 
1831-65 Leopold I. of Saxe-Coburg. 1865 Leopold II., son. 

Counts of Flanders 

862 Beaudouin I., son-in-law of 
Charles le Chauve, and Grand 
Forester of Flanders. 

879 Beaudouin or Baudouin II., 
Count of Flanders, Boulogne, 
and Ternois. 

918 Arnould I., Count of Flanders, 
and, on the death of his 
brother Adolphe in 933, of 
Boulogne and Ternois. He 
associated in 958 his son 
Baudouin III., who died in 

965 Arnould II 
988 Baudouin 

1036 Baudouin V. 

1067 Baudouin VI., Count of Hain- 
ault, yVm- u.voris. 

1070 Robert I., Count of Flanders 
and Alost. Koberti. 

1093 Robert II. 

I ill Baldwin VII. 

1119 Charles of Denmark, cousin- 

1127 Guillaume de Normandie, 


1128 Thierri D'Alsace, cousin. 


IV. Baldi'ini's 

1 191 



Philippe D'Alsace, Count of 
Flanders and Yermandois. 
Ph. Comes or Philippus. 

Marguerite, sister, with Bau- 
douin Y. of Hainault and 
YIII. of Flanders. 

Baudouin IX., Count of Flan- 
ders and Hainault, Emperor 
of Constantinople. B. Comes. 

Jeanne and Ferdinand of 

Marguerite, sister, and Guil- 
laume de Dampierre, her son. 

Gui de Dampierre, brother of 

Philippe de Thielte, adminis- 
trator. Filp. 

Robert de Bethune. His son 
Louis d. I'itA patris. 

Louis de Crecy, Count of 
Nevers, and 


Louis de 


Marguerite, daughter, in. 

Philippe le Hardi, Duke of 


Maele, Count of 
Nevers, and Re- 

Cottnts of Hainault 

998 Rainier IV. 
1013 Rainier V. Rennadvs. 

1030 Rainier VI. 

1031 Richilde, and Baldwin V., 

Count of Flanders. 

1071 Baldwin II. 

1099 Baldwin III. 

1 1 20 Baldwin IV. 

1 1 70 Baldwin V. 

1195 Baldwin VI. 


Some Dated Lists of European Rulers 265 

1206 Jeanne. 

1244 Margaret of Constantinople. 

1280 Jean II., D'Avesnes. lohs. 

1304 Guillaume I., le Bon. G. or 


1337 Guillaume II. Gvllelmvs. 
1345 Marguerite II. and Louis IV. 

of Bavaria, emperor. 
1356 William III. of Bavaria. 


1389 Albert of Bavaria, regent. 

Albert of Bavaria, Count of 

1404 William IV. Gvilm. 

1417 Jacqueline of Bavaria, m. (i) 
John IV., Duke of Brabant, 
(2) Humphrey, Duke of Glou- 

1427 Philip le Bon, Duke of Bur- 
gundy. Phs. 

Bishops of Ltige to 1744 

856 Francon. 

903 Etienne. 

920 Richer. 

945 Hugues I. 

947 Farabert or Floribert. 

954 Rathier. 

956 Baudri I. 

959 Eraclius. 

972 Notger or Notker. 
1008 Baudri II. 
1018 Walbodon. 
1021 Durand. 
1025 Reginard. 
1039 Nithard. 
1042 Wazo. 
1048 Theodwin. 
1076 Henri. Henric. 
1092 Otbert. Obertvs. 
1119 Frederic. 
1 12 1 Alberon I. Albero. 
1128 Alexandre. Alexand. 
1136 Alberon II. of Gueldres. 
1145 Henri II. of Limburg. Hen- 
ricvs Secvndvs. 

1166 Alexandre II. A. 

1167 Raoul. Rot. Rode. 
1191 Albert I. Alb. 

1 194 Albert II. 
1 200 Hugues II. 
1229 Jean II. lohs. 
1238 Guillaume. 
1240 Robert. Robt. 

1247 Henri III. 

1274 Jean III. of Enghien. 

1282 Jean IV. Johannes. 

1292 Gui. 

1296 Hugues III. of Chalon. 


1301 Adolphe of Waldeck. AdvlJ. 
1 303 Thibaut of Bar. Thcob. 
1313 Adolphe II. de la Marck. 
1345 Engelbert de la Marck. 
1364 Jean V. of Arckel. 
1378 Arnould of Homes. 
1390 Jean VI. of Bavaria. lohs dc 


1418 Jean VII. of Walenrode. 

1419 Jean VIII. of Heinsberg. 


1456 Louis de Bourbon. Zvdo. 
1484 Jean IX. of Homes. Jo. de 


1506 Erard de la Marck. 
1522 Cornelius van Berghen. 
1544 Georges of Austria. 
1557 Robert II. of Berghen. 
1562 Gerard van Grosbeck. 
1581 Ernest of Bavaria. 
1600 Ferdinand of Bavaria. 
1649 Maximilian Henry of Bavaria. 
1688 Jean Louis of Elderen. 
1694 Jean Clement of Bavaria. 
1724 G. Louis of Berghen. 
1744 Jean Theodore of Bavaria. 

Counts of Loos 

1 107 Arnould V. 
1146 Louis I. 


Gerard I. 
Louis II. 


The Coins of Europe 

1218 Arnould VI. 

1223 Louis III. 

1229 Arnould VII. 

1256 Jean. 

1280 Arnold VI 1 1. A.m Arnoldvs. 

1328 Louis IV. Lvdovicvs. 

1336 Thierri de Heinsberg. T. 

1361 Godefroi de Dalembrock. 

1363 Arnould d'Orey, Sire de 

Jean d'Arkel, Bishop of Liege. 


Kings of Italy 

1805-14 Napoldon I. 

1861 Vittorio Emmanuele II. (of Sardinia). 

1878 Umberto I. 

Ostrogothic Kings 

493 Theodoric. 
526 Amalasunda. 

Athalaric. D. N. Athalaricvs 

534 Theodath. D. N. Thcodathos 


536 Matasunda, widow. Mono- 

540 Ildibad. 

541 Eraric. 

Baduila or Totila. D. N. Ba- 
di'ila Rex. 

536 Witiges. D. N. Witigcs Rex. 552 Theia or Thila. Domnvs Theia. 

P. Rex or D. N. Theila Rex. 

Lombard Kings 

568 Albwin or Alboin. 
573 Cleph. 

Government of the Thirty. 
586 Antharis. 
591 Agilhulf. 
615 Adelwalt. 
625 Ariowalt. 
636 Rotharis or Rudhar. 
652 Rodoald or Rudwalt. 
654 Aripert. 

66 1 Pertharit or Gunbert. 

662 Grimoald. 

672 Pertharit again. 

680 Cunipert and his father, 679- 

88. D. N. Cvnincpert. 
702 Luitpert. 


Aripert 1 1. D. N. Aripert Rex. 
713 Ansprand. 

Luitprand. D. N. Ltpran. 
744 Hildebrand. 


749 Astulph. D. N. Aistvlf Rex. 
756 Desiderius. D. N. Desider. 
774 Athalgis. Monogram. 

Some Dated Lists of European Rulers 267 

Kings of Italy and Emperors of the West 

754 Pepin le Bref. 

774 Charlemagne. 

781 Pepin II. or Carloman. 

812 Bernard, natural son. 

814 Louis le Debonnaire. 

820 Lothair I. 

844 Louis II. 

876 Charles le Chauve. 

Carloman of Bavaria. 

The imperial throne vacant. 
879 Charles le Gros. 
888 Berenger of Friuli. 

Rodolph II. of Burgundy. 

889 Guy of Spoleto. 
891 Lambert, son. 
896 Arnold of Bavaria, son of Car- 
loman of Bavaria. 
899 Louis III. of Provence. 

Louis IV., the Young. 
926 Hugh of Provence. 
931 Lothair, son, associated. 
946 Alberic of Tuscany. 
950 Berenger II. of Ivry. 

Otho I., King of Germany. 

Norman Dukes of Apulia 

1075 Robert Guiscard. Ro. or Rober. 

1085 Roger Borsa. Rogcrivs Dvx ; Rog. Dvx, Salerno, etc. 
1 1 1 1 William. W. Dvx Apulia, or Gvi. Dvx. 
1127 Roger II. R. 
Roger III. 

Dukes of Bencventum 

651 Grimoald I., king in 662. 

663 Romoald I. 

683 Grimoald II. 

690 Gishulf I. 

707 Romoald II. A'. 

721 Andelas. 

722 Gregory. G. 
729 Godescalc. 
733 Gishulf II. 
750 Luitprand. L. 
758 Arrigis. A. 

787 Grimoald III. Grimvald. 
806 Grimoald IV. Grimoald 

Filivs Ermenrid. 
817 Sigo I. Sigo Princeps. 
832 Sicardus. Sicardv. 


88 1 



Radelchis. Radelchis Prin- 




Radelchis II. 



Greek domination. 

Guido, Duke of Spoleto. 

Radelchis II. again. 

Atenhulf, Prince of Capua. 

6 1 Pandulfus, Prince of 

Landulfus, Prince of Capua. 

Princes of Capua 

900-10 Atenhulf. 

943-1059 (?) Pandulfus I. 

Landulfus II. 

1059 Richard I. Richard. Princeps. 
1 1 06 Robert. Robertvs. Princeps. 

1136 Anfusus. 

Anfusus, and his father Roger 
II., King of Sicily. Obv. 
A. P., rev. R. R. 


The Coins of Europe 

Dukes of Ferrara, Modena, and Reggio 

1195 Salinguerra, Ghibeline chief. 

1196 Azzo I., D'Este, Podesta of 

1208 Azzo I., D'Este, perpetual sig- 

nore, Marquis of Ancona. 
1212 Salinguerra and Aldrovan- 

dini, son of Azzo. 
1215 Salinguerra and Azzo II., 

brother of Aldrovandini. 
1264 Obizzo D'Este, grandson of 

Azzo II., Lord of Ferrara, 

Reggio, and Modena. 
1294 Azzo III. 
1308 Fulco, natural son. 
1317 RainaldoandNicolo,nephews 

of Azzo III. 

1344 Obizzo 1 1., D'Este. Qp.Mchio. 
'353 Aldrovandini II., son. 
1361 Nicolo II., brother. Nichol. 


1388 Alberto, brother. 

1393 Nicolo III. 

1441 Lionello, natural son. Leon- 

dh> Marchio. 
1450 Borso, brother, first duke. 

Borsivs Dvx. 

1471 Ercole I., brother. Hercules. 
1502 Alfonso I. Alfonso's. 
1534 Ercole II. Hercules II. 
1559 Alfonso II. A If OUSTS II. 
1 597 Cesare, grandson of Alfonso 


1628 Alfonso 1 1 1., Duke of Modena. 

1629 Francesco I. 
1658 Alfonso IV. 
1662 Francesco II. 
1694 Rainaldo. 
'737 Francesco III. 
1780-96 Ercole III. Rainaldo. 

Grand Masters of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem at Malta ' 

1 534 Pietro da Ponte. 

1535 Desiderius de Saint Jaile. 

1536 Jean d'Homedes. 

1553 Jean de Lavalette Parisot. 

1568 Pietro da Monte. 

1572 Jean Levesque de la Cassiere. 

1586 Hugo de Loubens Verdale. 

1595 Martin de Garzez. 

1601 Alof de Wignacourt. 

1622 Louis Mendez de Vascon- 


1623 Antonio de Paule. 

1636 Paul Lascaris Castellard. 
1657 Martin de Redin. 
1660 Annet de Clermont. 

1660 Raphael Cotoner. 

1663 Nicolas Cotoner. 

1680 Gregorio Caraffa. 

1690 Adrien de Wignacourt. 

1 697 Raimond Perellos de Rocafort. 

1720 Michele Antonio Zondonari. 

1722 Antonio Manuel de Vilhena. 

1736 Raimond Despuig de Monte- 

1741 Emmanuele Pinto de Fon- 

1773 Francisco Ximenes de Tex- 


1775 Emmanuel de Rohan. 
1797 Ferdinand de Hompesch. 

1 The coinage of the Order, prior to its settlement in Europe, does not come 
within the scope of the present work. 

Captains, Marquises, atid Dukes of Mantua 

{The Countess Matilda. 
Lodovico, Count of San Bonifacio. 

Some Dated Lists of European Riilers 269 

1272 Pinamonte Bonacossi, Lord of Mantua. 

1293 Bardellone Bonacossi, Lord of Mantua. 

1299 Bottesilla Bonacossi, Lord of Mantua. 

1310 Passerino and Bectirone Bonacossi, Lords of Mantua. 

1329 Lodovico I., Gonzaga, Captain of Mantua. 

1360 Guidone Gonzaga, Captain of Mantua. 

1369 Lodovico II., Gonzaga, Captain of Mantua. 

1382 Francesco I., Gonzaga, Captain of Mantua. Francischvs. 

1407 Gio. Francesco Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua, lohs. Fracisc. 

1444 Lodovico III., Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua. 

1478 Federigo I., Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua. 

1484 Gio. Francesco II., Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua. 

1519 Federigo II., Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua and (c. 1533) Marquis of 
Monteferrato. Fed. 

1540 Francesco III., Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua and Marquis of Monte- 

1550 Guglielmo and Margherita, Dukes of Mantua and Marquises of 

Mezzo-testone, 1564: silver. 

1587 Vincenzo I. Vincentivs. 

1612 Carlo I., son of Lodovico Gonzaga, Due de Nevers, and grandson 

of Federigo II. 

1637 Carlo II., grandson, and Maria regent till 1647. 
1675 Ferdinando Carlo and Isabella Clara of Austria. 
1709 Mantua added to the empire and Monteferrato annexed to Savoy. 

Dukes of Milan 

1257 Martino della Torre, Lord of 

the Milanese. 
1263 Filippo, brother. 
1265 Napoleon, relative. 
1277 Ottone Visconti, Archbishop 

of Milan. 

1295 Matteo Visconti, nephew. 
1322 Galeazzo Visconti. 
1329 Azzo Visconti. Azo. 
1 339 Luchino, uncle, and Giovanni. 

lohes and Lvchinvs. 

1349 Giovanni, son of Matteo I. 

1354 Matteo II., Bernabo and 
Galeazzo, illegitimate sons. 

1385 Gio. Galeazzo, son of Gale- 
azzo. lohs. 

1402 Gio. Maria. lohanes. 

1412 Filippo Maria, brother. Filip. 

1450 Francesco Sforza Visconti, 
who married Bianca, 
daughter of last duke. 

270 The Coins of Europe 

1466 Galeazzo Maria Sforza Vis- 1512 Maximilian, son of Lodovico- 

conti. Maria. 

1476 Giovanni Galeazzo Maria and 1515 Francis I., King of France. 

Bonne of Savoy. lo. Ga. 1521 Francesco Maria II., son of 

Bona. Lodovico Maria Sforza Vis- 

1494 Lodovico Maria, son of Fran- conti. Francisms II. 

cesco Sforza Visconti. Lvdo- 1535 Annexed to the Empire. 

vicvs M. Sf. Annexed to Spain. 

1500 Louis XII., King of France. 1714 Annexed to the Empire. 

Signori and Princes of Mirandola 

1306 Francesco I., Pico, imperial 1533 Galeotto II. 

vicar, Signore of Mirandola. 1550 Lodovico II. 

1321-54 Interregnum. [Brendiparte. 1568 Galeotto III. 

Paolo.] 1590 Federigo, Prince of Miran- 
1354 Francesco II. dola and Marquis of Con- 

1399 Francesco III. cordia. 

1461 Giovanni Francesco I. 1602 Alessandro I. 

1467 Galeotto I. 1637 Alessandro II. 

1499 Giovanni Francesco II. 1691-1708 Francesco Maria. 

. '. The title merged in that of Modena. 

Princes of Monaco 

1275 Rainerio I., Grimaldi. 1605 Onorato II., Grimaldi. 

1300 Rainerio II., Grimaldi. 1662 Lodovico Grimaldi. 

1330 Carlo I., Grimaldi. 1701 Antonio Grimaldi. 

1363 Rainerio III., Grimaldi. 1731 Onorato III., Goyon-Gri- 

1407 Giovanni Grimaldi. maldi. 

1454 Catalano Grimaldi. 1793-1815 Interregnum. 

1457 Lamberto Grimaldi. 1815 Onorato IV. 

1505 Luciano Grimaldi. 1819 Onorato V. 

1525 Onorato I., Grimaldi. 1841 Fiorestano. 

1581 Carlo II., Grimaldi. 1856 Carlo III. 

1589 Ercole I., Grimaldi. 

Marquises of Monteferrato 

967 Date of original concession. 1 1 1 1 Reginbar. 

In or be-/Alram or Adelram. 1140 Girolamo III. 

fore 991 \Ottone. 1183 Conrad. 

991-1031 Girolamo I. 1192 Bonifacio I. 

1040-84 Ottone. 1207 Girolamo IV. 

1093 Girolamo II. 1225 Bonifacio II. 

Some Dated Lists of European Riders 2 7 1 

1255 Girolamo V. 1445 Giovanni III., Palasologo. 

1292 Giovanni. 1464 Girolamo I., Palasologo. 

1305 Teodoro I., Palasologo. 1483 Bonifacio I., Palasologo. 

1338 Giovanni I., Palasologo. 1494 Guglielmo II., Palasologo. 

1372 Secondotto Palasologo. 1518 Bonifacio II., Palasologo. 

1378 Giovanni II., Palasologo. 1530 Giovanni Giorgio Palaso- 

1381 Teodoro II., Palasologo. logo. 

1418 Giovanni Giacomo Palasologo. 1533-36 Carlo V., Palasologo. 

Signori of Padua 

Jacopo da Carrara, d. 1190. 

Marsilio da Carrara. 

1318-24 Jacopo da Carrara, Signore of Padua. 
1337-38 Marsilio da Carrara, Signore of Padua. 
1339-45 Ubertino da Carrara, papal legate in Padua. 
1345 Jacopo da Carrara, Signore of Padua. 
1350 Jacobino da Carrara, Signore of Padua. 
1355 Francesco I. da Carrara, Signore of Padua. 

1388 Francesco II. da Carrara, Signore of Padua. / 

1406 Francesco III. da Carrara, Signore of Padua. I ov 

Dukes of Parma and Piacenza 

1546 Pietro Lodovico Farnese, son 1694 Francesco. 

of Pope Paul III. 1727 Antonio, brother. 

1547 Ottavio Farnese. Oct. Far. 1731 Carlos of Spain. 
1586 Alessandro Farnese. Alex. 1737 Filippo of Spain. 

Far. 1765-1802 Ferdinand of Spain. 

1592 Ranucio I. Farnese. Ran. 1815 Marie Louise, consort of 

Far. Napoldon I. 

1622 Odoardo Farnese. Odoardvs 1847 Charles III. de Bourbon. 

Far. 1854-59 Robert. 
1646 Ranucio II. Farnese. Ran. 


Counts and Dukes of Savoy 

1000 Berold or Berthold, Count of 1148 Umberto 1 1 1., Count of Savoy. 

Maurienne. Vmbertvs. 

1024 Umberto I., grandson of Louis 1188 Tommaso, Count of Savoy, 

III., King of Burgundy. vicar-general of the empe- 

1048 Amadeo I. ror in Piedmont and Lom- 

1050 Pietro I., Marquis of Turin. bardy. 

1070 Amadeo II., brother. 1233 Amadeo IV., Count of Savoy, 

1080 Umberto II., Marquis of Susa Duke of Chablais and Aosta, 

and Turin. Vmbertvs. vicar-general of the empire. 

1 1 08 Amadeo III. Amedevs. Amedevs. 


The Coins of Europe 

1253 Pietro II., brother, and Boni- 
facio, his nephew. Pctrvs. 

1268 Filippo, Archbp. of Lyons, 
brother of Amadeo IV. 

1285 Amadeo V., brother of Ama- 
deo IV. Ameds. 

1323 Odoardo. Edvard. 

1329 Aimone. Aitno. 

1343 Amadeo VI., "the Green 
Count." Amedei's. 

1383 Amadeo VI I., the Red. Ame- 

1391 Amadeo VIII., Count of the 
Genevois, first Duke of 

1439 Ludovico. Li'dovici's. 

1465 Amadeo IX. Ainedevs. 

1472 Filiberto. Philip. 

1482 Carlo I. Karoh's. 

1490 Carlo II. and Bianca, 

1496 Filippo, brother of Amadeo 


1497 Filippo II. Philibtvs. 

1504 Carlo III., brother. Caroh's. 
1553 Emmanuele Filiberto. Em. 

Philip, or Filib. 
1580 Carlo Emmanuele I. Car. 

1630 Vittorio Emmanuele I. V. 


1637 Francesco Hiacinto. 
1637-40 Spaniards occupy Turin. 
1638-47 Carlo Emmanuele II. and 

his mother, Maria Cristina, 

1647-75 Carlo Emmanuele II., 

1675 Vittorio Amadeo II., King of 

Sicily and Sardinia. 
1730 Carlo Emmanuele III. 
1773 Vittorio Amadeo III. 
1796 Carlo Emmanuele IV. 
1802 Vittorio Emmanuele I. 
1821 Carlo Felice. 
1831 Carlo Alberto. 
1849 Vittorio Emmanuele II. 

Barons dc Vaud 

1284 Louis I., Comte de Vaud, Seigneur de Bugey (son of Thomas, 

Count of Piedmont, Flanders, and Maurienne). 
1302 Louis II. 
1350 Catherine, Dame de Vaud. She sells the domain to Amadeo VI. 

of Savoy. 

Marquises and Dukes of Tuscany and Grand-Dukes and Kings 
of Etruria 

828 Bonifacio, Count of Lucca and 
Marquis of Tuscany. 

845 Adalbert I., duke and marquis. 

890 Adalbert II., duke and mar- 

917 Guido. 

929 Lambert, brother. 

931 Boso. 

936 Hubert, Duke of Tuscany and 
Spoleto, Marquis of Camer- 

961 Hugo. 

looi Adalbert III. 

1014 Renier. 

1027 Bonifacio II of Modena. 

1052 Federigo Bonifacio. 

1055 Beatrice of Haute -Lorraine, 
mother, and Geoffroi le 

1076 Mathilde and Guelf of Bava- 
ria, of the house of Este. 

1115 Henry V. , emperor. 

Some Dated Lists of Eiiropean Rulers 273 

^ 1620 

1119 1630 

JJ3Hlmperial vicars. l6?o 

H53 1723 


II 9S~ I S33 Florentine Republic: 1737 

The Gonfalonieri. 1765 

1533 Alessandro de' Medici, Duke 

of the Republic of Florence. 1 790 
1536 Cosmo I. de' Medici, Grand- 1801 

Duke of Etruria. 
1574 Francesco Maria. 
1587 Ferdinando I. 
1608 Cosmo II. 

/. The grand-duchy was annexed to the kingdom of Italy. 

Ferdinando II. 

Christine de Lorraine, widow 

of Ferdinando I. 
Cosmo III. 
Gio. Gastone I., last of the 


Francis of Lorraine. 
Pierre Leopold Joseph of 


1 80 1 Ferdinand III. 
7 Charles Louis, King of 


Ferdinand III. again. 
Leopold II. 
Ferdinand IV. 

Vicars, Counts, Podeste, and Dukes of Urbino 

1155 Antonio di Montefeltro, im- 
perial vicar in Urbino. 

His son. 

1236 Bonconte, Count of Urbino. 
1255 Montefeltrano, Podesta of 

1298 Guidone di Montefeltro. 

Federigo, Count of Urbino. 
1322-59 Rolfo. 

1375 Antonio, Count of Urbino. 

1404 Guidone Antonio. 

1443 Ottone Antonio. 

1444 Federigo. 

1482 Guidone Ubaldo I. 

1508 Francesco Maria della] Ro- 

vere, Duke of Urbino. 
1538 Guido Ubaldo II. 
1574 Francesco Maria II. 
1621 Federigo Ubaldo. 
1623 Vittoria, m. Ferdinando II., 

Grand-Duke of Tuscany. 

Signori of Verona 

Jacobino della Scala of Ver- 

1262 Martino I., Capitano del 

1277 Alberto I., Signore of Verona. 

1301 Bartolomeo I. 

1304 Albovino, imperial vicar in 

1311 Alberto II. 
1329 Martino II. 
1351-52 Can-Grande II. 
1359 Paolo Albovino. 
1365 Cane. 
1375 Bartolomeo II. 
1381 Antonio. 
1387-92 Gianfrancesco. 

Norman Kings of Sicily 

1072 Roger I.; Grand-Count of Calabria and Sicily. Rogerivs Comes. 



The Coins of Europe 

1105 Roger II. Rogerivs Comes, [after ii3o l ] Ro. Rx. ; Rogerivs. Rex; 

R. //., etc. 

1 1 54 William I. W. Rex Dvx Apvl. 

1 1 66 William II. W. R. Sicil. Dvcaf Apvl' Princ. Cap. or W. Rex II. 
1 190 Tancred. Tacd. or Rex Tancre. 

1193 Tancred, and Roger III. son, Kings of Sicily. 
Tancred, and William III. son. 

1194 William III. alone. G. R. or Gvi or Gvil. 

1 He became King of Sicily in 1130. 

Kings of Sicily 

1194 Henry VI., Emperor of Ger- 
many, and Constance. E. 
He. C. 

1197 Frederic I. f., etc. 

1231 Frederic II. Fridcrict. 

1250 Conrad I. 

1254-68 Conrad II., or Conradin. 

1258-66 Manfred, his uncle, 

1266-82 Charles I. of Anjou. 

1282 Constance, daughter of Man- 
fred, and Pedro I. of Arra- 
gon. Costa P. 

1285 James I. 

1296 Frederic II. 
1337 Peter II. 
1342 Louis. 
1355 Frederic III. 
1377 Maria of Arragon and Mar- 
tin I. 

1409 Martin II. of Arragon. 

1410 Blanche, widow of Martin I. 
1412 Ferdinand of Arragon. 
1416 Alfonso I. of Arragon. 

1458 John I. of Arragon. 
1479-1504 Ferdinand III. of Arra- 
gon, the Catholic. 

Kings of Naples 

1282 Charles I. of Anjou. 

1285 Charles II. 

1309 Robert, brother. 

1343 Joanna, m. (i) Andrew of 

Hungary, (2) Louis of Tar- 


1381 Charles III. of Durazzo. 

1382 Louis I. of Anjou. 
1386 Louis II. of Anjou. 

Ladislas of Hungary. 

1414 Jeanne II. and Jacques de 

1417 Louis III. 
1433 Alfonso I. of Arragon. 
1438 Rene". 
1458 Ferdinand I. of Arragon. 

1494 Alfonso II. of Arragon. 

1495 Ferdinand II., Louis XII. of 


1496 Frederic III. 

1501 Francis I. of France. 

Kings of the Two Sicilies 

1504 Ferdinand the Catholic. 
1516 Charles V. of Spain. 
1536 Philip II. of Spain. 

1598 Philip III. of Spain. 
1621 Philip IV. of Spain. 
1655 Charles II. 

Some Dated Lists of European Rulers 275 

1701 Philip V. of Spain. 

1707 Charles VI. of Germany. 

1735 Charles III. 

1759 Ferdinand I. 

1806 Joseph Napoleon. 

1808 Joachim Murat. 
1815 Ferdinand I. again. 
1825 Francis I. 
1830 Ferdinand II., Bomba. 
1859-60 Francis II. 

Dukes of Salerno 

840 Siconulphus. 
851 Sigo II. 
853 Ademar. 
86 1 Waiferius. 
880 Waimar I. 

899 Atenulfus. Atn. or Ad. Pri. 

900 Waimar II. 

933 Gisulf I. Gisvlfvs. 

978 Pandulfus I., Prince of Capua. 

981 Pandulfus II. 

Manso, Duke of Amalfi. 

983 Johannes. 

994 Waimar III. 
1030 Waimar IV. 
1052-77 Gisulf III. Gisvlfus Prices. 


Sovereigns of France 

987 Hugues Capet. 

996 Robert. 
1031 Henri I. 
1060 Philippe I. 
1108 Louis VI. 
1137 Louis VII. 
1180-1123 Philippe II. Auguste. 
1223 Louis VIII. 
1226 Louis IX. 
1270 Philippe III., le Hardi. 
1285 Philippe IV., le Bel. 
1314 Louis X., le Hutin. 
1316 Philippe V., le Long. 
1322 Charles IV., le Bel. 
1328 Philippe VI., de Valois. 
1350 Jean II., le Bon. 
1364 Charles V. 
1380 Charles VI. 
1422 Charles VII. 
1461 Louis XL 
1483 Charles VIII. 
1498 Louis XII. 

1515 Francois I. 
1547 Henri II. 

1559 Fran9ois II. 

1560 Charles IX. 
1514 Henri III. 

Charles X., Cardinal de Bour- 

1589 Henri IV. 
1610 Louis XIII. 
1643 Louis XIV. 
1715 Louis XV. 
1774 Louis XVI. 
1792-1804 First Republic. 
1804 Napoleon I., emperor. 
1815 Louis XVI 1 1. 
1824 Charles X. 
1830 Louis Philippe I. 
1848 Second Republic. 

1851 Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, 


1852 Second Empire. 
1870-93 Third Republic. 

276 The Coins of Europe 

Anglo-Gallic Princes who struck money in France 
, 151-1202 jEleonored'Aquitaine. 

1189-99 Richard Cceur-de-Lion. 
1216-72 Henry III., Duke of Aquitaine. 
^Edward I. 

Edward II. 

Edward III. 


Edward the Black Prince. 

Henry Plantagenet, Earl of Derby, etc., 1347-51. 
John of Gaunt. 

'377-99 Richard II. 
/-Henry IV. 

Henry V. 
1399-1460^ Henry VI. 

John Plantagenet, Duke of Bedford, Regent of France, ob. 

I 1435- 

.'. The last point actually retained was Calais, lost in 1558. But the Kings of 
England were titular Kings of France till 1813. 

Comtes d'Angouleme 

839 Turpion, brother of Bernard, 
Comte de Poitiers, Comte 
d'Angouleme and de Peri- 

863 Emenon or Imon, brother. 

866 Wulgrin. 

886 Alduin. 

Guillaume, Comte de Peri- 

916 Guillaume I., Taillefer, Comte 

962 Arnaud Buration, Comte de 
Perigord and d'Angouleme. 

975 Arnaud Manzer, Comte de 
Perigord and d'Angouleme. 

1001 Guillaume Taillefer II. 

1028 Alduin II. 

1033 Geoffroi Taillefer. 

1048 Foulques Taillefer. 

1089 Guillaume III., Taillefer. 

1 1 20 Wulgrin II., Taillefer. 

1140 Guillaume IV., Taillefer. 

1178 Wulgrin III., Taillefer. 

1181 Mathilde, with her uncles, 
Guillaume V. Taillefer and 

Vicomtes, Comtes, and Dues d'Anjou 

879 Ingelger. 
899 Foulques I., le Roux. 
940 Foulques II., le Bon. 
962 Geoffroi I., Grisegonelle. 
987 Foulques III., le Noir. 
1040 Geoffroi II., Martel. Gos- 

fridvs Cos. 

1060 Geoffroi III., le Barbu, 

1069 Foulques IV., le Rechin, 

1 109 Foulques V., King of Jerusa- 

1129 Geoffroi IV., Plantagenet, 
Comte d'Anjou, etc. 

1151 Henry II., King of England. 

1189 Richard, King of England. 

11 99 John, King of England. 

Some Dated Lists of Eiiropean Rulers 277 

1202 Philippe II. Auguste, by 1434 Rene", brother. 

sequestration. 1480 Charles IV., King of Naples, 

1246 Charles I. de France, eighth cousin. 

son of Louis VIII. 1481 Reunion to the Crown. 

1285 Charles II. de France, King Henri, Due d'Anjou, after- 

of Naples. wards Henri III. 

1290 Marguerite d'Anjou and 1576 FranQois, Due d'Alengon. 

Charles de Valois. Philippe d'Orleans, brother of 

1325 Reunion to the Crown by Louis XIV. 

Philippe. 1668 Philippe de France, son of 

1356 Louis I. of France, son of Louis XIV. 

Jean de Valois, and King of 1672 Louis Franqois de France, 

Naples. son of Louis XIV. 

1384 Louis II. of France, son of Philip V., King of Spain. 

Jean de Valois, and King of 1710 Louis XV., afterwards King 

Naples. of France. 

1417 Louis III. of France, son of 1790 Louis Stanislas Xavier, after- 
Jean de Valois, and King of wards Louis XVIII. 


(i.) Kings of Aquitaine 

630 Caribert, King of Aquitaine, son of Clotaire II. Charibertvs. 

631 Ilde"ric or Chilperic, King of Toulouse, died in 632. 

636 Boggis and Bertrand, brothers of preceding, recognised Dukes of 

Aquitaine, of Toulouse, and of Gascony by Dagobert. 
688 Eudes, Duke of Toulouse and of Gascony, son of Boggis. 

(ii.) Kings of Aquitaine 

781 Louis I., son of Charlemagne, afterwards known as Louis le De"bon- 


814 Pepin I. contests the crown with Charles le Chauve. 
839 Pepin II. 

855 Charles, second son of Charles le Chauve. 
867 Louis II., le Begue. 

. ' . Aquitaine united to France. 

(iii.) Dukes of Aquitaine, 

845 Rainulf I., Comte de Poitou. 932 Raimond Pons, Comte de 
880 Rainulf 1 1. Toulouse & d'Auvergne. 

893 Guillaume, Comte d'Au- 951 Guillaume III. 

vergne. 963 Guillaume IV. 

918 Guillaume II. 990 Guillaume V. 

926 Acfred, Comte d'Auvergne & 1029 Guillaume VI. 

de Velay. 1038 Eudes. 

928 Ebles Manzer, Comte de 1039 Guillaume VII. 

Poitou, Auvergne, & 1058 Guillaume VIII. 

Limousin. 1087 Guillaume IX. 

2 7 8 

The Coins of Eiiropc 

1127 Guillaume X., Count of Poi- 
tou, Limousin, Saintonges, 
and Gascogne. 

1137 Eleonore d'Aquitaine, ;;/. 

(1) Louis VII. of France; 

(2) Henry II. of England. 
1169 Richard I. of England. 
1196 Otto of Brunswick. 

1199 John I. of England. 
1216 Henry III. of England. 

1272 Edward I. of England. 
1307 Edward II. of England. 
1327 Edward III. of England. 
1 362 Edward IV., the Black Prince. 
1377 Richard II. of England. 
1399 Henry IV. of England. 
1413 Henry V. of England. 
1422 Henry VI. of England. 
1469-74 Charles, brother of Louis 

Comics & Dauphins (PAuvergnc 

819 Warin. 

839 Geraud, son-in-law of Pepin, King of Aquitaine. 

841 Guillaume I., father of Geraud. 

846 Bernard I. 

858 Guillaume II. 

862 Etienne. 

864 Bernard Plantevelue. 

886 Guillaume III., first hereditary Count, Duke of Aquitaine. 

918 Guillaume IV., son of Acfred, Comte de Carcassonne. 

926 Acfred, brother. 

928 Ebles, Comte de Poitiers. 

932 Raymond Pons, Comte de Toulouse. 

951 Guillaume Tcte d'Ktoupe, Comte de Poitiers. 

963 Guillaume III., Taillefer, Comte de Toulouse & Pons, son. 

979 Gui, son of Robert II., Vicomte d'Auvergne. 

989 Guillaume IV., brother. 


1145 Guillaume le Jeune. 

1169 Robert, Comte de Clermont. 

1234 Guillaume. 

1246 Robert II. 

1262 Robert III. 

1282 Robert IV. 

1324 Jean Dauphinet. 

1351 Beraud I. 

1356 Beraud II., le Comte Camus. 

1400 Beraud III., Comte de Cler- 
mont & de Sancerre. 

1426 Jeanne, m. Louis de Bourbon, 
Comte de Montpensier. 

1436 Louis de Bourbon alone. 

1486 Gilbert de Bourbon. 

1496 Louis II. de Bourbon. 

1501 Charles, Due de Bourbon, 

1527 The King of France. 

1582 Francois de Bourbon, son of 
Louis II. 

1602 Henri de Bourbon. 

1608 Marie de Bourbon Mont- 
pensier, m. Jean Baptiste 
Gaston, Due d'Orleans. 

1617 Anne Marie Louise d'Or- 
leans, Mademoiselle de 


1155 Guillaume VIII., le Vieux. 
1184 Robert IV. 

1194 Guillaume IX. 

1195 Gui II., brother. 

Some Dated Lists of European Rulers 279 

1224 Guillaume X. 

1247 Robert V., Comte d'Auvergne 

& de Boulogne. 
1277 Guillaume XI. 
1279 Robert VI., brother. 
1314 Robert VII. 
1326 Guillaume XII. 
1332 Jeanne, in. Philippe de Bour- 


1360 Philippe le Hardi, Due de 


1361 Jean L, great-uncle. 
1386 Jean II. 

1394 Jeanne II., m. Jean, Due 
de Berri. 

1422 Marie de Boulogne, m. 

Bertrand, Seigneur de la 


1437 Bertrand I., de la Tour. 
1461 Bertrand II. 
1494 Jean III. 
1501 Anne, m. John Stuart, Duke 

of Albany. 
1524 Catherine de' Medici, wife of 

Henri II. of France. 
1589 Charles de Valois. 
1606 Marguerite de Valois. 

Louis, Dauphin, afterwards 

Louis XIII. 

951 Frederic d'Ardennes. 
984 Thierri I. 
1024 Frederic II. 

1034 Sophie de Bar, and Louis, 
Comte de Mousson and 

1093 Thierri II., Comte de Mous- 
son, Montbeliard, Bar, and 

1104 Thierri III., Comte de Mont- 

beliard, Bar, and Verdun. 

1105 Renaud I., brother, Comte de 

Montbeliard and Bar. 
1150 Renaud II. 
1170 Henri I. 

1191 Thibaut I., brother. 
1214 Henri II. Henricvs Comes. 
1240 Thibaut II. 
1296 Henri III. 
1302 Edouard I. Ed. Comes. 
1337 Henri IV. H. Comes Barri. 
1344 Edouard II. and his mother, 
Yolande of Flanders, regent. 
1352 Robert, first DUKE OF BAR 


1411 Edouard III. 
1414 Louis, cardinal. Lvdovicvs 

1419 Rend d'Anjou, first DUKE OF 


Comtes dc Blots 

1218 Marguerite, eldest daughter of Thibaut V. and her third husband, 

Gauthier d'Avesnes. 

1230 Marie de Chatillon, m. Hugues de Chatillon, Comte de Saint-Pol. 
1241 Jean de Chatillon, Comte de Blois and Chartres. 
1279 Jeanne de Chatillon, m. Pierre, Comte d'Alenc_on. 
1292 Hugues de Chatillon, cousin-german. H. Comes. 
1307 Gui, Comte de Blois and Dunois, Seigneur d'Avesnes. Gvido 


1342 Louis I., Comte de Blois and Dunois. 
1361 Louis II. 
1372 Jean II., brother. 
1381 Gui II., brother, sold Blois and Dunois in 1391 to the Due 


1407 Charles d'Orleans. 
1466 Louis d'Orleans, afterwards Louis XII. 
1498 Reunion with the Crown. 

280 The Coins of Europe 

Counts of Boulogne 

88- Hennequin, nephew of Baldwin le Chauve, Count of Flanders. 
882 Regnier. 

896 Erkenzer. 

89- Baldwin le Chauve. 
918 Adolphe, second son. 

933 Arnould, Count of Flanders, brother. 

965 Ernicule or Le Petit Arnould, son of Guillaume, Count of Ponthieu. 

973 Gui a la Barbe Blanche. 

97- Baldwin II. 
1046 Eustache I. 
1049 Eustache II., a 1'CEil. 
1095 Eustache III. aux Grenons. Evstachivs. 
1125 Mahaut de Boulogne, in. Etienne de Blois. 
1 150 Eustache IV. 

1153 Guillaume II., brother. Wilhelmvs. 

1159 Marie, sister of the two former, in. Matthieu d' Alsace. Mathevs. 
1173 Ide d' Alsace, ;;/. four times. 

1216 Mahaut de Dammartin, HI. Philippe Hurepel, son of Philip Augustus. 
1260 Marie, widow of the Emperor Otho IV., etc. The fief eventually 
passed to Robert VI., Comte d'Auvergne. 

Sires, Barons, and Dues de Bourbon 

916 Aimar, Sire de Bourbon. 1262 Agnes, sister of Mahaut, 
944 Aimon I., son. ;;/. Jean de Bourgogne. 

980 Archambaud I. 1287 Beatrix de Bourgogne, m. 

1034 Archambaud II. Robert de France, Comte de 

1078 Archambaud III. Clermont. 

1104 Archambaud IV. 1310 Louis I., first Due de Bourbon. 

1105 Aimon II., brother of Arch- 1342 Pierre I. 

ambaud III. 1356 Louis II. 

1116 Archambaud V., brother. 1410 Jean I. 

1171 Mahaut I., m. (i) Gautier 1434 Charles I. 

de Vienne ; (2) Gui II. de 1456 Jean II. 

Dampierre. 1488 Pierre II. 

1215 Archambaud VI. de Dam- 1505 Susanne de France, in. 

pierre. Charles II. de Bourbon. 

1242 Archambaud VII. 1527 Confiscated to the Crown. 

1249 Mahaut II. de Dampierre, 1651 Louis II., Prince de Conde", 

m. Eudes de Bourgogne. byexchange with LouisXIV. 

for Albretand other domains. 

Kings, Counts, and Dukes of Brittany 

843 Nomenoe", King of Brittany. 874 Pasquiten, Comte de Vannes. 
851 Erispoe", King of Brittany. 877 Gurrand, Comte de Rennes. 

857 Salomon, King of Brittany. Alan I., Comte de Vannes. 

Some Dated Lists of European Rulers 281 

907 Interregnum. The Norman 


937 Alan II., Barbetorte, grand- 
son of Alan I. 
952 Drogo, son of Alan II. 
980 Suerech, Bishop of Nantes, 

son of Alan II. 
985 Hoel I., natural brother. 
987 Conan le Tors, Comte de 


992 Geoffroi I., son, Comte de 
Rennes and Duke of the 

1008 Alan III., Duke of the Bre- 
tons. Alai. Rix. 

1040 Conan II. ; his uncle, Eudes 
de Penthievre, guardian. 
Conanvs Comes. 
1066 Havoise, sister, m. Hoel II., 

Comte de Cornouaille. 
1084-85 Geoffroi II., Comte de 

Rennes. Gavfridvs. 
Alan IV., Fergent. Alanvs 


1 1 12 Conan III., le Gros. 
1148 Hoel III. Berthe, sister, m. 
Eudon, Comte de Porhoet. 
Rvdo Dvx. 
1156 Geoffroi III., Comte de 


Conan IV., le Noir. 
1169 Geoffroi IV. of England. 
1181-1201 Constance. Arthur I., 

1203 Gui de Thouars, guardian 

and regent for his daughter 

1206 Brittany seized by Philip 

1213 Alix de Bretagne, m. Pierre 

Manclerc de Dreux. 
1237 Jean I., le Roux. Johannes 


1286 Jean II. 
1305 Arthur II. 
1312 Jean III. le Bon. 
1341 Jean de Bretagne, Comte de 

Montfort, contests the duchy 

with Charles de Chatillon 

de Blois. 

1364 Jean IV. de Montfort. 
1399 Jean V. 
1442 Francois I. 
1450 Pierre, brother. Feints Dvx. 

1457 Arthur III., uncle, Comte de 


1458 Franjois II. 

1488 Anne de Bretagne, m. (i) 
Charles VIII. ; (2) Louis 

1514 Claude de France, m. Fran- 
gois, Comte d'Angouleme, 
afterwards Francis I. 

1536 Francois de France, dauphin. 
Henri, brother, afterward 
King of France as Henri 

(iv.) Counts and Dukes of Burgundy 

915 Hugues le Noir, brother of 
Richard le Justicier, Count 
and Duke of Burgundy. 

923 Gislebert, brother-in-law. 

956 Letalde I., brother-in-law, 
Comte de B. 

969 Alberic I., son, Comte de B. 

975 Letalde II., brother, Comte 
de B. 

979 Alberic II. 

995 Otto Guillaume, Comte de 

B., Dijon, & Macon. 
1027 Renaud I., Comte de B. 

1057 Guillaume I., Comte de 

1087 Renaud II., Comte de Bour- 

gogne and Vienne. 
1097 Guillaume II. L'Aleman. 
II Guillaume II. L'Enfant. 
1127 Renaud III., Comte de Bour- 

gogne, Vienne, and Macon. 
1 148 Beatrix, wife of Frederic Bar- 

1190 Otto I. 
1200 Beatrix and Otto II. de 

1234 Otto III., le Jeune. 


The Coins of Europe 

1248 Alice de Meran and Hugues 
de Chalon. 

1279 Otto IV., Count Palatine of 
Burgundy, son of Hugues. 

1302 Robert PEnfant. 

1315 Jeanne I., sister, and Philip 
V., King of France. 

1330 Jeanne II. de France and 
Eudes IV., Due de Bur- 

1347 Philippe le Hardi. 

1361 Marguerite de France, daugh- 
ter of Philip V. of France, 
and Louis de Nevers. 

1382 Louis de Maele, Count of 
Flanders and Nevers. 

1384 Marguerite de Flandre and 

Philip II., Due de Bour- 


1404 Jean Sans Peur. 
1419 Philip le Bon. 
1467 Charles le Temeraire. 
1477 Marie de Bourgogne 

Maximilian of Austria. 
1482 Margaret of Austria 

Charles VII. 
1493 Philippe le Beau, brother of 

1506 Margaret of Austria, again, 

on his death. 
1530 Charles V., nephew. 


Comtes & Vicomtes de Carcassonne 

(819)? Oliba I . of the house of Tou- 


836 Louis Eliganius. 
86- Oliba II. and Acfred I. 
906 Bencion. 
908 Acfred II. 
934 Arsinde, spouse of Arnaud de 

957 Roger I. 
1 002 Raimond I. Rvmando or 

Rami'in Co. 

1012 Pierre and Guillaume, grand- 
sons, and Pierre Roger and 
Bernard, sons, of Roger I. 
1034 Raimond Guillaume and two 
other sons of Guill. Rai- 


1 060 Roger III. Rodger or Roiger. 
1067 Ermengarde, sister, m. 

Raimond Bernard, Vicomte 

1070 Raimond Berenger I., Count 

of Barcelona. 

1076 Raimond Berenger II. 
1083 Bernard Atton, Vicomte 

d'Albi and first Vicomte de 

1130 Roger I. Roger Comes or 

The last Vicomte ceded 
Seneschal of Carcassonne. 

1150 Raymond Trencavel I., 

1167 Roger II. 
1 1 94 Raymond Roger. 
1209 Raymond Trencavel II. 

domain to the King of France through the 

Comtes de Chartres and de Blois 

922 Thibaut I., le Tricheur, Comte de Blois, Chartres, and Tours. 

978 Eudes I., Comte de Blois, Chartres, Tours, and Meaux. 

995 Thibaut II., Comte de Blois, Chartres, Tours, Meaux, Beauvais, 

and Troyes. 

1004 Eudes II., Comte de Blois, Chartres, Tours, and Champagne. 
1037 Thibaut III. Lost the C. of Tours in 1044. 
1089 Etienne or Henri. 

1 102 Thibaut IV., Comte de Blois, Chartres, and Brie. 
1152 Thibaut V., Comte de Blois and Chartres. 

Some Dated Lists of European Rulers 283 

1191 Louis, Comte de Blois, Chartres, and Clermont, etc. 

1205 Thibaut VI., Comte de Blois, Chartres, and Clermont, etc. 

1218 Isabelle, daughter, Comtesse de Chartres. 

1249 Mahaut, daughter, by the Sire d'Amboise. 

1269 Jean de Chatillon, Comte de Blois. 

1279 Jeanne de Chatillon. Sold the C. of Chartres in 1286 to Philippe le 


1293 Charles I., Comte de Valois, brother of the King. 
1325 Charles II. 
1346 Reunion with the Crown. 

Seigneurs of Dombcs 

13 Humbert VII., Sire de Thoire and Villars. 

1402 Louis II., Due de Bourbon. 

1410 Jean I. 

1434 Charles, Due de Bourbon. 

1459 Jean II., Due de Bourbon. Johs. 

1475 Pierre II., Due de Bourbon and Comte de Clermont. Petrus. 

1503 Susanne de Bourbon, wife of Charles de Bourbon, Comte de Mont- 

pensier and Dauphin d'Auvergne. 
1523 Francois I., King of France. 
1560 Louise II. de Bourbon, Due de Montpensier. 
1582 Francois de Bourbon, Due de Montpensier. 
1592 Henri de Bourbon, Due de Montpensier. 
1608 Marie de Montpensier and Gaston d'Orleans. 
1627 Gaston d'Orleans, beneficiary Prince of Dombes. 
1650 Anne Marie Louise d'Orleans (Mademoiselle). 

Counts of Dren.r 

1137 Robert I., by gift of Louis le 1309 Robert V. Robertvs. 

Gros his father. 1329 Jean III., brother. 

1184 Robert II. 1331 Pierre, brother. 

1218 Robert III. 1345 Jeanne I. 

1234 Jean I., and his mother Eleo- 1346 Jeanne II., aunt, second 

nore de Saint Valery. daughter of Jean II., ;//. 

1249 Robert IV. Louis, Vicomte de Thouars. 

1282 Jean II. 1355 Simon de Thouars. 

1365 Peronelle and Marguerite de Thouars, coparceners in the fief, which 
they sold in 1377-78 to Charles VI. The latter conferred it on 
the house of Albret. 

Comtes de Foix 

1012 Bernard Roger, second son of 1038 Roger I. 

Roger I., Count of Carcas- 1064 Pierre, brother, 
sonne. 1070 Roger II. 


The Coins of Europe 

1125 Roger III. 

1149 Roger Bernard I. 

1 1 88 Raymond Roger. 

1223 Roger Bernard II. 

1241 Roger IV. 

1265 Roger Bernard III. 

1302 Gaston I. 

1315 Gaston II. 

1343 Gaston III. Phebus. 
1391 Matthieu de Castelbon. 
1398' Isabelle, sister, m. Archam- 

baud de Grailli. 
1412 (?) Jean de Grailli. 
1436 Gaston IV. 
1470 Francois Phebus, afterwards 

King of Navarre. 

(i.) Dukes of Basse- Lorraine 

959 Godefroi I., created duke by 

Otho I. 

964 Godefroi II. 
976 Charles, brother of Lothair, 

King of France. 
992 Otho. 
1006 Godefroi III. of Eename. 


1023 Gothelon I., his brother. 

Goaelo Dvx. 

1043 Godefroi IV. Godefridivs. 
1048 Godefroi V. 
Godefroi VI. 
1095-1140 Godefroi VII. 

(ii.) Dukes of Lorraine 


1 176 





Gerard d' Alsace. Gcrardvs. 
Thierri. Deodericvs. 
Simon I. Simon Dvx. 
Matthieu I. Ma/ius. 
95 Berthe de Souabe, widow 

and regent, with Simon 11. 

Berta. S. 
Ferri I. de Bicht. 
Ferri II. F. Dvx Lotor. 
Thibaut I. 
Matthieu II. M. 
Ferri III. 

Thibaut II. T. Dvx. 
Ferri IV. F. Dvx or Fer- 

Gauchet de Chatillon, Comte 

de Porcien. G. Comes Par. 
Raoul. R. or Radulphvs. 
Marie de Blois, widow and 

regent, and Jean I. Johannes. 

Dvx Marchio. 
Charles II. Karolvs. An- 

toine de Vaudemont, com- 
petitor. Anthonivs. 

1431 Rend I. of Anjou, FIRST 
BAR. Rcnat^>s. 

1453 Jean II. d'Anjou. 

1470 Nicole d'Anjou. 

1473 Rend II. de Lorraine- Vaude- 
mont. Renatvs. 

1 508 Anthoine. Ant/ton, or An- 

1544 Francois I. Franciscvs. 

1545 Nicole de Lorraine, regent. 

Nico. C. Vavd. A dm. Loth. 


1555 Charles III. Caro. 
1608 Henri. 

1624 Charles IV. and Nicole. 

1625 Francois II. 

1626 Charles IV. 
Nicole Francois. 

1634-43 French occupation. 
1638 Charles IV. again. 
1675 Charles V. 
1690 Leopold. 
1729 Francois III. 

Counts of Louvain, afterwards Dukes of Brabant 

1015 Henri the Old or the Elder. 

1038 Otho. 

1040 Lambert II. Balderic. 

Some Dated Lists of European Riders 285 

1062 Henri II. 

1075 Henri III. 

1095 Godefroi I. 

1140 Godefroi II. 

1143 Godefroi III. Godefridvs. 

1190 Henri I., le Guerroyeur. 

Henc. or Hainricvs. 
1235 Henri II. 
1248 Henri III. 
1272 Jean I. /. or Johannes. 
1294 Jean II. Johannes. 
1312 Jean III. lohis. 
1355 Jeanne of Brabant, m. (i) 

Guillaume III., Count of 

Hainault, (2) Wenceslas, 
Duke of Luxemburgh. 

1404 Marguerite, Duchess of Bur- 

gundy, niece of Jeanne. 

1405 Antoine deBourgogne, second 

son of Philippe le Hardi. 

1415 Jean IV. lohanes. 

1427 Philippe, Count of Saint-Pol, 
Ligny, Limburg, Brabant, 
and Luxemburgh. Phs. 
, 1430 Philippe le Bon, Duke of Bur- 
gundy. Phs. Dvx Burg. 

Bishops of Metz, Marsal, and Epinal 

929 Adelberon I. Addbero. 
964 Thierri I. Deoderic. 
984 Adelberon II. Adelbero. 

1006 Thierri II. Deodericvs.* 

1047 Adelberon III. Adelbero. 

1073 Heriman. Herimannd. 

1090 Poppo. Poppo. 

1103 Adalberon IV. Adalbero. 

1 1 1 8 Theodgere. 

1120 Etienne de Bar. Stcphanvs. 

1164 Thierri III. Teoderic\ 

1171 Frederic de Pluvoise. Fri- 
deric 1 . 

1173 Thierri IV. Teoderic 1 . 

1 1 80 Bertrand. Bertranri. 

1213 Conrad I. of Scharpeneck. 

1224 Jean I. d'Apremont. Johan- 

1239 Jacques de Lorraine. Jacobus. 

1261 Philippe de Floranges. 

1265 Guillaume de Traisnel. 

1270 Laurent. 

1280 Jean II. de Flandre. 

1282 Bouchard d'Avesnes. Bov- 

1297 Gerard de Relanges. lerad 
or Ge. 

1302 Renaud de Bar. R. or Rena. 

1318 Henri Dauphin. 

1325 Louis de Poictiers. 

1327 Ademar de Monthil. Ade- 


1361 Jean III. de Vienne. JoKes. 
1365 Thierri V. de Boppart. The- 


1383 Pierre de Luxembourg. 
1388 Raoul de Coucy. Rad'. 

1416 Conrad Bayer de Boppart. 


1459 Georges de Bade. 
1484 Henri de Lorraine. 
1505 Jean IV. de Lorraine. Jo. 


1550 Nicolas de Lorraine. 
Charles de Lorraine. 

1551 Robert de Lenencourt. Ro- 

bertas Card'. 

1555 Francois de Beaucaire. 
1568 Louis de Lorraine. 
1578 Charles II., de Lorraine. 

Carol. Card. 

1608 Anne D'Escars de Givry. 
1612 Henri de Verneuil. [Vicar.] 


Master- Sheriffs of Met 2 who have struck money 

1 562-67 Jean le Braconnier. 
1577-88 Wiriat Copere. 

1588-1605 Jacques Praillon. 
1600-1 Claude Noblet. 


The Coins of Europe 

1 60 1 -8 Jean de Villers. 

1602-9 Jean Bertrand de Saint 


1602-18 Nicolas Maguin. 
1606-7 Charles Sartorius. 
1610-38 Absalom Fabert. 
1620-32 Jean Baptiste de Villers. 

1630-31 Isaac Bague. 

1633-40 Philippe Praillon. 

1640-41 Adrien de Bonnefoi. 

1641-48 Henri de Gournay. 

1648-59 Nicholas Auburtin (eche- 


1659-63 Francois Fabert. 

Vicomtcs de Narbonnc 

78- Milon. Milo. 1192 

802 Cixilane. 1 194 

851 Alaric and Francon I. 1239 

878 Lindoin. 1270 

Mayeul. 1298 

911 Gaucher and Alberic. 1328 

Francon II. 1336 

924 Odo and Wlerad. 1341 

933 Matfred. 1388 

966 Raimond I. Raitnvnd. 1397 

1023 Raimond Berenger. Beren- 1424 

1067 Raimond II., Bernard, and 

Pierre. 1447 

1080 Aimery, son of Bernard. Eij- 1472 

mericus. \ 500 
1 105 Aimery II. 
U34Alphonse Jourdain, Comte 

de Toulouse. Anfos. Di>. 
1143 Ermengarde, daughter of 
Aimery II. 

Pierre de Lara, nephew. 

Aimery III. Aimericvs. 

Amaury I. Almaricvs. 

Aimery IV. 

Amaury II. 

Aimery V. 

Amaury III. 

Amaury IV., brother. 

Guillaume I. 

Guillaume II. 

Pierre de Tinieres, called 
Guillaume III., uterine 

Gaston I., Comte de Foix. 

Jean de Foix. 

Gaston. In 1507 the vis- 
county was exchanged with 
the Crown for the duchy of 

Kings of Navarre 

8 Inigo-Ymenez (Arista). 

852 Garcia Ymenez. 

86- Garcia Ymenez. 

880 Fortun Garces. 

905 Sancho I., Garces. 

926 Jimeno Garces. 

931 Garcia I., Sanchez. 

970 Sancho II., Garces. 

974 Garces II. 
looo Sancho III., the Great. 
1035 Garcia III., Sanchez. Garcia. 
1054 Sancho IV. Sancivs. 
1076 Sancho V., Ramirez, King of 

1094 Pierre I., King of Aragon. 

1 104 Alphonse., King of Aragon. 
1134 Garcie IV., Ramirez, King of 

Navarre, grand-nephew of 

Sancho IV. 
1150 Sancho VI. 
1194 Sancho VII. Sand-vs. 
1234 Thibaut I., Count of Cham- 
pagne, nephew of preceding. 

Tebald. Rex. 
1253 Thibaut II. de Champagne. 

Tiobald. Rex. 
1270 Henri I. 
1274 Jeanne de Champagne and 

Philippe le Bel, King of 

France. Johana. 

Some Dated Lists of European Rulers 287 

1305 Louis X., King of France. 
1316 Philippe le Long, King of 

1322 Charles le Bel, King of 

1328 Jeanne de France and Philippe 

1349 Charles II., le Mauvais, Count 

of Evreux. Karol-vs. 
1387 Charles III. 
1425 Blanche and Juan II. of Ara- 

gon. J. &* B.j Johanes. 
1475 Eleonore, Queen of Navarre ; 

Frangois Phdbus de Foix, 

grandson ; and Madeleine of 
France, mother and guard- 

1483 Catherine de Foix and Jean 
d'Albret. Johanes. Kathe- 

1512 Ferdinand V., King of Castile. 

1516 Henri II. d'Albret. 

1555 Jeanne d'Albret and Antoine 
de Bourbon. 

1572 Henri I. de Bourbon, after- 
wards King of France. 

Comtes &* Dices de Nevers 

888 Richard le Justicier, Due de 

918 Seguin. 
943 Hugues le Blanc, Due de 

Bourgogne & des Francs. 
956 Otto, Due de Bourgogne. 
965 Henri. 

987 Otto Guillaume, Comte de 
Bourgogne and de Nevers, 

992 Mathilde, daughter, Comtesse 

de Nevers, m. the Seigneur 

de Maers, Monceaux, and 


1028 Renaud I., Comte d'Auxerre 

and Nevers. 
1040 Guillaume I. 
1076 Renaud II., Comte de Nevers. 
1089 Guillaume II., son, Count of 
Nevers and (1095) Auxerre. 
1147 Guillaume III. 
1161 Guillaume IV., Comte d'Aux- 
erre, Nevers, and Tonnerre. 
Comes Guiilm. or Gviimo. 
1 1 68 Gui, brother. Comes Gvi- 


1175 Guillaume V. 
1181 Agnes de Nevers, m. Pierre de 
Courtenay. Comes Petrus. 
1192 \ Mahaut de Courtenay, m. 
1199) (i) Herve de Donzy. 

Comes Ervevs. 

1226 I (2) Gui de Forez. Gvido. 
' Comes. 

1257 Mahaut II. de Bourbon, 
grand-daughter of preceding, 
m. Eudes de Bourgogne. 
M. Comitissa. Odo Comes. 

1266 Yolande de Bourgogne, Com- 
tesse de Nevers (/. Comi- 
tissa.} m. (i) Jean Tristan de 
France, Comte de Valois 
(/. F. Regis. Francie), (2) 
Robert deDampierre. Rober- 
tvs Comes. 

1296 Louis I. of Flanders. 

1322 Louis II. of Crecy. 

1346 Louis III. of Maele. 

1384 Marguerite, daughter, m. 
Philip le Hardi, Duke of 

1404 Philippe de Bourgogne,Comte 
de Nevers, Due de Brabant, 

1415 Charles de Bourgogne. 

1464 Jean de Bourgogne, brother. 

1491 Engilbert de CleVes, grand- 

1506 Charles I. de CleVes. 

1521 Francois I. de Cleves, first 
Duke of Nevers. 

1562 Francois II. 

1563 Jacques, brother. 

1564 Henriette, sister, ;;/. Ludo- 

vico Gonzaga. 
1601 Charles II., Gonzaga. 
1637 Charles III., Gonzaga. 

. '. The last sold all his French property in 1659 to Cardinal Mazarin. 


The Coins of Europe 

Dukes of Normandy 

912 Rollo. 

927 Guillaume I., Longue Epe"e. 

943 Richard I. 

996 Richard II. 

1026 Richard III. 

1027 Robert le Diable. 

1035 Guillaume le Conquerant. 
1087 Robert II., Courteheuse. 
1106 Henri I. 
1135 Etienne. 

1144 Geoffroi le Bel. 

1151 Henri II. 

1189 Richard I., Cceur-de-Lion. 

1 199 Jean sans Terre ; Arthur, pre- 

1204 Philippe Auguste, King of 

1361 Normandy is definitely re- 
united to the Crown. 

Counts and Princes of Orange 

1173 Bertrand II., prince in 1178. 

1 183 Guillaume II. 

1225 Guillaume II. and Raimond 


1239 Raimond I. and Guillaume I Y. 
1248 Raimond I. and Raimond II. 
1279 Raimond III. and Bertrand 

1282 Bertrand III. and Raimond 

III. Bt.wBtdi's. 
1314 Raimond III. A'. Priccps. 
1340 Raimond IV. and Catherine 

de Courtrezon. A', de Bavico. 
1393 Jean I. of Chalon and Marie 

de Baux. Jo/is. De. Cabil. 
1418 Louis de Chalon. Lvdvcvs. 
1470 Guillaume V. de Chalon. 

Gvillm. D. Cab. 

1475 Jean II. de Chalon. Johs. D. 

1502 Philibert de Chalon. Phs. 
de Cabillon. 

1530 Rene de Nassau, nephew of 

1544 Guillaume VI. de Nassau- 
Dilenbourg. cousin. Gvill.^. 

1584 Philippe Guillaume de Nas- 
sau. Philip. Gvilli. 

1618 Maurice de Nassau. 

1625 Frederic Henri de Nassau. 

1647 Guillaume VII. de Nassau. 

1650 Guillaume VIII. 

1702 Francois Louis de Bourbon- 

1717 Louis Armand de Bourbon. 

1718 Louis Francois de Bourbon. 

Comtcs de Poitou 

778 Abbon, Comte de Poitiers. 
832 Ricuin and Bernard I. 

838 Emenon, brother of last. 

839 Rainulf I., Duke of Aquitaine 

in 845. 

867 Bernard II., son of Bernard I. 
880 Rainulf 1 1., King of Aquitaine, 


893 Aimar, son of Emenon. 
902 Ebles Manzer, son of Rainulf 


932 Guillaume I., Tete d'Etoupe. 
963 Guillaume II., Due d'Aqui- 


990 Guillaume III. 
1029 Guillaume IV. 

1038 Eudes, brother, Due d'Aqui- 

taine & de Gascogne. 

1039 Guillaume V., brother. 

1058 Gui Geoffroi, called Guillaume 

1087 Guillaume VII. 

Some Dated Lists of European Riders 289 

1127 Guillaume VIII. 
1137 Eleonore d'Aquitaine, ;/., 
1152, Henry II. of England. 
1169 Richard I. of England. 
1 1 97-98 Otto of Brunswick, nephew. 
1199 John I. of England. 

1204 Reunited to the French 

1241 Alphonse, brother of Louis 

1271 Final reunion to the Crown. 

Counts of Saint- Pol 

1003 Roger. 

1067 Hugues I., Candavene. 

1070 Gui I. and Arnould, Baron 

d'Ardres, his father-in-law 

and guardian. 

1083 Hugues II., brother of Gui I. 
1130 Hugues III. Hvgo. 
1141 Enguerrand. 
1 1 50 Anselme, brother. Ansel. 


1174 Hugues IV. Hvgo Comes. 
1205 Elizabeth and Gaucher de 

1219 Gui II. 

1226 (?) Hugues V., brother. Hvgo. 
1248 Gui III. 
1289 Hvgves VI. 
1292 Gui IV., brother. Gvido. 
1317 Marie de Bretagne, widow 

and regent, and Jean de 

1344 Gui V. and Jean de Landas, 

his father-in-law and guard- 
ian. . Gvido. 

1360 Mahaut, sister of Gui V., and 

hei consort Gui VI. de 

Luxembourg, Seigneur de 

1371 Waleran de Luxemburgh. 

1415 Jeanne de Luxembourg, sister, 

and Philippe de Bourgogne. 


1429 Jeanne de Luxembourg alone. 
1431 Pierre I. de Luxembourg, 

grandson of Gui IV. 
1433 Louis. 
1476 Pierre II. 
1482 Marie, m. (i) Jacques de 

Savoie ; (2) Frangois de 

Bourbon -Vendome. 
1495 Francois II. de Bourbon. 

1545 Frangois III. 

1546 Marie, sister, m. (i) Jean 

de Bourbon ; (2) Frangois 
de Cleves ; (3) Leonor 
1601 Frangois d'Orleans. 

House of Sully 

8 Hercenaud de Sully. 


99- Hercenaut II. (died before 

109- Gilon II. de Sully, son-in-law 
of the Vicomte de Bourges. 

n Mahaut de Sully, m. Eudes 
Arpin, who became jure 
uxoris Vicomte de Bourges. 

no- Agnes de Sully, sister, m. 
Guillaume de Champagne, 
Comte de Chartres. 

1 1 50 Eudes Archambaud de Cham- 
pagne, Sire de Sully. 

1163 Gilon de Champagne. 

1177 Archambaud II. 

1217 Henri I. 

1252 Henry II., Seigneur de Sully, 
Boisbelle, and Orval. 

1269 Jean I. 

1281 Henri III., brother, ;//., c. 
1286, the heiress of Chateau- 

1285 Henri IV., and his mother 
Marguerite as guardian. 

1320 Jean II. 

1360 Louis. 

1381 Marie de Sully, Dame d'Orval, 
Chateaumeillant and Bois- 
belle, m. (i) Gui VI., de 
la Tremouilie, (2) Charles 
d'Albret, Comte de Dreux. 


The Coins of Eiirope 

Seigneurs de Sully 

1398 Georges de la Tremouille. 

1446 Louis, Vicomte de Thouars. 

1483 Louis. 

1515 Francois, Prince de Talmond. 

1524 Charles, Prince de Talmond. 

1541 Louis, Due de Thouars. 

1577 Claude de la Tremouille. 

Seigneurs de Boisbelle 

1415 Charles II., D'Albret. 

1455 Arnaud Amanieu d'Albret, 

Seigneur d'Orval. 
1463 Jean d'Albret d'Orval. 
1528 Marie d'Albret, m. Charles 

de Cleves, Comte de Nevers. 
1538 Francois I. de CleVes. 
1665 Henriette de Cleves, m. 

Ludovico Gonzaga. 
1695 Charles Gonzaga, Due de 


1597 Maximilien de Bethune, Seigneur de Sully by acquisition, Prince de 
Henrichemont and de Boisbelle, Marquis de Rosny, etc. The great 
Minister of Henri IV. His son Maximilien II. died vita patris. 

1641 Maximilien III., Francois, Due de Sully, Prince de Henrichemont 
and Boisbelle. 

1 66 1 Maximilien IV. Pierre Francois. 

1694 Maximilien V. 

1712 Maximilien VI., brother. 

Comtes de Toulouse 

778 Chorson or Torsin. 

790 Guillaume I., kinsman to 

Pepin le Bref. 
8 10 Raimond Rafinel. 
818 Berenger. 

835 Bernard, Duke of Septimania. 
844 Guillaume II. 
850 Fredalon. 
852 Raimond I., hereditary Comte 

de Toulouse. 
864 Bernard. 
875 Eudes. 
919 Raimond. 
923 Raimond Pons. 
950 Guillaume Taillefer. Wilelino 

or Gvilelnivs Co. 
1037 Pons. Poncio Comes. 

1060 Guillaume IV. IVielmo Come. 

1088 Raimond IV. de Saint Gillcs. 
Guillaume, Due d'Aquitaine. 

1 105 Bertrand. 

1 1 12 Alphonse Jourdain. 

1114 Guillaume le Jeune. 

1 1 20 Alphonse again. 

1148 Raimond V. Alphonse 1 1. 

1194 Raimond VI. Simon and 
Amauri de Montfort, com- 
petitors in succession, 1214- 

1222 Raimond VII. 

1249 Alphonse de France. A. 
Comes, Fil. Reg. Fran, or 
A If vs. Com. 

1271 Reunion to the Crown. 

Comtes and Vicomtes de Turenne 

8 Raoul, Comte de Turenne. 

897 Robert. 

Bernard, Vicomte de Turenne. 

Some Dated Lists of European R^llers 291 

897 Archambaud, Vicomte de 

Comborn, son-in-law. 
Boson I. 

1091 Raimond I. 
1 1 22 Boson II. 
II43(?) Raimond II. 
1191 (?) Raimond III. 
I2i4(?) Raimond IV. 
1243 Raimond V. Seigneur de 

Serrieres, brother. 
1245 Raimond VI. 
1287 Raimond VII. 
1304 Marguerite, m. Bernard, 

Comte de Comminges. 
1335 Jean de Comminges. 

1339 Cecile de Comminges, m. 

James of Arragon. 
1350 Guillaume Roger, Comte de 

Beaufort, etc., by purchase. 
1395 Raimond Louis de Beaufort. 
1417 Eleonore, sister. 
1420 Amanieu, cousin. 

Pierre de Beaufort- Limueil, 

1444 Anne de Beaufort, m. Agne 

de la Tour. 

1490 Frangois I. de la Tour. 
1494 Antoine, brother. 
1528 Frangois II. 
1532 Frangois III. 
1557 Henri de la Tour, Marechal 

de France. 

Comtes and Dues de Vendome 

958 Bouchard I., Comte de Ven- 
dome, Paris, & de Corbeil. 

1012 Renaud, Bishop of Paris, son. 

1016 Eudes, son of Landry, Comte 
de Nevers, nephew. 

10 Bouchard II. and his mother 

10 Foulques 1'Oison, brother, and 
his mother. 

1031 Geoffroi Martel, Comte 
d'Anjou, uncle, by purchase 
from Adele. 

1050 Foulques 1'Oison, again, by 
donation of his uncle 
Geoffroi, Comte de Vendome. 

1066 Bouchard III. and his uncle 
Gui de Nevers, guardian. 

1085 Euphrosine, sister, m. 
Geoffroi Jourdain, Sire de 

1 102 Geoffroi Grisegonelle. 

1136 Jean I. 

1192 Bouchard IV. 

1 202 Jean II., grandson. 

1207 Jean III. de Lavardin, grand- 
son of Jean I. leha. or lohan. 

1218 Jean Montoire, nephew. 
lohan. Comes. 

1239 Pierre de Montoire. Petrvs. 

1249 Bouchard V. Bocard. 

1271 Jean V. Jo /is. 

1315 Bouchard VI., Seigneur de 
Castres. Bo. Comes. 

1336 Jean VI. 

1366 Bouchard VII. and Jeanne 
de Castille his mother, 

1374 Catherine, sister, m. Jean 
de Bourbon. 

1412 Louis I. de Bourbon. 

1466 Jean VII. de Bourbon. 

1478 Frangois de Bourbon, Comte 
de Saint - Pol and de 

1495 Charles de Bourbon, first 
Duke of Vendome. 

1537 Antoine de Bourbon and de 
Vendome, King of Navarre 
in 1555, having married 
Jeanne D'Albret, daughter 
and heiress of Henri, King 
of Navarre. 

1562 Henri, Due de Vendome and 
King of Navarre. 

1598 Ce"sar, natural son of preced- 
ing, by Gabrielle d'Estrees. 

1665 Louis II. 

1669 Louis III. Joseph. 

1712 Reunion to the Crown of 

The Coins of Europe 


Kings of Leon alone. 

1157 Fernando II. Fernandas. 

1 188-1230 Alfonso IX. Adefonsvs or Anfons. 

(i.) Kings of Castile alone, (ii.) Of United Spain. 










Sancho III. Sancivs AV.r. 
Alfonso VI 1 1. Anfys. 
Henriquez I. Enrici's. 
Fernando 1 1 1., King of Castile 

and Leon. F. AV.r. 
Alfonso X. 

Sancho IV. Sanc/i. AV.r. 
Fernando \\. 
Alfonso XI. A If on si's. 
Pedro the Cruel. Petn's. 
Henriquez II. Enricvs. 
Juan I. John nis. 
Henriquez III. Enricvs. 
Juan II. lohancs. 
Henriquez I\ - . Enrici's 

68 Alfonso, brother, pretender 

or rival. 
-1504 Isabel or Elizabeth I. of 

Castile, and Fernando V ' . of 

Alfonso V. of Portugal. Al- 


1504 Joanna of Arragon and Philip 

I. of Austria. 
1516 Carlos I., King of Castile 

and Arragon. 
1536 FilippoII., King of Castile 

and Portugal. 
1598 Filippo III., King of Castile 

and Portugal. 
1621 Filippo IV., King of Castile 

and Portugal. 

1665 Carlos II., King of Spain. 
1700 Filippo V. of Anjou, King of 


1724 Luis. Filippo V. again. 
1746 Fernando VI. 
1759 Carlos III. 
1788 Carlos IV. 
1808 Fernando VII. 
1833 Isabel II. 
1 870 Amadeo of Savoy. 
1873 Republic. 
1875 Alfonso XII. 
1885 Alfonso XIII. and Maria 

Christina of Austria, regent. 


Counts and Kings of Portugal 

1094 Henri de Bourgogne, Count 

of Portugal. 
1 1 12 Alfonso I., Henriquez, first 

King, and his mother Teresa 
of Castile. Afusi or Al- 

Some Dated Lists of European Riders 293 

1185 Sancho I. Sancivs Rex. 
1 2 1 1 Alfonso 1 1 . Domini A Ifonsi. 
1223 Sancho II., Capel. Rex. 


1248 Alfonso III. Alfonsv. 
1279 Denis. D. or Dio nisii Regis. 
1325 Alfonso IV. A If. 
1357 Pedro I. P. 
1367 Fernando I. Fernandas. 
1383 Joam I. Ihns. 
1433 Duarte I. Edwardvs. 
1438 Alfonso V. Alfonsvs Qvinti. 
1481 Joam II. lohannes or 

Johannes Secvnd'us. 
1495 Manoel, cousin. Emanvel. 
1521 J oam III. loas or loancs. III. 
1557 .Sebastian, grandson. 
1578 Henriquez, son of Manoel. 


1580 Anthonio, illeg. grandson of 


Filippo I. [II. of Spain]. 
1598 Filippo II. [III. of Spain]. 
1621 Filippo III. [IV. of Spain]. 
1640 Joam IV. of Braganza. 
1656 Alfonso VI. 
1683 Pedro II., brother. 
1706 Joam V. 
1750 Josef I. 
1777 Pedro III., brother. 
1786 Maria Francisca Elizabeth, 


1816 Joam VI. 
1826 Maria II. Da Gloria. 
1827-34 Don Miguel, pretender. 
1853 Pedro V. 
1861 Luis I. 
1889 Carlos. 


CONFORMABLY with the principle which we laid down and 
attempted to justify in the Introduction, we now proceed to 
supply a general synopsis, commencing with Germany, of 
the numismatic productions of the European continent down 
to the present time ; and we shall endeavour to overlook no 
features of interest or monuments of importance in any of the 
numerous series which are comprised within our scheme. 
It must be obvious that to dwell on any but salient and 
typical points and examples in a moderate compass is an 
impossibility ; nor can it be requisite to bestow much 
attention on coins or classes of coinage other than such as 
appeal to our sympathy under some definite or special 
aspect. As in the three previous divisions of the under- 
taking we have spoken at considerable length of the pre- 
vailing characteristics, sources, and nomenclature of the 
several branches of this study, it remains the leading object 
to group together in their geographical sequence particulars 
most likely to be of service to the collector and amateur, 
whether desirous of following the policy of the writer or of 
working on different lines. Within the limits of Northern 
Germany alone, were we to go no farther, we find abundant 
material for illustrating the progress of coinage, and an 
inexhaustible store of examples belonging to all the successive 
stages of the art from its rudest infancy : its gradations of 

296 The Coins of Europe 

archaic work, its attainment and long preservation of the 
highest excellence, and its gradual decline to the modern 
mechanical and unheroic standard. 

The former distribution of Germany into circles, long 
after the date when it had been formed into a separate 
kingdom by the election of Conrad I. at the Diet of Worms 
in 8 1 1- 1 2, while to a large extent it is a mere matter of 
history, necessarily governed during centuries, and through 
nearly the whole of the most important period of our inquiry, 
the operations and incidence of the coinage, as it affected the 
relationship of the varying component parts of that great 
political fabric to the Crown and to each other. At three 
distinct epochs the entire German territory was apportioned 
into four, six, and ten circles. In 1387, into Upper and 
Lower Saxony ; the Rhenish Provinces ; Austria, Bavaria, 
and Suabia ; Thuringia and Franconia. In 1438 the 
divisions were changed and multiplied, and embraced the 
temporal or ecclesiastical sovereignties of Brandenburgh, 
Saxony, Cologne, Wurtemburg, Salzburg, and Mayence. But 
in i 5 i 2 a readjustment, which with two or three important 
exceptions lasted down to the date of the Confederation of 
the Rhine under Napoleon, was effected by the Emperor 
Maximilian I., and the country constituted thereafter ten 
circles : Austria, Bavaria, Suabia, Franconia, Upper and 
Lower Saxony, Westphalia, Upper and Lower Rhine, and 
Burgundy. The loss of Burgundy, the erection of Prussia 
into a kingdom in 1701, and the dismemberment of Poland, 
were three agencies which sensibly affected the balance of 
Europe ; but so long as the antique constitutional framework 
and sentiment survived, personal and even dynastic changes 
did not, for the most part, interfere with the internal 
organisation of Germany or of the German Empire, and left 
matters of executive detail unmolested ; and if this was true 
of the portion of the imperial dominions under more im- 
mediate central control, it was apt to be more so of those at 
a distance of the Netherlands, Italy, and Sicily. The 
resistance of the monetary economy, vocabulary, and general 
complexion to political disturbances and disruptions, contri- 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 297 

butes to satisfy us that it was in principal measure of 
municipal or other local origin, even where the coins pay 
titular homage to the sovereign or suzerain for the time 
being ; and the circumstance is a fortunate one, since it has 
been instrumental in preserving a countless variety of types 
and in the transmission of many interesting social and 
popular traits. 

The feudal coinage of Germany and the rest of the 
Teutonic family may be considered the not unnatural result 
of the dismemberment of the unwieldy and incongruous 
empire of Charlemagne and its partition among several 
rulers, of whom none possessed sufficient power and weight 
to establish another great central authority. Charlemagne 
himself had begun to feel the growing influence of the larger 
territorial proprietors, both clerical and secular, and had in 
some cases associated his name with theirs on the local 
currency ; but, on the whole, he found it possible to replace 
the lax Merovingian system, by which coins were struck at 
an enormous number of places without an indication of any 
supreme jurisdiction, by one which reduced the aggregate of 
mints, and made the imperial name the most conspicuous 
feature on a piece, wherever it was produced. It is difficult 
to determine to what causes such a phenomenon may be due ; 
but, although the immediate successors of that great prince 
promptly betrayed their unfitness to fill his place, it is not 
till the tenth century that we seem to discern very clearly 
the symptoms of political disintegration so far as the coinage 
of the Franco-German Empire is concerned, and find docu- 
mentary evidence of the investiture of a host of vassals of 
the Crown with a right alike politically and commercially 

In treating the German series it may be more convenient 
to follow the modern classification which has been our guide 
in the Catalogue of Mints ; and we shall accordingly survey 
this and the other succeeding fields of research and material 
in the order adopted by M. Blanchet, making it our aim to 
draw attention to every object of more than usual interest 
under each head from different points of view, and seeking 

298 The Coins of Europe 

to avoid repetitions of particulars already furnished in our 
Catalogues and Introduction. 

It will probably have struck the attentive observer of this 
description of record, that each region has in early times, and 
down to the close of the old regime, carried and fondly pre- 
served on its coinage, tokens and memorials of popular be- 
lief, local worship, and national observances and peculiarities. 
This is very true of Germany, with the primitive and quaint 
symbolism, the intricate heraldic blazon, significant of the 
union or division of families, the testimony to feelings and 
pursuits, and the innumerable tributes to public and private 
occasions which might have otherwise passed into oblivion, 
inscribed on its multifarious currency during so many centuries. 
The domestic and social annals of this great country could 
not be written in the absence of such archives, which have 
alike survived paper, parchment, and oral tradition. And is 
not such the case with the whole area involved in the present 
undertaking ? 

The imperial series of coins is broken in its continuity 
by the periodical changes of dynasty. We have a rich 
assemblage and succession of money, at first in silver or 
billon only, but eventually in all metals and denominations, 
and in the lower values, belonging to the Carlovingian, 
Saxon, Franconian, Suabian, Hapsburg, and Hohenzollern 
lines. Many of the earlier productions of the denier type 
have not only their points of numismatic and archaeological 
interest, but are carefully and tastefully engraved. With the 
fifteenth century, however, commenced the best period of 
medallic art, to which we are indebted for some of the finest 
and most attractive specimens forthcoming from any part of 
the world. 

It can scarcely be predicated of any items in this 
division or category, when we have crossed over into the 
sixteenth century, that they are extravagantly rare ; and with 
a few exceptions, independent of date, condition is always a 
more insuperable difficulty and barrier than the actual 
occurrence of coins. Among the German imperial thalers, 
those of Maximilian I. and II., Matthias and Ferdinand II., 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 299 

are less easily procured, while those of Ferdinand III., 
Leopold I., Charles VI. 1 and all the later reigns are abundant. 
The German gold the ducat or florin with its divisions and 
multiples has a tendency to grow less plentiful, as the call 
for it is extremely limited, and the heavier values, ascending 
to 10 ducats, are too costly to hold in the absence of some 
special recommendation. Those of Leopold I. are among the 
commonest and the least inviting. The rarest and most 
desirable are, perhaps, the minor parts of the gold unit and 
the favourite Hungarian pattern. In the majority of cases, 
where absolute rarity is an attribute, it occurs that the coin 
was struck at an obscure mint or under special circumstances. 
The continental numismatists and experts have hitherto 
enjoyed a monopoly in the acquaintance with these niceties. 

Since I 876 the mints of the German Empire have been : 
Berlin (A. or AA.), Hanover (B. or BB.), Frankfort-on- 
Maine (C. or CC), Munich (D. or DD.), Dresden (E. or EE.), 
Stuttgart (F. or FF.), Karlsruhe (G. or GG.), Darmstadt 
(H. or HH.), and Hamburgh (J. or JJ.). 

Making Westphalia our starting-point, it is necessary 

to refer to our Catalogues, and to mention that in 1 179 this 

district became part of the See of Cologne, after 

Westphalia. , . . , /. , , , - , 

having formed a feudal duchy, which determined 
in the person of Henry the Lion ; that portions of it were 
acquired at a later date by Prussia ; that it was one of the 
Napoleonic kingdoms from 1 806 to 1813; and that it 
then reverted to its former rulers. Westphalia comprised 
the territories between the Weser, the Rhine, and the Ems : 
Eastphalia (Ostphalcii] those between the Elbe and the 
Weser. The former naturally embraced within its confines 
places of coinage and numismatic monuments which recalled 
its successive rulers and numerous feudal subdivisions. 
The most conspicuous coins in this district are those of 
the Archbishops of Cologne, the Bishops of Paderborn and 
Munster, the Abbeys of Corvei and Hervord, the Counts of 
Salm, Bronkhorst, and Mark, and the town of Dortmund. The 

1 A \ thaler of this prince, struck in the last year of his reign (1740), has 
been attributed to the Prague mint, and is said to be scarce. 

300 The Coins of Europe 

See of Cologne struck money early in the thirteenth century, 
and some of the abbatial pieces date from the same period. 
In certain instances there was a convention between the 
Church and the town, and in others the latter received the 
privilege of a mint from the tenant-in-chief. 

Notice may be taken of two very rare coins of Walmo- 
den-Gimborn, struck by Count Ludwig, 1736-181 1, Prince 
of the Holy Roman Empire, and a natural son of George II. 
of Great Britain by the Countess of Yarmouth. They are a 
ducat and a convention-gulden, both in silver and of the 
year 1802. The former sold at the Reinmann sale in 1891, 
No. 782, for 48 marks. 

Jerome Napoleon, King of Westphalia, 1806-13, left 
behind him fairly copious numismatic memorials of his reign. 
In gold we find pieces of 40 franks, 1813, 20 franks, 1809, 
and i o and 5 franks, 1813; in silver, the gulden or 
| thaler, 1808-9-10-11-12-13, the 5 -frank piece, 1809, 
the convention-thaler of I 8 10-1 i-i 2-1 3, and one of 1811 
with Siegcn des Mans/cider Berghaues on reverse ; in base 
silver or billon, the xxiv. marien-groschen, the 20 and 10 
centimes ; and finally, in copper, the 5, 3, 2, and I centimes. 
The least usual in occurrence are the 40 franks in gold and 
the type of the |- thaler, with the unfilleted head to left. 
But none is common in fine state. 

In this portion of the Fatherland we have to look for 

several important sources of coinage, as it comprehends so 

many townships and governments which have 

Provinces P ossesse d independent rights and undergone 

striking vicissitudes. Among these we may 

specify the cities of Cologne and Treves, the town of Aix- 

la-Chapelle, and the dukedoms of Berg, Cleves, and Juliers, 

originally separate jurisdictions, and in the course of time 

united under the Electors of Saxony. Aix-la-Chapelle 

struck some of the earliest dated money ; and in the early 

currency of the three duchies will be found many examples 

remarkable for their variety and workmanship. The Dukes of 

Cleves entered into a monetary union in the sixteenth century 

(1511) with other Powers, including the Duke of Bavaria, 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 301 

and quartered the arms of their associates or allies on the 
reverses. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries 
Saxony, Prussia, and Bavaria at different points of time exer- 
cised monetary control in this region, and issued landmilnz 
or local currency in stubers or pfennigen for Berg alone or 
Cleves and Berg ; and the ephemeral grand-duchy of Berg 
and kingdom of Westphalia, from 1806 to 1813, have left 
their footprints or vestiges in a coinage of the same class 
under the auspices of Murat and of Jerome Napoleon. The 
coins of Cologne, emanating from many sources, added 
Sancta to the name Colonia in the time of Charles le Gros. 
The Rhenish circle included, like that of Westphalia, many 
abbatial and other seigniorial seats of coinage, some of an 
occasional or temporary character, and a few which are 
only known to us from documentary evidence. Of the 
princely house of Hohenzollern, the two branches of 
Hechingen and Siegmaringen formerly exercised monetary 
rights: that of Hechingen down to 1804, the Siegmaringen 
line to 1842. A very fine convention -thaler exists of 
Hermann Frederic Otho, Prince of H H, with the first- 
named date and I-L- W- under the bust. The Prince sub- 
scribed to the monetary treaty of 1838. 

There is comparatively little to remark on the numis- 
matic productions of these three principalities, of which all 
have early work, in the form of the sterling' and 

IS assau. . 

Lippe. denier, to shew. Ihey adopted the thaler and 
Waideck. VQ\<\ florin or ducat in due course ; the Counts 


of Nassau- Weilburg had leave to strike gold in 
i 398. The Counts of Schauenburg-Lippe possessed a coinage 
down to the close of the eighteenth century; the Princes 
of Waideck and Dukes of Nassau to the present century. 
There is a well -executed and carefully -struck Waideck 
thaler of 1813, and a regular series in all metals of Nassau. 
At several places in Nassau the Archbishops of Mayence 
struck money ; Hachenbuch was a mint of the Counts of 
Sayn, fifteenth century, and Westerburg of the Counts of 
Leiningen-Westerburg in 1681. Of the Dukes themselves 
the best-known and principal one is Wiesbaden. The in- 

302 The Coins of Europe 

dependent money of Lichtenstein appears to have ceased 
in 1778. 

There are bracteates belonging to this electoral domain 

in its undivided state, and money of Sophia, Duchess of 

Hesse- Hesse, daughter of the Landgraf Louis IV., and of 

Cassel. her son Henry. The most ancient mint seems 

to" have been Marpurg or Marburg, which occurs on the 

mute bracteates with the Hessian lion. There must have 

been a very extensive coinage from first to last ; but the 

existing remains are not abundant beyond the small values 

in silver and copper of the last and present century. 

The Hessian series of thalers, at first of the Cassel 
branch only, seems to go back to 1502, when we meet 
with the thaler of Wilhelm, Landgraf of Hesse, and its 
divisions. The thaler reads Wilhemvs ; D : G : Lantgravivs : 
Hassie +, and on reverse Gloria Rei-Pvblice. 1502. There 
is from this point of time to the present a continuous series 
in all metals, of which the earlier are very seldom found out 
of Germany. We may be permitted to refer to the Reinmann 
Catalogue, 1891-92, for an extraordinarily complete sequence 
of the landgraves and their money, which it must have 
occupied a lifetime to accumulate. Hesse-Cassel and Hesse- 
Homburg have formed part of Prussia since I 866. 

We may take the opportunity to note a thaler of Hedwig 
Sophia of Brandenburgh, 1669, as regent or guardian; a 
piece of i 5 pfennigen of Frederic, Landgraf of Hesse-Darm- 
stadt and Cardinal-Bishop of Breslau, 1680, with the shield 
of arms on the reverse surmounted by a cardinal's hat ; a ^ 
thaler of Mary, daughter of George II. of Great Britain, and 
consort of Frederic, Landgraf of Hesse-Cassel, 1763, as 
administratrix of the county of Hanau, with her portrait 
and a shield quartered with the arms of England ; and 
thalers of Wilhelm IX., Landgraf of Hesse and Count of 
Hanau, 1771 and 1794, with a large portrait to right. The 
thaler of 1771 reads (obv.) Wilhelni D. G. Landg. & Pr. 
Her Hass. Com. Han., and (rev.) Ex Visceribvs Fading 
Bieber., 1771 alluding to. the mines at Biber in the district 
of Neuvied. Several seigniorial mints, both secular and 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 303 

ecclesiastical, are found within the duchy, and some, of which 
there are no known or identified specimens ; the Sees of 
Cologne, Mayence, and Paderborn also struck money at 
Amoeneberg and elsewhere. 

The grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, since 1866 the 

sole remaining sovereign branch, was detached from the 

main stem in 1567, and the landgraviat of 


Darmstadt. Hesse-Homburg from the latter in 1596. Of 
Hesse- both, but especially of Hesse-Homburg, the cur- 

Homburg. . . .. -, r ~. 

rency transmitted to us is unusually scanty. 1 he 
grand-duchy, however, embraces many places, notably May- 
ence and Worms, which were busy and continuous seats 
of coinage, besides a number of minor localities, such as 
Burg-Friedberg, Hatzfeld, Isenburg, and Oppenheim, of 
which we have interesting numismatic relics. Taking 
Isenburg as an illustration of the intermittent survival of 
a currency which probably proceeded without interruption 
from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century, it seems 
singular that we have met with no more than four pieces 
connected with this fief: a ^ thaler of Wolfgang Ernst 
a Birstein, 1618, a gulden of 1676, and a reichsthaler and 
i 2-kreutzer piece of I 8 1 1. 

In the Catalogue of Mints there is a perhaps sufficient 
account of the monetary history of this free city, now part of 
the German Empire, but once the Frankish capital, 
anvMairi" anc ^ during centuries a republic. During two or 
three years (1810-13) it became under Carl Von 
Dalberg the seat of a grand-duchy, of which there are slight 
numismatic recollections in the form of kreutzers and hallers. 
The Margraviat, subsequently and at present grand- 
duchy, originally severed from Hochberg in 1190, was 
divided in 1517 into the two branches of 
Baden. ^ Baden-Baden and Baden-Durlach, of which 

Baden-Baden. t h e former became extinct in 1771. The 

Durlach. . 

coinage is not very remarkable or varied, and 

1 The late Grand-Duke, Louis IV., who die4 in 1892, left to the public his 
hereditary collection, of which a catalogue would certainly be interesting, and 
would greatly add, no doubt, to our knowledge of the series. 

304 The Coins of Europe 

Baden was till 1572 the sole mint. The territory was 
perhaps more distinguished by the independent seats of 
coinage, such as Breisach, Constanz, Freiburg- in -Brisgau, 
Leiningen, Mannheim and Ulm, some of which enjoyed con- 
cessions long anterior to that to the Margraviat in 1362. 
The earliest money of Baden was of the mute bracteate 
type, and legends do not occur before the time of the 
Margraf Christoph (1475-1527). 

This, one of the duchies erected into kingdoms by 
Napoleon in 1806, was formed in 1496 out of the count- 
ships of Urach and Neuffen. As a duchy it 
*' dated from 1492 ; the countship of Montbeliard 
was incorporated with it in 1631, and annexed to France 
in 1792. The coinage does not seem to go back beyond 
the fourteenth century, and had not attained much import- 
ance till the fifteenth, from which time down to the pre- 
sent there is an unbroken numismatic series in all metals, 
but more especially silver and billon. Stuttgart was long 
the chief, before it became the only mint. The coins in 
gold, silver, and billon, exhibit the titles of the reigning 
prince as Count or Duke of WUrtemburg and Teck, Count 
of Montbeliard, and Lord of Heidenheim. We may specify 
the double thaler of 1621 of the Duke Johann Friedrich, 
with a four-quartered shield, and notice should be taken of 
the very striking stcrbdenkthaler issued to commemorate 
the death of the Duchess Elizabeth Maria, 1686, with a very 
elaborate veiled bust. 1 There was no copper money of 
ducal or regal origin, except for Montbeliard, till 1 840. 
For that fief we have a 4-kreutzer piece of 1698 and a Hard 
of 1715. But within this frontier, as elsewhere, a variety 
of personages had mints from a remote period, particularly 
at Hall, Ravensperg, and Rottweil ; by reason, no doubt, of 
the more limited output, these feudal issues are of far greater 
rarity in all the series than the ordinary money of the 
Crown. Several of the townships struck copper for local 
use during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The 
coins of Frederic, the first King of WUrtemburg, down to 
1 Dillon Catalogue, 1892, No. 473. 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 305 

1810 or 1812, especially the gold, are scarce. It may be 
of service to the collector to mention the rich assemblage of 
thalers of Wurtemburg in the three portions of the Rein- 
mann Catalogue, 1891-92. The numerous mints of the 
Counts of Hohenlohe, of whom there were different branches 
(Neuenstein, Langenburg, etc.), have bequeathed to us some 
excellent specimens, particularly of the thaler, not in the 
Reinmann Catalogue, during the seventeenth century. The 
small uniface pieces belong to the era of the Thirty Years' War. 
This ancient and historical domain, which existed as a 
duchy from the sixth century, and underwent various 
modifications and redistributions at successive 

Bavaria. . . . ., . . 

epochs, is associated, numismatically speaking, 
with a long series of imperial and ducal coins of the denier 
class, commencing with the tenth century and with an 
unusually important body of what may be termed external 
coinage, arising, in the first place, from the Palatinate of the 
Rhine, and secondly from numerous seigniorial, municipal 
or urban centres, of which we must content ourselves with 
naming Augsburgh, Baireuth, Bamberg, Dillingen, Fugger, 
Heidelberg, Ingolstadt, Kempten, Landshut, Leuchtenberg, 
Lindau, Memmingen, Miinchen (or Munich), Niirnberg, 
Regensburg (or Ratisbon), Spire, and Wiirzburg. The early 
rise of these and other townships within the duchy into 
prominence and power tended to reduce the electors of 
Bavaria to the rank of grand feudatories under the empire ; 
and to the numismatic student the productions of the 
subordinate mints are apt to be of at least equal interest 
with those of the ducal moneyers. From the sixteenth 
century, however, the coinage of the electorate began to 
assume considerable importance and to develop great 
artistic merit ; and the thalers especially, from the reign of 
Albert III. (1550-79), are to be particularly commended to 
notice. There are very beautiful examples of Maximilian 
Emmanuel (1679-1726), Carl Theodor (1777-99), an d 
Maximilian Joseph (1799-1825), and a curious series of 
Ludwig I. (1825-48). Probably the chefs d'ceuvre of the 
Bavarian mint are the heavy gold piece of Maximilian 1. 


306 The Coins of Europe 

(1596-1651), dated 1598, with the effigy of the canonised 

Emperor Henry II., and the constitutional thaler of 1818, 
with the reverse exhibiting on a block of granite the words 
Charta ]\Iagna Bavaria. The Virgin and Child type on the 
reverse of several of the earlier thalers may have been bor- 
rowed from Hungary. 1 Some of the gold money of Maxi- 
milian (1848-64) was from the Hartz ore (Ex Auro Rheni.\ 
and presents a view of Munich on the reverse. 

Of the copper money little is to be said : that of the 
duchy and kingdom belongs to the eighteenth and nineteenth 
centuries only ; but Wiirzburg, Augsburgh, Baireuth, and the 
Fugger family struck hellers and kreutzers in the seven- 
teenth, some in connection with the Thirty Years' War. 
There was a sparing and shy resort to this metal char- 
acteristic of a majority of the German Powers in early times. 
The uniface pieces, which we encounter between 1621 and 
1623, are to be regarded as money of necessity. 

The several independent coinages within the Bavarian 
territory emulated that of the electorate in importance of 
character and beauty of workmanship. We have before 
us two rare pieces connected with Ratisbon : (i) a ^ thaler 
of Joseph II. struck here in 1774, vitd matris, with his 
portrait on obverse, and the cross-keys on the reverse with 
the readings Non Dormit Custos, and Mon. Reip. Ratisp. 
xx. Eine F. Mark, 1774; (2) a thaler of the see with the 
shields of the bishops encircling the papal type of St. Peter 

1 In the Dillon Catalogue, 1892, No. 834, the piece of John of Leyden, 
King of Munich, is almost certainly a medal. 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 307 

in a boat with the keys and no legend, and on reverse in 
eight lines, Regnans Capitvlvm Ecclesiae Cathedralis Ratis- 
bomnsis Sede Vacante, MDCCLXXXVII. 10, Eine F. Mark. 
The shield of the late prelate is left blank, and is surmounted 
by his mitred effigy. There is also the episcopal coinage of 
Eichstadt (Catalogue of Mints in v.} down to the end of the 
eighteenth century. It was struck, however, at Niirnberg 
(where there does not appear to have been any output of 
local municipal money) from the fifteenth century. The later 
bishops issued some very handsome pieces ; but the chefd'ceuvre 
of the series is the sede vacante double thaler of 1790. 

This classic and unhappy region, the theatre of much of 
the tragical and grim drama known as the Thirty Years' 

War, after certain political vicissitudes, was ulti- 
p , . mately incorporated with Bavaria by the Treaty of 

Westphalia (1648), carrying with it the electoral 
title and dignity. It is invested with no slight historical 
interest in the eyes of Englishmen on account of the in- 
auspicious marriage of Elizabeth Stuart with the Elector 
Frederic V. in 1613, and the fortunes of their children in 
the persons of Prince Rupert and the Electress Sophia. 
The numismatic annals of the Phalz or Palatinate seem to 
extend from the fourteenth century to the union with 
Bavaria, and include, amid a copious assortment and succes- 
sion of lower denominations and unimportant coins, the 
currencies of the counts in their several branches, those 
coins struck at Heidelberg, Amberg, Neuburg, and elsewhere 

in alliance with the Duke of Bavaria or the See of Mayence, 
and some interesting examples in the more precious metals, 
for instance, the dated gold florin of 1437 struck at Bach- 
arach. Several independent coinages were constantly running 

308 The Coins of Europe 

parallel with those of the electors and dukes by virtue of 
privileges or concessions accorded to bishops, abbots, towns, 
and territorial dignitaries of all kinds ; and political boundary 
lines did not preclude the employment of mints by person- 
ages outside the immediate jurisdiction, on a principle foreign 
to modern ideas and possibilities. We see this traversing 
and entangled system exemplified at every turn ; and it is 
not so apt to take us by surprise in the case of great 
temporal or even ecclesiastical rulers, as where the Burgraf 
of Ntirnberg in the absence of local facilities is found with 
liberty to strike money for the city at a distance. It was an 
inversion of the Merovingian plan, by which, as we judge, the 
moneyer brought his primitive apparatus to every man's door. 
In the Catalogues we have already dealt with all the 
principal numismatic features of this division either under 
the one or the other head. We have to add here, that, in 
common with Silesia and the rest of the great battlefield, 
the Palatinate issued in or about 1621 uniface copper 
hellers of flimsy fabric for public convenience from more 
than one mint, and that no expedient was neglected, and no 
scruple used, to obtain, during that desperate and murderous 
struggle in the name of Religion, the material for pay- 
ing the expenses of the campaign. The collector should be 
aware that there is money coined by Christian of Bruns- 
wick out of the silver shrine of the Cathedral of Paderborn 
with the legend : The friend of God and the enemy of the 
priests, and pieces with Altera restat, struck on the amputa- 
tion of the King's left arm, to signify that his right one 
remained to him for use. We call attention to the interesting 
coinage of the princely house of Fugger, the curiously archaic 
work on some of the thalers of Leuchtenberg, of which none 
is later than 1555, and to the fine Augsburgh inauguration- 
piece of the Emperor Francis I. in 1745. Some of the 
earlier money of Niirnberg is deserving of attention ; the 
license to strike in gold dates from 1390. A ducat in that 
metal of 1618 exhibits the St. Laurence type, which was 
copied at Wismar. The thalers are of various dates : one 
of 1629 has on the obverse the arms of the Palatinate and 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 309 
on reverse those of Ferdinand II. with his titles. The more 

recent money down to 1770, among which we find small 
square gold pieces, sometimes presents a view of the city. 
We have to refer to the present group or circle the coinage 
of the Princes of Schwarzenberg, among which the amateur 
will meet with a few highly attractive pieces. We may cite 
a thaler of 1696 with the accollated busts of the prince and 
his consort and two crowned shields. The legend on obverse 
is Ferdinand' Et Maria Anna , and on reverse Princeps 
A Schwarzenberg Hcercs Landgravia! in Sulz. 

We now find ourselves entering on the threshold of a 

vast network and honeycomb, of which the central feature 

constitutes a comparatively insignificant portion. 

Saxony : . . A . . . , 

Margraviat, as in this case there is in a larger measure than 
Duchy, and j n ^g other divisions of Germany, at which we 

Kingdom. ... 

have been looking, tmperium, or rather imperia, in 
imperio, and the reigning house bore to the minor constitu- 
ents a relationship purely feudal. Moreover, both here and 
in the remainder of the Saxon circle, the principle of parti- 
tion among the more or less numerous members of the ducal 
family was carried into operation at certain intervals to an 
extent which tended still farther to decentralise authority ; 
and altogether, throughout the Middle Ages down to the 
last century, the Elector of Saxony, like that of Bavaria, 
was little more than the superior lord and representative 
before the Diet of the numerous virtually independent sub- 
sections of the extensive region over which he presided. 
But the division which is most generally quoted and under- 
stood is that of 1485 into the Albertine and Ernestine 

The most ancient possessors of the title of Margraf or 

3io The Coins of Europe 

Duke of Saxony associated with it that of Burgraf of 
Magdeburg a civil office which is enumerated among the 
honours of the house even in the eighteenth century and 
were originally feoffees of the empire, who had perhaps 
gradually converted a normal municipal preferment into an 
hereditary administrative trust and rank, or, as in the case of 
Brandenburgh, purchased the title and fief direct from the 
superior lord. We trace nothing in the numismatic series 

prior to an autonomous denarius of Bernhardt I. (973-1010), 
of which we furnish an engraving in the text. It reads on 
obverse Bernardhvs Dvx, and on reverse, in retrograde 
characters, 1 In Nomini Domini Amen a preparation for the 
Dei GratiA of later reigns. These pieces gradually de- 
generated, and at last gave way to a system of bracteatcs, 
which prevailed during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries 
over the whole of Saxony, and was adopted by the burgraves 
of Leisnig, Strehla, and Dohna, on one of whose coins we 
meet with H\enricus\ D\ci} G\j-atid\ B\urgravius\. The 
productions of this archaic era emanated from several mints, 
as we shew elsewhere. Leipsic was a seat of coinage from 
the twelfth century ; but, as was the case with other modern 
capitals, it by no means occupied at first a foremost place 
among the mints of the state. 

There was no farther development, so far as we are 
aware, till the opening years of the fourteenth century, which 
witnessed the introduction of a series of excellently engraved 
and struck groschen of good silver, usually ascribed to the 
mint at Klein-Schirma. The earliest which we have seen 
bear the name of Duke Balthazar (1408), and there are 

1 This peculiarity of certain archaic coins may, it is suggested, have proceeded 
from the neglect of the die-sinker or engraver to provide for the reversal of the 
type in the striking process. 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 3 1 1 

others of his successors down to Frederic III. or the Wise 
(1486-1500). Frederic whose prudent government, first in 
conjunction with relatives, and ultimately alone, promoted 
the numismatic in common with the political welfare of 
his country, issued from the mint at Colditz (?) the first 
Saxon thaler, which was known as the gulden groschen, and 
of which there are two or three varieties. Of that which we 

engrave the obverse and reverse are taken from two specimens, 
where the differences are immaterial, for the sake of the 
more perfect rendering of the type ; but in a third, which 
Frederic struck with his own bust and name only, an im- 
portant novelty occurs in the claim of the duke to be 
lieutenant-general of the empire. On these coins, and those 

which succeeded them an evolution from certain rude 
productions of Pomerania and Poland, as the latter were 

3i2 The Coins of Europe 

doubtless imitations of Byzantine models we have the 
opportunity of studying an infinite amount of instructive 
detail in relation to costume, armour, heraldry, and family 
history ; and the same school of design has preserved to us 
the names, dress, lineaments, and domestic episodes of other 
families and dynasties, which played a distinguished and 
influential part in German political life. The module of the 
Saxon currency, however, did not so frequently overstep 
ordinary limits as that of Brunswick ; yet there are a few 
wide-spread pieces of medallic appearance even in this series. 
A very fine coin, probably three thalers, of Johann Georg 
II., 1663, exhibits on obverse the facing full-length figure 
of the duke, crowned and robed, the mantle partly thrown 
back, and shewing the armour beneath ; his right hand 
grasps a sword, while the left rests on a table, holding his 
gauntlet and casque. The reverse has the gartered shield, 
surrounded by the escutcheons of the house. 

The constitutional and dynastic tie between Saxony and 
Poland during three quarters of a century, with occasional 
interruptions, is responsible for a series of Saxon coins struck 
at Leipsic with the titles of the Electors Frederic Augustus 
I. and II. and Frederic Christian (1697-1763) as Kings of 
Poland (Reges Poloniaruvt) ; the shield on the reverse bears 
the arms of Livonia ; and we have to notice the money of 
the former as Vicar of the empire after the death of the 
Emperor Joseph in 1711, where the reading on reverse 
is: Frid : A ug : Rex Elector & Vicar ius Post Mort : lose : 
Iniperat : MDCCXI. The regal assumption was by virtue of 
his Polish dignity. What may be treated as the conclusion 
of the old feudal platform is the lengthened succession of 
currency of the last Elector and first King (1763-1827) with 
a progression of portraits from adolescence to advanced age. 
There is the thaler of 1764, where he appears as a mere 
youth, in powerful contrast to the worn lines on the memo- 
rial coinage of 1827. In the modern series by far the most 
beautiful production is the war thaler of 1871. 

But, wealthy as the Saxon currency is in silver, it has 
not much to shew in gold till we arrive at the seventeenth 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 313 

century, and in copper still less the uniface hellers and 
pfennigen of Comenz and a few other places, in or about 
1622, representing all that we appear to have in the lowest 
metal. We mention elsewhere the sophienducat of John 
George I., 1616; and there is the vicariatducat of 1711 
of Frederick Augustus I. ; and the last Elector, prior to his 
elevation to the higher dignity, issued 5 and 10 thaler pieces, 
some with, others without, the mark of value. At the 
Reinmann sale in 1891, No. 208, the first gold ducat of the 
new kingdom, I 806, fetched 80 marks. 1 As far as the old 
money is concerned, the great recoinage of 1692 inevitably 
diminished its then existing volume. 

The formation of this duchy dates back to 1485 ; but 
within its limits, long prior to the partition of 1484-85, 

several localities struck money both of bracteate 
Weimar anc ^ other fabrics, and there are coins of the ancient 

Counts of Weimar from the thirteenth century. 
The municipal influence equally prevailed here, and the 
towns and burgraves enjoyed direct concessions in many 
instances from the Emperor. There are some interesting 
and rare thalers of the sixteenth century, and it is perhaps 
worth while to note that struck (with the half) in 1763 
by the Regent-Duchess Amalia, with her very charming 

The earliest coinage of Coburg is associated with the 
Counts of Henneberg, of whose domain the town and its 

precincts formed part. But the Margraves of 
Coburg. Brandenburgh and Meissen also employed the 

mint, and in fact the most ancient coins are those 
of John, Margraf of Brandenburgh, about 1308. Several 
other feudal dignitaries, both lay and ecclesiastical, are found 
striking money at different points within the duchy : the 
Abbot of Nieuburg had a concession in 993 for a mint at 
Hagenrode. The more modern grand - duchy of Saxe- 
Coburg-Gotha originated in 1680 through the division of the 
estates of Ernest the Pious among his sons. A thaler of 1 764 

1 At the same sale indeed the silver convention-gulden of 1 808 was carried to 
200 marks. 

314 The Coins of Europe 

of Saxe-Gotha reads Frider. III. D.G. Gothan. Saxonvm Dvx. 
This branch accidentally acquired a special English interest 
and importance from the alliance between the British Crown 
and the late Prince Consort, brother of the Grand-Duke 
Ernest. There are some admirable thalers of the latter, 1819, 
1835, etc., and a very pretty series of copper pieces with a 
crowned E. 

All the branches which we here enumerate arose from 

the periodical redistribution of inheritances among the several 

male representatives. Saxe-Meiningen became in 

Mefnimren T 68o tnc portion of Bernard, son of Ernest above 
Saxe-Coburg- named, who transmitted the property or estates 

Meiningen. to his undc Qiarlcs Frederic in 1733. The 
Saxe-Coburg _ .. . . 

and house of Altenbcrg was extinct in 1672, and its 

Saaifeid. possessions were divided between Saxe-Wcimar 
Hildburg- an d Saxe-Gotha. That of Hildburghausen was 
hausen. formed in 1825, and made Altenbcrg its capital. 
\itenben'- "A-^ these princes, besides many minor feudatories, 
enjoying from various sources the right to a sepa- 
rate currency, have left numismatic reminiscences of their exist- 
ence from the twelfth century to the present. The title of 
Coburg-Meiningen seems to have been limited to the imme- 
diate successor of Bernard in 1733. Of Saxc-Saalfeld there 
is only abbatial or urban coinage, dating from a very early 
period, as in 1350 the abbot ceded his pretensions to the 
town. When we approach more recent times, Saalfeld is 
found associated with Coburg ; a thaler of 1794 reads 
Ernestvs Fridericvs D.G. Ds. Cobvrg Saalfeld ; and on one 
of 1817 occurs Ernst Herzog su Sachsen Coburg tind Saalfeld. 
On the whole, there is nothing of great importance to record 
in connection with these titles or heads. Saxe-Meiningen 
and Saxe-Altenberg have their own limited currencies, which 
are not of common occurrence outside the immediate terri- 
tory or at all events the German frontier. 

The undivided government of Anhalt was originally a 
fief created in favour of Henry, son of Bernard, Duke of 
Saxony, in or about i 1 80, and was successively a mar- 
graviat, county, and duchy. The margraves struck groschen 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of E^t,rope 315 

in the fifteenth century, and received the imperial authority 

to coin gold in 1503. There are thalers from 1539. The 

division of the house into branches seems to 

Anhalt-Dessau. , . . . . ., TTf , 

Bernburg. have taken place m 1003. We have in our 
Coethen. hands a small copper piece of Anhalt-Dessau, 
belonging to that epoch, as well as a jubileums- 
thaler commemorating the partition of 1603 and the reunion 
for constitutional and financial purposes in I863. 1 The bear 
passant to left on the money which most usually occurs indi- 
cates Anhalt-Bernburg. Without exception the coinage of this 
region is scarce, particularly the gold, even of the last century. 

This is a house of which there were several branches, 
all striking money, which is chiefly of the lower denomina- 
Schwarzburg tions, commencing with bracteates in the thirteenth 
Schwarzburg- century. The thaler appeared in 1525, and in 
Rudolstadt. I737 gold was obtained from the mines at Golds- 
thai for the coinage of ducats or florins in that metal. Of the 
bracteate series the most ancient appear to be the examples 
with the double circle of pearls specified in a monetary treaty of 
1290 between Schlotheim and Miihlhausen, and not directly 
connected with the duchy. A later issue has a single circle. 
Two interesting relics of S. Rudolstadt are the mortuary 
money in memory of the Duchess ^Emilia and the thaler or 
gulden of medallic fabric of 1796, with the singular type on 
reverse of the Wild Man and Woman as supporters of the 
ducal shield. There are thalers of Friedrich Gunther of S. 
Rudolstadt of 1812, 1858, 1866, and, doubtless, other years. 
That of i 8 1 2 is a convention-piece, of which the reverse is 
from the same die as was used for Reuss, etc., and in fact 
the sole difference is in the obverses of this issue with the 
portraits and special titles. They all probably came from a 
common mint Leipsic ? under Franco-Saxon auspices. 

The within-named principality, divided at an early date 
into four branches, and at present into two, Senior and 
Junior, has issued from the twelfth century down- 
ward a very considerable body of money, which is 
seldom seen in England, and does not often present itself 

1 But Anhalt-Zerbst became extinct in 1793. 

3 1 6 The Coins of Europe 

in continental catalogues. The original currency was on the 
bracteate system : one belonging to the Plauen line has 
Hadupm. for Henricus Advocatus de Plauen, indicating the 
lay administrator of that province. There is a great risk of 
confusion among the more archaic Reuss money through 
the fifty or sixty persons of the name of Henry who 
have borne the title, and, again, through the anonymous 
character of many of the pieces. On some of those struck 
at Schleiz we observe the head of the aurochs or bull, a type 
so prevalent in Mecklemburgh, and here it occurs with the 
addition of a flying fish above it or in the hands of a bearer, 
who may be intended for the Count of Lobdeburg, issuer of 
the coin ; the symbol seems to point to an early religious 
or sacrificial idea, which was once very widely spread, and 
seems to have travelled westward from Moldavia or Bog- 
dana, where we observe the same thing on the money of the 
mediaeval voivodes. We get the flying fish again at Bergau 
in Saxony. 

With the intricate territorial divisions and periodical 

readjustments of this domain we are of course unable to deal 

at length. In i 560 the house, tracing its 

Urunswick-Limeburg. . 

Grubenhagen. rise from the earlier half of the thirteenth 

Calender"' cen tury, branched into two stems, Dannen- 

Wolfenbuttel. berg and Liineburg, subsequently Hanover. 

The Celle line commenced in 1546, and 

merged in that of Calenberg in 1705. The Liineburg one 

eventually surpassed all the others in weight and consequence, 

owing to the succession of the Elector George Louis in 1714 

to the throne of Great Britain as the next heir of the 

Electress Sophia. 

From a numismatic point of view, however, the leading 
consideration is the relationship of the duchy to the border- 
ing or allied coinages before it acquired an independent 
existence, and the probability seems to be that its currency 
was at first in common with that of Saxony, and emanated 
from the mints at Liineburg and Ebsdorf or Ebsdorp in the 
vicinity. The primitive denarii with the name of Bernhard 
(973-1010) afford no clue to the region of origin ; but there 

Brunswick-Luneburg : triple thaler, 1657. 

3 1 8 The Coins of Europe 

are others of Bernhard II. (c. 1010-60) with Lvvnibvrhc and 
supposed restrikes or imitations in the eleventh century of 
similar pieces exhibiting the name of Vichmann or Wigman 
II. (944-67). Why, if such were the case, money of the 

See p. 231. 

tenth century was reproduced in the following one, we do 
not learn ; but we know that from the latter date the 
obscurity and difficulty decrease. The fifteenth century 
witnessed the introduction of the grosch and the thaler at 
Brunswick, and the dukes associated themselves in course of 
time with some of the noblest and grandest monuments in 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 3 1 9 

the entire German series. All collectors must become aware 
'of the large, wide-spread silver pieces coined from the Hartz 
mines, and in many instances stamped with values from i^- 
to 4 thalers. Of the same coin specimens may be seen with 
and without the current rate, as if the process had been an 
afterthought. One with an equestrian portrait of the Elector 
Augustus, 1 664, has the stamp beneath the feet of the horse, 
while a second, of 1655, is unmarked. But from about 1538 
down to the last century this picturesque and luxurious coin- 
age proceeded almost without interruption and with infinite 
variety of treatment. The portraits of the dukes are excellent, 
and are quite equal to the contemporary Italian work alike 
in the boldness and freedom of touch and in the truthfulness 
to life. Besides the Anglo-Hanoverian coinage noticed below, 
pieces struck by the Elector George Louis shortly before his 
succession to the British Crown should be interesting to the 
English and American collector : there is the very fine thaler 
of 1713 with the reverse legend In Recto Decus. Equally 
in Brunswick and in Saxony the remains of gold currency 
are scanty, nor do the evidences authorise us to suppose that 
the metal was ever extensively employed. The imperial con- 
cessions in this respect are limited to Emden, Goslar, Liine- 
burg, and one or two other towns, without any proof of the 
participation of the dukes in the movement. 

This kingdom, which evolved from Brunswick-Ltineburg, 

and dates only from 1814, was an appanage of the British 

Crown till the death of William IV. in 1837. There 


is a coinage of George V. including a 5 -thaler 
piece from the Hartz gold of 1853. But as an electorate 

Hanover produced a copious store and succession of money 
in all metals, the gold pieces, especially of George I., being 
scarce. We may particularise the Elector guinea of 1714, 

320 The Coins of Europe 

the 4-gulden of 1752, and the ducat of 1815. Much fuller 
information than we can afford to give is furnished in the 
elaborate volume by Mr. Atkins on Colonial Money. 

But independently of the duchy and monarchy, the pro- 
vince, and the town of Hanover or Alstadt itself, constituted 
the site of many early mints and the source of a plentiful 
and varied coinage, bearing the names of seigneurs, towns, 
and religious establishments, among them being Aurich, 
Diepholz, Gottingen, Goslar, Hildesheim, Osnabriick, and 

9 Pfeiinigen of Osnahriick, 1625. 

the Counts of Bentheim and East Friesland. Of the several 
places of coinage within this area our Catalogue supplies 
particulars. Hildesheim, which has experienced two periods 
of prosperity, and preserves many traces of its former im- 
portance, is associated with the famous 4-ducat piece of 
Charles V., 1528. All the money of East Friesland is rare, 
especially the gold. The series appears to extend from the 
middle of the fifteenth to that of the eighteenth century. 
There are two remarkable pattern thalers of Enno III., 1614 
and 1616, struck on square flans. A gold ducat of Karl 
Edzard, 1737, with a bust to right, reads on obverse 
Carolvs Edzardvs D G Pr Fris Or and on reverse 
Dominvs Essi Et Witin. The shield is of six quarterings ; 
in the fifth appears the crowned bull. The prince was also 
Lord of Essen and Wittmund. 

At one time an independent fief of the Counts or Graven 

of Rustringen, this province and eventually grand-duchy has 

successively followed the fortunes of Denmark, 

Russia, and Germany. Within its boundaries we 

count five mints, one or two of great antiquity. The 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 321 

seigneurs or herren of Jever are supposed to have struck 
money there in the eleventh century, and Wildeshausen 
possessed an episcopal coinage in the twelfth. The grand- 
duke issued in 1806-7, from the mint at St. Petersburgh, 
gold pieces of 10, 5, and 2^ thalers on the German model. 

At present and since 1864 part of Prussia, this terri- 
tory long remained a separate duchy under Johann, son of 
Albrecht I., Duke of Saxony, and his successors, 
' and possessed its own mints and currency. The 
principal seat of coinage was at Otterndorf. 

Holstein first occurs to our notice as a dependency of 
the Dukes of Saxony, who governed it by deputy. In 

1460 the Estates of Holstein chose the 
Holstein. r -r^ i /~> 11 

Holstein-Glucksburg. Kin g of Denmark their Count, and the 
Sonderburg. Emperor Frederic III. in 1474-75 erected 
the fief into a duchy with full monetary 
privileges. Holstein was incorporated with Denmark in 
1773, and annexed by Prussia in I 864. Kiel appears to have 
been the most ancient mint, as it received a concession from 
the Count of Holstein as far back as 1318, having been pre- 
viously, perhaps, his own monopoly. Of the three branches 
there are coins to a limited extent. Altogether the salvage 
of time has been scanty enough : in many of these extinct 
or obscure governments political and financial agencies have 
blindly committed to the crucible for recoinage or conver- 
sion into bullion not a little of the material and testimony 
requisite for a continuous numismatic study of the past. 

For some account of the productions of these 

Lubeck. r 

Hamburgh, three members of the Hanseatic League we may 
Bremen. re f er ^ o ^ e previous sections. 

This division of Northern Germany, parcelled out at an 

early period into four separate governments, and ultimately 

Mecklemburgh. consolidated into two grand -duchies, 

Mecklemburgh-Schwerin. became the seat of numerous places of 

: ltz ' coinage by virtue of concessions from 

the ancient dukes or from the Crown. As we pointed out 

above, a distinctive symbol on many of the civic coins of 

Wismar, Rostock, and other towns is a bull's head, a peculi- 


322 The Coins of Europe 

arity transmitted from the Taurisci, the primitive occupiers 
of Noricum, and common to Uri in Switzerland, and to 
Schleiz in the principality of Reuss. We have also Urach, 
one of the two districts out of which Wiirtemburg was 
originally formed, where the name is supposed to imply the 
same traditional notion and perhaps worship. There is a 
very curious and significant pfenning of a seigneur of Werle, 
struck at Malchin, bearing the emblem, with a cross between 
the horns. The aurochs was succeeded in some places by 
the griffin, a type borrowed from Pomerania. Such survivals 
almost unquestionably point to a primeval order of society, 
when the life of the pagus prevailed, and many obscure 
forms of religious cult were in use among the remote popula- 
tion which eventually became the great Teutonic race. 

The oldest money of Mecklemburgh consisted of brac- 
teates superseded by pfennings, schillings, and double schill- 
ings. Of the thaler we do not hear till 1502, during the 
joint reign of Henry the Pacific and Albert the Fair. Our 
knowledge of the subject may be, probably is, imperfect ; 
but there is an apparent absence of continuity and sequence 
in the series of larger silver ; and we have not met with any 
thalers between 1502 and 1540, when Henry was reigning 
alone. There are: a ^ thaler of Albert, 1542, struck at 
Gadebusch, and a thaler of John Albert, 1549. The former 
is of a special type, and is singularly rare. The obverse 

reads A\lbertus\ H\erzog~\ Z\ji\ M\ecklemburg^\ 1542; on 
the reverse occurs Mo. Nova Gadebvs. The thaler of 
1549 is remarkable for the form of the hat worn by the 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 323 

duke. The earlier example was presumably, from its ex- 
ceptional character, issued during a political emergency, like 
the Brandenburgh money of the same period during the 
pacification of Passau. 

The historical interest of the later Mecklemburgh cur- 
rency centres in Wallenstein, or Albrecht von Waldstein, 
Duke of Mecklemburgh and Friedland, and one of the 
prominent figures in the Thirty Years' War (1618-48). Of 
this distinguished man we possess tolerably complete numis- 
matic evidences extending from 1626 to 1632, in a suc- 
cession of thalers with his full-face portrait and a 10 florin 
or ducat piece of 1632, varying in the bust and the drapery. 
We have seen no other denominations. The thalers belong 

to 1626 (two varieties), 1627 (do.), 1628 (do.), 1629 (do.), 
1630, 1631, and 1632. 

There is an abundance of coinage of base alloy connected 
with Mecklemburgh, not only belonging to the urban cur- 
rencies of anterior date, but to the perturbed epoch of the 
Seven Years' War (1756-63). 

This province first presents itself to our notice as a sort 
of duchy under the suzerainty of that of Poland, when the 
separate coinage was restricted to bracteates, of 
(Po'mmern) which one bears four rudimentary portraits repre- 
senting the two dukes and their brothers sur- 
rounding a cross. On some of those pieces we are 
reminded of the Anglo - Saxon pennies in the presence of 

324 The Coins of Europe 

the names of moneyers, while on the identity of the sove- 
reigns we are left to speculation. In the thirteenth century 
Pomerania formed two divisions, Stettin and Wolgast, 
each under its own duke. There are pieces reading Dvx 
Stetin, and Dvc' Wolg. respectively ; and the whole was 
not united till 1625. But even under the dual rule the 
coinage, in the latter half of the fifteenth century, received a 
powerful stimulus, and perhaps attained its climax, as we 
perceive that in or about 1492 the region was provided 
with gold, silver, and billon pieces in fair abundance, and 
was under monetary treaties between the dukes and some of 
the leading townships. The lower denominations at that 
time comprised the grosch = 1 2 pf., the schilling = 4 pf., 
the witten = 2 pf., and the vierch (?) = ^ pf. At a subsequent 
period, and during the troubles of the seventeenth century, 
the standard of the money underwent debasement, and in 
fact never regained its former importance, the Swedish 
money for this district, though of poor metal, becoming the 
leading feature, and preserving a good style. An interesting 
daler of Christina, 1642, exhibits an elaborate coiffure and 
ruff and the reading on reverse Moneta Nova Argent 
Dvcatvs Povier : Besides Stettin and Wolgast, several other 
municipal centres lay within these lines in the old days : 
particularly Stralsund and Riigen. Of Stralsund the chief 
distinguishing mark is a broad arrowhead ; some of the 
small pieces are of fine silver, others of lower alloy. The 
Dukes of Mecklemburgh employed the mint at Stargard and 
the Margraves of Brandenburgh that at Schievelbein. 

The actual history of Brandenburgh for our immediate 
purpose opens with the sale of the margraviat in 1 4 1 5 by 
the Emperor Sigismund to Frederic of Hohen- 
zollern, Burgraf of Niirnberg, just as in all likeli- 
and hood the Dukedom and Electorate of Saxony 

Electorate. i , /- 1 , T , , 

Brandenburgh- ev l ve d from the same source at Magdeburg. 
Anspach. The original domain was formed out of the 
Bra Ba d y e reuth gh " ancient Wendish territory, which probably em- 
braced the whole of what is now Pomerania, 
Prussian Saxony, and Prussian Poland, including Branden- 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 325 

burgh itself, and underwent numerous modifications of frontier 
and government before it was consolidated with the dukedom 
of Prussia and other territories into a kingdom in 1701. 

Of the reigning houses prior to 1415 there are copious 
numismatic remains, commencing with bracteates of superior 
fabric, and subsequently, as we see almost everywhere, deve- 
loping, under the later margraves, into pfennigen, groschen, 
thalers, and gold coins, with their divisions. Berlin was from 
an early date one of the mints with a bear passant to 
right, or a bear and an eagle ; but it was by no means 
so largely used as Brandenburgh, Koepnik, and Stendal, or 
even Frankfort-on-the-Oder. In addition to those in their 
own immediate territories, the margraves are found striking 
money in the fourteenth century in Saxony and Pomerania. 
The groschen and thalers of the sixteenth century are well 
executed, and usually bear characteristic portraits. Some of 
the legends of Albert, who incorporated with his ancestral 
estates those of the Teutonic Order, describe the margraf 
as Duke of Pnissia : a grosch of 1542 has this reading; 

a thaler of I 549 omits it. We note that in course of time 
the bear disappears, and the eagle grows more conspicuous 
and spreads its wings, so as, in the first -named piece, to 
occupy the greater part of the reverse. 

When we enter the seventeenth century we are con- 
fronted with a double thaler of George William (1619-40), 
where he is said to be Margraf of Brandenburgh and Duke 

326 The Coins of Europe 

of Prussia, Cleves, Juliers, and Berg. It has a three-quarter 
portrait of the margraf robed and bonneted, grasping 
sceptre and sword in either hand. The rehearsal of dignities 
makes it necessary to observe that in 1610 the last Duke of 
Cleves, Juliers,. and Berg had died s.p., and that Branden- 
burgh and Saxony were competitors for the territory. 

The primary numismatic monuments of the present 
Prussian monarchy are to be sought in the coinage of the 
Prussia. Dukes of Massovia (twelfth to thirteenth century), 
The Teutonic the Knights of the Teutonic Order (1230-1530), 
The Duchy, the Margraves of Brandenburgh, and the earlier 
Kingdom. Ki n g S o f Poland. The greater part of Eastern 
Prussia belonged de facto to the last Power during the 
fifteenth and two following centuries, and the remainder 
devolved on Brandenburgh, when the Margraf Albert about 
i 5 30 took into his own hands the acquisitions of the Teutonic 
Knights, thus preparing the way, when Poland declined and 
suffered gradual disintegration, for the higher destinies of the 
house of Hohenzollern in the then yet distant future. 

Culm, a Hanse town in Western Prussia, is the sole seat 
of coinage of which we hear, belonging to the ancient dukes 
of Massovia, who nevertheless had Warsaw as their capital, 
and of their currency we have no knowledge. The place 
was subsequently the chief centre of the Knights, and doubt- 
less their mint ; for in I 246 the Grand Master granted autho- 
rity to the town of Elbing to strike pfennings of the Culm 
type, which could at most be no more than modifications of 
the original Massovian money. That the dukes and their 
successors had a coinage we need not hesitate to believe, 
nor, if it consisted of mute bracteates in lieu of the signed 
pieces which followed, are we to wonder at its disappearance 
or the failure of identification. It is at least certain that 
during more than a century and a half the Grand Masters 
placed their names and titles on a series of bracteates, 
schillings of Polish standard ( = 1 6 pf), gold florins and other 
currency, and that the first to whom any coins can be con- 
fidently assigned, Winric von Kniprode (1351-82), thought 
himself entitled to inscribe on the reverse Moneta Domi- 


Schilling of the Teutonic Order, i4th c. 

Half-thaler of Maximilian of Bavaria as Administrator of Prussia, 1612. 

Gold florin of Frederic William I., 1725. 

Thaler of Frederic the Great, 1785. 


The Coins of Europe 

norum Pruci. As the office was elective, we hardly under- 
stand why he used the expression Magister Winricus Primus 
on a schilling before us. 

The later annals of the Order of St. George, or, as it 
afterwards became, of St. Mary, transport us to a different 
region Franconia, where under various auspices, especially 
those of Maximilian of Bavaria, the Knights preserved a 
more or less nominal existence down to the commencement 
of the present century, with the names of Maximilian and 
others as grand masters or administrators. There is an 
interesting series from 1587 to 1618 of thalers, most of 
which bear the full-length portrait of the Elector, his title as 
Grand Administrator of Prussia, and an equestrian figure on 
reverse surrounded by escutcheons. The thaler of 1587 
and the \ of 1612 appear to be scarce. We have seen the 
dates 1587, 1603, 1612, 1613, 1614, and 1618. 

The coinage of Prussia itself, after the formation of the 
kingdom, partook to some extent of the old Polish character, 
and indeed there is nothing to be found in the former equal 
in artistic attraction and mechanical merit to the best period 

3 thaler of Frederic III., Margraf of Brandenburgh subsequently 
first King of Prussia. 

of the latter State (1588-1660). The operations of the 
mint during the reign of Frederic I. (1701-13) appear to 
have been on a frugal scale, and (if we may judge from the 
small survival) to have been struck in limited numbers, as 
the coins are uniformly of great rarity. Under the circum- 
stances it may be desirable to enumerate such denomina- 
tions as have occurred : 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 329 

Kronungsthaler, 1701. 
Magdeburger thaler, 1701. 
Thaler, 1702, 1703, 1704. 
Gulden, 1704. 
Thaler, 1705. 
\ Thaler, 1707. 
Thaler, 1711. 

His immediate successor, Frederic William I. (1713-40), 
occurs somewhat more freely on coins, and we meet with 
the copper solidus, borrowed from Poland, with Solidus 
Regni Pruss. The experiment, however, does not seem to have 
outlived the reign, and Frederic II. (1740-85) introduced 
the pfenning and its multiples. There could be no difficulty, 
when the art of engraving on metal was so \vell understood, 
in producing satisfactory work, and the money both of 
Frederic II. and his father is alike excellent, while the latter, 
and the Prussian currency generally henceforth, are plentiful, 
although it is believed that about the period of the Seven 
Years' War large quantities of copper groschen were im- 
ported from England (? Birmingham) into Northern Germany, 
and the state of the coinage in the Fatherland down to recent 
times continued to be worse than in any part of the Continent. 

But attention should be drawn to the rare pattern thaler 
of 1750, with the head laureated and the bust in armour, 
and below, in cursive characters, Vive le Roy. The reverse 
exhibits the crowned eagle, with trophies in sunlight. 

The province of Posen or Bydgost, subsequently a grand- 
duchy, contained within it, from at least the thirteenth 
century, several mints under Polish control or in 
the employment of that state. Of these some 
account is given elsewhere. Posen fell, on the partition of 
Poland, to the share of Prussia, was annexed to the Saxon 
grand-duchy of Warsaw by Napoleon, and reverted to its 
former masters in 1815. A 3 -groschen piece of 1816 of 
Prussian fabric may be part of the earliest issue after the 
restoration by the Treaty of Vienna. 

A considerable share of the Saxon territory, constituting 
parcels of the kingdom of Prussia and the present German 
Empire, was lost by the adherence of the last Elector and 

330 The Coins of Europe 

first King to the cause of Napoleon, and included the 

ancestral estates of the ancient dukes. The most impor- 

Prussian tant centres are Magdeburg, Halberstadt, Halle, 

Saxony: Stendal, Mansfeld, Stolberg, Wittenberg, Erfurt, 

Magdeburg, and Muhlhausen ; but the acquisition compre- 

(2) Circle of hended the whole of the Saxon palatinate as well 

Merseburg, , , , .- . . , , 

(3) Circle of as Thiiringen, and completely shifted the balance 
Erfurt. o f p Ower f rom one monarchy to the other, although 

even under the former regime the germ of Prussian ascend- 
ency, Brandenburgh, had exercised influence within this 
range, and had seats of coinage at several points. From 
1815 the prestige of Saxony may be considered as extin- 
guished or eclipsed. The descendants of the Burgraf of 
Magdeburg did not, as in the somewhat parallel case of the 
house of Savoy, acquire an indemnity elsewhere. 

We have called attention in our Catalogues to the more 
remarkable productions, numismatically speaking, of this 
region, of which the most conspicuous belong, perhaps, to 
Mansfeld and Stolberg. The former is certainly an interesting 
if a rather monotonous series, extending from 1521 to about 

1790, and is seldom to be found in even tolerable preserva- 
tion. The early gold money is of peculiar rarity. The 
coinage of Stolberg, which embraces or concerns more than 
one branch of that house, is almost equally unvaried, bear- 
ing a stag on one side and a shield on the other, the horns 
of the animal usually entangled in a column ; but the most 
ancient examples mute uniface bracteates exhibit only 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 331 

a stag to left ; these were succeeded by pfennings, also 
struck on one side, with a stag's head and Stol. or Stalb., 

Gold florin. 

and in due course we meet with the albus, kreutzer, batz, 
thaler and half thaler, and gold florin. They are all scarce, 
especially the bracteates and the gold. 

The province of Silesia, of which the first mention in 
modern history connects it with Poland, belonged in turn to 
that dukedom, to Bohemia, Austria, and Prussia, 
representing the gain of Frederick the Great from 
the Seven Years' War. The most remote and 
primitive currency associated with a region which at more 
than one time felt the influence of Scandinavian conquest and 
ascendency, presents itself, as usual, in the shape of brac- 
teates of difficult attribution ; and a considerable number of 
mints within this geographical area gradually yielded im- 
proved and varied types, while they formed a common 
ground or source for the monetary requirements of many 
beyond the border. The bulk of the old Silesian coinage, 
however, may be said to have been of an urban character 
from the I4th century. Three of the leading mints were 
Wratislav or Breslau, Glatz, and Schweidnitz ; and the first 
was the place of origin of a long episcopal series in all metals 

332 The Coins of Europe 

dating from the thirteenth century. It is stated that the 
Emperor Charles IV. accorded to the town in 1360 the right 
of striking gold of the Bohemian type. There was also 
money in this metal of the prince-bishops, and siege-pieces 
in copper of more than one kind and denomination, as a 
reference to the previous sections, will shew. 


It is well known that during some centuries Austria, 
the Eastern March or Mark, was governed by margraves 
and dukes, and that after certain political vicissitudes it 
passed into the possession of the house of Hapsburg. Under 
that great and long-lived dynasty the country gradually 
augmented its territory by cession, inheritance, or conquest, 
until the original domain represented little more than a 
province of the Holy Roman Empire, and the Hapsburgs 
extended their sway over the Tyrol, Bohemia, Hungary, 
Transylvania, and a share of Poland ; over Spain and a con- 
siderable part of Italy and the Netherlands ; and over Istria, 
Carinthia, Carniola, Moravia, and Styria. The title of the 
Holy Roman Empire was derived from the succession to the 
throne of St. Stephen of Hungary. Down to the beginning 
of the present century Austria was the grand centre and 
rallying- point of an immense dominion, second only to 
Russia in area, and far superior to the latter in wealth and 
importance. The course of modern events has sensibly 
tended in general to reduce the Austrian outlying dominions, 
and her sovereign no longer reigns in Italy, Sardinia, Spain, 
and the Low Countries. Burgundy had ceased to be an 
actual portion of the empire long before it disappeared from 
the array of titles on the older money. 

Necessarily confining our attention to the immediate 
question, we discover nothing more ambitious or interesting in 
the present series than bracteates and denarii, which remain 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 333 

uninscribed down to the middle of the thirteenth century, 
when a denarius occurs with Imfiator. F. and a crowned eagle 
on reverse, attributed to the Emperor Frederic II. deposed in 
1 246. All the evidences help to establish that the output 
during this archaic era must have been equally prolific and 
diversified ; and while legends are missing, there is no lack 
of characteristic symbols and rude ideal portraits enclosed in 
a floriated tressure and variously treated : in one a crowned 
figure holds a sceptre and a falcon ; in another we see an 
eagle with a human visage ; and in a third there is a stag's 
head, as on some of the money of Stolberg. The favourite 
Florentine gold type was adopted about 1330, and from 
1457 more explicit legends and dates, with higher deno- 
minations, contribute to form a new epoch in the coinage. 
At this point of time the principal mints were Enns, Linz, 
Graetz, and Neustadt. Already on coins of the Emperor 
Frederic III. (1442-93) the somewhat arrogant motto, subse- 
quently repeated by Charles V., presents itself: A\quild\ 
E\lectd\ I\uste\ O\innia\ V\incit\. But it was reserved for 
the successor of this prince, the Arch-Duke Maximilian I. 
(1493-1519), to identify his name and country with those 
superb specimens of medallic art, the schauthaler of 1479 
in its two or three varieties, and those which followed it, 
after the death of Mary of Burgundy in 1482, down to 1518. 
The 4-ducat piece of Charles V., 1528, may be accounted 
part of this fine series, which was carried down to the present 
century by the very carefully engraved thalers and their 
multiples in gold of Francis II. (I. of .Austria) as late as 
1829. Cognisance ought to be taken of the one issued as 
money of necessity during the struggle with France, with 
Franc II D G Conservator Castri i 804, and on reverse 
Mon Nov Castri Friedberg : on the obverse occurs the 
two-headed eagle crowned, holding a shield in either claw, 
and V, E. F. Marck ; and on reverse a horseman spearing a 
fallen enemy, the castle of Burg-Friedberg in the back- 
ground : m.m. F. 

But to the intervening period we have to refer a 
splendid assortment of coins in all metals struck by the 

334 The Coins of Europe 

Holy Roman emperors from Ferdinand I., brother of Charles 
V., to Leopold II. (1521-1792); particularly the thalers 
and double thalers of Ferdinand (of which considerable 
numbers have been recently found), Rodolph II., Leopold I. 
and Claudia de' Medici with their busts accollated ; Joseph 
I., Francis I. (struck at Augsburgh, 1745), and Maria 
Theresa. In addition to the ordinary currency of the last- 
named sovereign, we have not only that for the provinces 
and dependencies, but the ubiquitous thaler of 1780, which 
is accepted in China, Abyssinia, and Ashantee, and occurs 
countermarked with Chinese characters, 1 and the beautiful 
jubilee piece of 1888, produced under the auspices of the 
Numismatic Society of Vienna. Collectors should be aware 
that there are two varieties of this noble thaler, one with a 
plain, the other with an inscribed edge. The coinage of 
Francis Joseph, which goes back to 1 848, of which year 
there is, however, a coinage of his uncle and predecessor 
Ferdinand, has accumulated into a voluminous assemblage 
of types and denominations, among which we may cite the 
2O-kreutzer piece of 1852 with the head to left. 

In copper Austria lagged far behind her neighbours and 
contemporaries, and for the arch-duchy and empire appears 
to have possessed nothing prior to Maria Theresa. The 
employment of this metal to any appreciable extent began 
in i 800, when we have a series of 6, 3, I, ^, and \ kreutzer. 
There are subsequent issues of 30 and 15 kreutzer, 1807, as 
Emperor of Austria (money of necessity), of ^, ^, I, and 3 
kreutzer, 1812; of \, \, and I kreutzer, I 8 1 6 ; of 2 kreut- 
zer (of large, thick fabric), 1848; of \, \, I, 2, and 3 
kreutzer, 1851 ; of 4 kreutzer, 1861, and doubtless others 
intermediately. At present, the resort to bronze has become 
a regular institution, and since 1858 the Austrian silver 
florin has been computed as = 100 kreutzer, in lieu of 60, 
according to the old standard. 

The Austrian Tyrol, which was united to the arch-duchy 
in the person of Maximilian I. in 1496 by the death without 
issue of Sigismund, Margraf of Elsas and Count of the 
1 It is periodically restruck from the old dies for commercial use. 


Maximilian and Mary of Burgundy : schauthaler, 1479. 

Sigismund, Arch-Duke of Austria : J dickthaler, 1484 

Ferdinand Charles : 3 kreutzer, 1638. 

Maria Theresa : gold florin, 1742. 

Maria Theresa : double liard for the Austrian Netherlands 

Maria Theresa: kreutzer struck for Gorz. 

336 The Coins of Europe 

Tyrol, had been governed by independent counts since the 
thirteenth century. We have before us a denarius of Count 

Meinhard, who died in 1295, probably struck at 

Meran. The most celebrated coins associated 
with this district are the dickthaler and half thaler of the 
Arch-Duke Sigismund, 1484, the thaler of Maximilian I., 
1486, both from the mint at Hall, near Innspruck, and 
apparently by the same artist, and the convention-money of 
1 809 issued during the struggle of Andreas Hofer against 
Napoleon. The half dickthaler of 1484 is peculiarly rare, 
and its existence has been questioned. 1 

Goritz, now part of the province of Illyria, possessed 
during many centuries its own counts and its separate coinage ; 

and some of the earlier copper pieces of Austrian 
Gontz or or jgi nj next to those of Styria, belong here. A 

soldo of Charles VI., 1733, is without legend, but 
is recognised from the arms. The money usually bears the 
crowned shield on obverse, and the value and date in a 
cartouche on reverse. But Maria Theresa substituted her 
portrait on some of the pieces, and Francis II. changed the 
shield. The value was originally in soldi, afterwards in 
soldi and kreutzer. The 15 soldi of 1802 was for Goritz. 

These divisions of the empire, united in 951, had their 
independent princes and currencies from a very remote date, 

and even after their incorporation with Austria a 

Istria and ... , . . . 

Carinthia. special coinage. The early princes struck con- 
Istrien and vention-money in alliance with their neighbours 

Kaernthen. , . /- r > -r* 11 t .*.< 

and the Counts of the Tyrol ; but the later Dukes 
of Carinthia possessed three mints Voelkermarkt, Lande- 
strost, and Saint- Veit. There are also thalers of the Rosen- 
berg family. 

The authority to strike money, conferred on the patri- 
archs by the Emperor Louis II. in 856, is not known to 
have been carried into effect so far as any extant 
identifiable pieces are concerned. The known 
coinage, limited to danari, oboli, piccoli, and bagattini, 

1 One occurred at the Dillon sale, 1892, in lot 445. It exactly corresponds in 
type and module with the thaler. 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Eitrope 337 

extends from 1204 to 1437, when the see was held by 
Louis, Duke of Teck or Teschen. 

The independent Dukes of Carinthia had their mint at 
Carniola or Laibach. Special money was struck by the 
Krain. former Emperors of Austria for the duchy. 

A margraviat, with denarii and pfennings, from the 

tenth to the fifteenth century. After the union with 

Austria the title appeared among those on some 

:'Mae a hren 0r of the coins of the arch-dukes, the multiplicity of 
their dignities rendering it difficult to include the 
whole story on every piece or issue. Probably the money, 
where Moravia is specified, was intended for circulation 
there, and the later Emperors of Germany struck special 
issues for the margraviat. 

Of all the states composing the Austrian dominions 
Styria becomes the most interesting, when we look at the 
fact that it seems to have been in advance of the 
Stdermark rest ^ ^ e arch-duchy in its numismatic develop- 
ment, and to have possessed no money at any 
period within accessible records except that of its counts, 
margraves, and dukes, subsequently Dukes of Austria and 
Styria or Steiermark. The gold coinage dates from 1491, 
the copper from 1531, the thaler from 1574. The earliest 
coinage appears to be the type of the denarius with Schilt. 
von Steir. and a panther, which may represent the original 
autonomous money prior to the final amalgamation with 
Austria under the Arch-Duke Rodolph about 1278. This 
margraviat or duchy possessed the heller and batz, the 
pfenning, the zweier, and dreier, until in 1622 the marque 
became the monetary unit, and there were pieces of 150, 
75, 48, 15, and 12 marques, 300 marques being approxi- 
mately = i thaler. 

In addition to the provincial coinages and those for the 
Austrian Netherlands and Austrian Italy to be presently 
described under succeeding sections, we have a piece of 
6 kreutzer struck for Farther Austria in 1802, with Vord. 
Oest. Scheid. Munz., and another of 7 kreutzer of the same 
date, with the usual title and no legend on reverse ; and a 


338 The Coins of Europe 

profusion of civic and local money proceeding, like that of 
Northern Germany, from feudal or municipal sources. 
Some of these special monetary rights were exercised down 
to the eighteenth or even nineteenth century, as at Auers- 
perg, Khevenhiiller, Kinsky, Rosenberg, Olmlitz, and Salz- 
burg ; but the majority disappeared within the seventeenth. 
All those which enjoy numismatic associations are enumerated 
in the Catalogue of Mints. In the Salzburg archiepiscopal 
series, extending from the tenth to the eighteenth century, 
there is an almost unique maintenance of artistic treatment 
and careful attention to detail ; and the thalers and double 
thalers of the Cardinal-Archbishop Mattheus (1521-22) 
strongly remind us of Holbein. The latest thaler in our 
hands belongs to 1786. 

The Bohemian numismatic records, furnished by a 
succession of coins of the bracteate or the denarius module, 
open with the tenth century, when the dukedom 
remained singularly unsettled in its tenure, and 
the list of rulers consists of a roll of obscure names, of whose 
personality we gain very slight knowledge, until the crown 
passed to the house of Luxemburgh in 1309. But the 
surviving types of the mediaeval era deserve and repay 
study by reason of their great variety of character and the 
illustration which they seem to convey to us of the ideas 
and development of a primitive people. It is evident that 
the earliest moneyers had before them Byzantine types, 
which they unskilfully copied, and that in course of time a 
change of feeling led to the introduction of Christian and 
Popish symbols, as the Temple, the Cross, the Hand, the 
Bible, and the figure holding a globe, or with conjoined 
hands adjuring an angel, as well as episodes borrowed from 
local life, as in a piece where the duke is depicted in con- 
flict with a bear. Prague was even in such remote days the 
leading mint. The bracteates, which are of varying dimen- 
sions, and generally uninscribed, are supposed to be pos- 
terior to the denarii, and to belong to the later part of the 
archaic period. The reign of Wenceslas II. (1278-1305) 
marked a very notable advance in the coinage, for this king 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 339 

received into his employment Florentine engravers, to whom 
we are indebted for the celebrated and long popular and 
widely current pragergroschen. But a later monarch, John 
of Luxemburgh, the blind king, who fell at Crec.y in 1346, 
carried the national money to still greater perfection, and 
multiplied the denominations, during his lengthened reign. 
He usually describes himself as Johannes. Dei, Gra. Rex. Boe. 

Denarius of John of Luxemburgh (1309-46). 

Et, Pol. The money became of superior fabric and of less 
archaic spirit. We know with the name and portrait of 
this sovereign, whose memory is of Anglo-Gallic interest, or 
that of St. Wenceslas, the pfenning, the denarius, the grosch, 
and the gold florin. With Louis I., of the house of 
Jagellon, the last independent king, the thaler commenced, 
owing the designation which it has ever since borne to the 
silver mines of Joachimsthal, according to a tradition which 
has been generally, though perhaps on insufficient ground, 
accepted. The main point is that although a coin of this 
fabric, size, and weight was undoubtedly in existence long 

Joachimsthaler, 1525. 

previously to the sixteenth century, there is no apparent 
proof that the actual denomination was adopted and recog- 

34 The Coins of Europe 

nised. The Bohemian thalers range in date from 1518 
to 1525, and were continued by the Counts of Schlick ; 
there is a double one (doppelter zwitter thaler) of Stephen, 

Of the history of the coinage subsequently to the 
devolution of the crown on Ferdinand of Austria in 1527, 
there is not much to be predicated beyond the remarkable 
series of raitgroschen or ritgroschen in copper, struck for 
this part of the empire about I 5 70. We have met with the 
dates 1572, 1583, and 1605 ; the only other salient feature 
under the present section is the brief and limited currency 
of Frederic, Count Palatine of the Rhine, during his more or 
less nominal tenure of the regal title in the years 1619-20. 
The career of Frederic forms a chapter in the Thirty Years' 
War ; and from his nearness by marriage to the Stuarts," 
these numismatic relics derive a special attraction in the 
eyes of Englishmen and Americans. He appears to have 
issued nothing beyond silver pieces of 48 and 24 kreutzer. 
Of the latter there are two distinct types : one dated 1619, 
with the lion of Bohemia on reverse and a crown on obverse ; 
the other with a portrait and a shield of arms, and the date 

Frederic of Bohemia : 24 kreutzer, 1620. 

1620. The larger coin, also belonging to 1620, bears a 
different bust. All are uncommon. Some of the later 
Austrian copper money for Bohemia exhibits the value and 
date on one side and the lion on the other, dispensing with 
a legend. A pfenning of this class before us has I P. 

In the Italian section, under VENICE, we propose to 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Etirope 341 

furnish a short account of this province and city, both of 
which were long numismatically associated with 
<?' the Re P ub li c - In the Catalogue of Mints several 

entries refer to these heads. 
We do not meet with any vestiges of a coinage which 
can be clearly assigned to this ancient kingdom, which com- 
mands our respectful sympathy with its struggles 

Hungary. . 

for freedom and its former achievements and 
culture, till we reach the date when St. Stephen sat upon 
the throne at the close of the tenth century. Of Stephen 
himself, the founder of the Holy Apostolic Vicariat, we find 
denarii of good fabric and workmanship and apparently of 
Western origin ; and his successors in the eleventh to thirteenth 
century adhered to the same description of currency the 

Andrew, King of Hungary, 1047-61. Denarius. 

denarius and its divisions. In the course of the reign of 
Bela IV. (1235-60) and Stephen V. (1260-72), as one fruit 
of the Mongol invasion of 1241-42, and the contact which 
it involved with Oriental or at least Byzantine habits, the 
Government of Hungary was led to introduce into the 
dominions a curious copper currency imitated from that of 

Constantinople in respect to module and style, but exhibit- 
ing on the reverse Christ or the Virgin enthroned. These 
coins, of which there are varieties, do not appear to have 

342 The Coins of Eiirope 

been continued beyond the following reign. It is on the 
money of Bela that the name of the country first appears in 
full ; and he describes himself indifferently as Dux Ungarie 
and Rex Sclavonic. The gold coinage of Hungary seems to 
have commenced about I 309 with Charles Robert of Anjou, 
who issued a florin or ducat = 200 denarii or 400 obuli, on 
the model of those of Florence ; and the series was carried 
down to the present time by his successors the rulers ot 
Hungary and Austria- Hungary. Of the celebrated Matthias 
Corvinus (1458-90), founder of the Library at Buda, there 
are at least two types, which we ascribe to the mint at 
Jagerndorf or Carnow ; and the original Italian prototype was 
gradually lost, the Hungarian piece serving in its turn as a 
pattern for the moneyers of Italy and the Netherlands. On 
the ducats of Corvinus, as on some of the early Bavarian 
currency, one side presents the name of a canonised monarch 

Gold ducat of Corvinus. 

centuries after his death ; and we find pieces struck in the 
name of the Waiwode of Bosnia, as legate of the Hungarian 
crown, styling him Vicar of the Kingdom of Lladislas. It 
may be interesting to note that the effigy of St. Lladislas 
holding a globe, found on one of the early types, resembles 
the pattern on the reverses of certain Bolognese scudi of the 
fourteenth century, and this conception survived in the more 
modern orb. 

Down to the time of Lladislas VI. (1490-1516) the 
currency consisted of the gold florin, the grossus or grosch, 
denarius, obulus and half obulus in silver, and perhaps the 
old copper money above mentioned, unless it was with- 
drawn. Between this epoch and the annexation to Austria, 
which did not come into full effect till the end of the six- 
teenth century, the thaler was added, with its divisions and 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of E^lrope 343 

multiples, and an aureus equivalent to twelve florins, the last 
probably as a piece de plaisir. The monetary system had 
then attained a high state of development. We have heard 
of the Italian workman employed by a thirteenth-century 
King of Bohemia : Matthias Corvinus obtained artists from 
the same source, whom we find him recommending to the 
Czar of Muscovy ; and the mints, which were numerous, 
and varied under different reigns, were subject to the control 
of a Count of the Chamber, whose name, with the place 
of coinage or mark, appeared as part of the die. The 
thalers of Lladislas VI. have Kretnitz and Tvrso [Kremnitz 
and the director Johann Turso]. The m.m. is usually the 
initial letter of the locality. 

The Austrian administrators preserved to a large extent 
the local or native complexion of the money from their first 
entrance on the ground down to the present century. The 
coins of the emperors for this region, till we come to some 
of the more recent issues of Francis Joseph, continue to 
exhibit the Hungarian type of the Virgin and Child and the 
full-length figure of the sovereign, crowned and robed, with 
sceptre and orb. On the reverse of a florin of Maria Theresa, 
1754, she appears girt with a sword, suggestive of the repug- 
nance of the Magyars to female sway. The copper money, 
during that and the following reigns, was composed of the 
poltur, gresch, and krajczar. There are pieces of I and 3 
krajczar in 1848; but from 1868 dates a coinage closely 
resembling that for the rest of the empire, except that the 
reverse shews a quartered escutcheon, surmounted by the 
crown, with angels as supporters. 

It remains to be pointed out that long after the titular * 
amalgamation of Hungary with Austria the political and 
administrative union was very incomplete and precarious ; 
and the formal embodiment of 1867 betrayed a sense of 
uneasiness and insecurity on the part of the house of Haps- 

1 We have more than once had occasion to accentuate the wide discrepancy 
between nominal and possessory sovereignty as indicated in legends ; and we 
must observe that the titles and dignities of some of the earlier European princes 
became so multiplied, and often so unreal, that it was thought sufficient to enumerate 
them to a large extent by initials. 

344 The Coins of Europe 

burg. It may not therefore be at all surprising that for a 
. considerable space of time the Austrians held 

1 ransylvama 

or Steben- disputed possession of a territory occupied by 
mrgen. j ea j ous an( j turbulent feudatories and bordered by 
such neighbours as the independent waiwodes or voivodes of 
Transylvania, who retained under their government a large 
portion of the kingdom, and might naturally be more accept- 
able to the Hungarians than the German conquerors. Conse- 
quently from the moment when the Magyars were first 
handed over to Ferdinand of Austria about 1526 to the 
beginning of the eighteenth century, the annals of the 
waiwodes run parallel with those of the German sovereigns ; 
and it may be received as evidence of the preponderant power 
of the former, that the coinage for Hungary within that epoch 
was that of the waiwodes rather than that of the emperors, 
and that currency in all metals, bearing their titles, was 
struck at the recognised native mints. 

We possess a singularly instructive and picturesque, and 
nearly unbroken, succession of money, chiefly following the 
familiar lines at first, and subsequently diverging into a 
more original style, as on the curious thalers of Sigismund 
Bathori about 1590, or borrowing from the Polish types, as 
on a copper solidus of 1591 and a silver 3-groschen piece 

of 1606. An invariable accessory to the portraits, so far 
as we have been able to examine them, is the aigret or 
heron's crest, which seems to occupy the place of a crown or 
fillet. The titles readable on the Transylvanian coins differ 
under various reigns, and seem to have been governed by 
current circumstances. Both on those of early date men- 
tioned below and of the seventeenth century from about 
1620 to 1660, the legends claim on behalf of the prince to 
be King-elect of parts of Hungary, Prince of Transylvania, 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 345 

Moldavia, and Wallachia, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, 
etc. A thaler of Gabriel Bethlen Gabor (1613- 1630), struck 
in 1621, declares him D G El Hvngarica Dal\inati<z\ 
Cr\pati<%\ Sch\lavoni(z\ Rex, [and on reverse] Trans Prin- 
ceps et Sicvlor Com. One of George Racoczi, 1657, limits 
the pretension over Hungary to the lordship of parts of that 

kingdom (Par. Reg. Hvn. Dom.\ while, going back to 1593, 
Sigismund Bathori is simply called Prince of Transylvania. 

Of the older Hungarian and Transylvanian numismatic 
productions the salvage can amount to no more than a 
fraction of the original coinage, which has probably shared 
the fate of all similar monuments at the hands of conquerors 
anxious at the least cost to efface the vestiges of former 
independence. We meet sparingly enough with the money 
of necessity appertaining to the last struggle of 1/04-7-1 I 
of the Waiwode Franz II. Racoczy against Austria after 
the Treaty of Carlowitz (1699), and still more so with that 
of earlier days, when Johann Sigismund Zapoly (1540-71) 
was endeavouring to hold his ground in turn against Fer- 
dinand I. and Maximilian II. (1562-65). There are uniface 
thalers with I\phannes\ E\lectus\ R\ex\ V\ngarice\ and a 
second with Io\Jtatmes\ Sc\_pucius\ Rex Vn , beneath which 
occurs the Transylvanian bear perched on its haunches, 
dividing a crescent and star, and the date 1565. The poltur 
series comprises 1,4, 10, and 20 poltura with the crowned 
arms separating the date on obverse, and the value in a 
cartouche on reverse below the words Pro Libertate. When 

346 The Coins of Etirope 

a gold ducat of the Emperor Charles VI. in 1732 enumer- 
ated very conspicuously and unusually among the titles that 
of Prince of Transylvania, the struggle for independence and 
autonomy in that direction had been, for the time at least, 
abandoned. The siege-pieces of Ferdinand I., 155 2, for the 
Turkish War, and those of Kossuth, I 848-49, are referrible 
to Hungary proper, no less than a short series of thalers 
displaying the names and arms of the princely family of 
Batthyani (1764-1806). 


A limited number of the Merovingian trientes have come 
down to us with indications of having originated in Helvetia, 
while it was still a somewhat loose geographical expression, 
and belonged to different Celtic or Prankish masters. These 
coins possess no clue to the sovereign by whose authority 
they were issued, but disclose the moneyer and mint, agree- 
ably to the practice so widely diffused over the area where 
they circulated ; and we perceive that, after the Gothic era, 
of which there are apparently no reliable numismatic vestiges, 
the seats of coinage were Avenches, Basle, Elgg, Geneva, 
Lausanne, St. Moritz, Yverdun, Sitten, Vevey, Windisch, and 
Zurich. But in this, as in other parts of Western Europe, the 
inhabitants long continued to utilise the Roman currency. 

Posterior to the Merovingian period the chief mints were 
Basle, Chur, Zurich, and Bellinzona in Uri. The natural 
difficulties of the country became an early source of freedom, 
and after a series of almost miraculous victories over the 
Germans, French, and Burgundians, between 1315 and 1476, 
the national independence was virtually secured. During 
centuries, however, Switzerland remained a common or 
neutral soil for the production of a manifold variety of coins 
by laymen and ecclesiastics, whose territory or estates were 
situated on its borders as well as within its frontier ; and it 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 347 

should be recollected that the original number and super- 
ficial area of the Cantons were alike very limited, and that 
in the earlier military movements, in resistance to foreign 
aggression, only Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwald took up arms. 
The Confederation, even as existing and recognised in 1499 
and 1648, was therefore apt to find an inheritance of vested 
rights in regard to monetary questions among other matters ; 
and these were generally left undisturbed where the main 
issue and object were the common defence against external 
attack, and the public resources were barely sufficient for 
that purpose. 

While the ethnological associations of the Swiss have 
always been German, and the country more properly belongs 
to the Teutonic than the Latin group of States, the inhabitants 
of this region, since the treaty with France in 1516, have 
shown a tendency to favour their French neighbours, and in 
1798 placed themselves under the protection of Napoleon. 
The Helvetic Republic, as it was termed, lasted from that 
date to 1803, and was composed of 19 cantons, exclu- 
sively of that of Sarine and Broye. By the pacte of 1815 
the number was carried to 22. In 1833 the decimal 
system, and in I 848 an uniform Federal coinage, was adopted. 
In 1865 Switzerland joined the Latin Monetary Convention. 

Switzerland reflects in its vast and multifarious coinage 
its political neutrality. It has borrowed from time to time 
types and denominations from all the nationalities surround- 
ing it. A collection of money of the Cantons will be found 
to embrace the assis, the batz, the sol, the denier, the par- 
paillot, the franc, the centime, the kreutzer, the schilling, the 
vierer, the thaler, the piecette [pezzetta], the ducat, the 
blutzger, the angster, the pistole, the oirtli, the haller, the 
fiinfer, the pfennig, and the grosch. 

The numismatic system may be broadly divided into 
three periods of very unequal duration: (i) the separate 
Cantonal coinage; (2) that of the Helvetic Republic, 1798- 
i 804, which was overlapped by a short revival of the former 
regime; (3) the new Federal coinage of 1848 on the 
decimal principle adopted by Geneva in 1794, and by the 

348 ' The Coins of Ettrope 

Confederation in 1833. Of the second and third periods all 
that can be said is, that the Helvetic Republic identified 
itself with a very handsome and well -engraved series of 
pieces in gold and silver, 1 some of which survived the return 

to the former political constitution, and that the acceptance 
of uniformity yielded, on the whole, a disappointing result, 
and has awakened an agitation for repeal, in order to enable 
each canton to choose its own type, and to make each 
currency legal tender throughout the Union. It deserves to 
be recollected that so far back as 1344, and again in 
1450, Zurich took the initiative in promoting a similar 
scheme ; in the first instance without success, and in the 
second with no permanent fruits. Geneva, two years only 
after its accession to the federal Bond, established on its own 
account (1535) a monetary basis, in which the florin ( = 2/th 
part of a marc of Cologne standard) was divided into i 2 sols, 
the sol into 1 2 deniers, the denier into 2 oboles, and the 
obole into 2 pites or pougeoises. There were also periodical 
approaches to a common understanding in the shape of 
conventions among certain cantons for terms of years. But 
there was no general accord till 1 848. 

The solid interest and value attendant on a study of 
this series are almost restricted to the independent work of 
the Cantons from the Bracteate era one peculiarly rich. in 
this case to the middle of the seventeenth century. We 
have already entered into tolerably copious particulars of the 
labours and product of the seats of coinage, with which the 
territory abounded in former days, and have shewn how the 
same place not unfrequently served two or even three 
1 See Catalogue of Denominations, w. " Batz " and "Frank." 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 349 

employers at one time. For instance, Chur in the beginning 
of the seventeenth century was striking money concurrently 
for the see, the city, and the feudal lord of Schauenstein- 
Ehrenfels in right of his lands in Haldenstein and Lichten- 
stein acquired in 1608 ; and Schaffhausen and Saint-Maurice- 
Valais were during a long period open to various external 
patrons under ancient imperial concessions or by virtue of 

The two agencies which chiefly contributed to demoralise 
the Swiss coinage, prior to the French Revolution and the 
rise of the Helvetic Republic, were the Thirty and Seven 
Years' Wars, which led Switzerland to lower its own standard 
in the inferior or mixed metals to obviate the danger of 
being hampered by the deluge of coins of base alloy cir- 
culating throughout Northern Germany. The effect outlived 
the cause ; and the consequence is before us in a large volume 
of uninviting examples, representing the ordinary medium of 
exchange during upwards of a century and a half (1620- 
1790). The connoisseur may profitably turn over the pages 
of the Townshend Catalogue, 1 where we see the vast, yet 
imperfect, gleanings of a life, or glance through some of the 
public collections at Zurich and elsewhere ; and he will 
perhaps conclude that a select representative group of the 
three or four epochs above indicated is sufficient to satisfy 
ordinary curiosity and enthusiasm. 

The debasement of the coinage and scarcity of specie in 
the higher values were sensibly felt both before and after the 
revolutionary era, and the Swiss admitted, within living 
memory, the French louis d'or and the Napoleon in the absence 
of an adequate local supply, and indeed continue to take the 
20 and 5 franc pieces of the Third Republic part passu with 
their own new gold issues. The financial exigencies of the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries had the effect of reducing 
the stock of old silver currency and checking the output of 

1 A Descriptive Catalogue of Swiss Coins in the South Kensington Museum, 
bequeathed by the Reverend Chauncy Hare Townshend. Edited by R. S. 
Poole. Royal 8vo, 1878. The student will find it useful to refer to Ed. Jenner, 
Die Miinzen Der Schweiz, 8vo, Berne, 1879, where he will meet with many 
examples and issues not in the other work. 


The Coins of Europe 

new ; and the countermarked ttcus of Louis XVI. for some 
of the cantons demonstrate the course taken to meet the 
dilemma. These pieces, of which an enormous number were 
at that time in the country, were found in many instances of 
deficient weight, and the cantons stamped, to pass current 
for 39 or 40 batzen, only such as were found to bear the 
test of the scales. They have become very uncommon, 
plentiful as they must have at the outset been. 

There is scarcely any European series more difficult to 
procure on an extensive scale or with an aim at complete- 
ness even within definite limits ; and the catalogue of 
rarities alone 1 would be a long one. One might take 
Zurich separately, or any other leading centre of production, 
and exhaust his patience and resources in gathering together 
the numismatic treasures of the best period the middle of 
the sixteenth century, where, from 1554 to 1561, the most 
interesting thalers appeared. But even down to a later date 
the large silver pieces, including those of Zurich and Basle, 

with views of the cities, are well executed, and will bear 
comparison with the contemporary work of other European 
states ; and the same may be said of the gold. It is in the 
billon money, which constitutes so heavy a percentage of the 
whole, that the series fails. 

Of the Counts of Greierz or Gruyere, to whom the right 
of coinage was conceded by the Emperor Wenceslas II. in 
1396, no numismatic evidences appear to be forthcoming 

1 Compare Catalogues of Mints and Denominations, passim. 

Descriptive O^ltline of the Coinages of Europe 351 

except a billon sol of 1552, of which there is a pattern in 
gold (Townshend Collection, p. 632), of Michael, Count and 
Prince of Gruyere from 1539 to 1554. This piece reads 
Mychael Prin Et Co : Grver 

It may be mentioned that the canton and city of 
Miihlhausen, although received into the Swiss Union in 
1 5 15, and a free city since 1422, is not known to have 
struck money otherwise than between 1622 and 1625, in 
pursuance of the contract with two moneyers, Weitnauer 
and Falkner, who engaged to observe the Basle standard. 
The Townshend collection has only two examples of the 
mint: a gulden and double gulden of 1623, both with 
Monet a Nova Milhvsina 

The names of many of the mint-masters and engravers 
have been preserved, and may be seen in Mr. Poole's Catalogue. 
The rarities in the series are numerous, and setting aside the 
Chur episcopal denier of Heinrich von Arbon (1180-93), 
the gold dicken of Berne, 1492, the St. Gallen plappart of 
1424, the so-called ecu d'or sol of Geneva about 1550, and 
a few other nuggets, we may perhaps not be far from the 
truth in affirming that the early money generally, but 
especially the gold, and the whole coinage down to the last 
century in a high state of preservation, offer almost insur- 
mountable difficulties to collectors. In the Townshend cabinet 
a large percentage is in indifferent condition, and there are 
innumerable lacuna. The collection is not only deficient in 
many rarities, but in ordinary pieces of the earlier part of 
the present century. 

We must not overlook a scarce 24-kreutzer piece struck 
for the ephemeral canton of Sarine and Broye, formed out of 
Fribourg in February 1789, and reunited to it, 3Oth May in 
the same year. 

35 2 The Coins of Europe 


The Poles, like the Russians, probably employed skins 
in commerce as media of exchange. But in some instances 
at least, so far as we know, they were accustomed to use only 
the scalp of the animal (pelliculum de capitibus). The metallic 
currency begins with the tenth century, and continues in the 
form of esterlings or denarii of good silver, of which occasional 
trouvailles occur, down to the period of the union of Poland 
and Livonia under the house of Jagellon. The strong 
Jewish and Arab elements in the early political and social 
constitution of Eastern Europe account for the presence 
of Hebrew and Arabic inscriptions on certain bracteates 
and other pieces belonging to this region, and presumably 
struck or made current for the convenience and use of early 
Oriental traders frequenting the towns and the periodical 
fairs. They appear to be of the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries, and one bears on the opposite sides the names of 
a caliph of Bagdad and of one of the German emperors 
called Henry probably Henry VI. This circumstance 
encourages the suspicion that it was a species of convention- 

No appreciable progress is discernible in the coinage 
prior to the reign of Sigismund I. (i 5O6-48), 1 when the fabric 
and character underwent an abrupt reform, and the power 
and prosperity of the country, owing to a more stable govern- 
ment and the growth of the internal and Baltic commerce, 
began to reflect themselves in a monetary series, which 
reached its climax under Sigismund III. (1588-1632), but 
betrayed no symptoms of decline till the close of the seven- 
teenth century and the death of John III., Sobieski (1697). 
The strength of the entire Polish currency centres round 
Sigismund III., however, whose moneyers at Riga and 
Dantzic, throughout the earlier portion of his protracted 

1 The name of John of Luxemburgh, King of Bohemia (1309-46), does not 
occur in the lists of the sovereigns of Poland, yet on his coinage he claims to be 
Rex. Boe. Et. Pol. 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 353 

reign, produced a succession of admirable silver and gold 
types, which supplied models to neighbouring states. 

It was in 1507, almost exactly at the commencement of 
the previous reign, that dates were first inserted ; and the 
practice was strictly followed in conjunction with a second 
equally important and still more unusual, the mark of value. 
The year and date appealed even to a not very highly 
educated community. 

The thaler of 30 groschen or marques had been intro- 
duced in 1564 by Sigismund II. for Livonia, and was 
continued by Stephen Bathori and the other independent 
kings down to the close of the autonomy, when the Russian 
poltina and rouble replaced it. There is a poltina of 
the Czar Alexander I., 1814. Of the money of the grand- 
duchy of Warsaw and the revolutionary movement of 1831 
we speak elsewhere. 

Henri, Due d'Anjou, elected king in 1573, and called to 
the throne of France in the following year, is not known to 
have had any distinct Polish coinage ; but down to the last 
his own money describes him as ruling over both kingdoms; 
and his gold ecus are among the earliest pieces in that metal 
associated with Poland. There is a gold ducat of Sigismund 
II. (1557) struck at Dantzic, with his crowned bust, and 
others of variant types of Stephen Bathori, 1580, 1584, 
1586; and we have the double and triple ducat with the 
names of Lladislas (1632-48), John Casimir (1648-68), and 
Michael Koribut (1668-74). John III., Sobieski (1674-97), 
had the ducat of which we engrave the issue for 1677, and 
doubtless the multiples which we have not seen ; and the 
series extended to 1791, when the end was very near, and 
the coinage was transferred to Leipsic. 

This grand-duchy may be regarded as the source of the 

first aggrandisement of Poland through the marriage of the 

house of Jagellon or Jagiello to the heiress of the 

Li L h ivoniL r Polish throne. The armed horseman on the 

Russian money, eventually developed into St. 

George and the Dragon, was of Livonian origin, and occurs 

on the Polish coinage for that province under Alexander I. 

2 A 


Sigismund II.: 3 groschen, 1536. 

Sigismund III.: 6 groschen, 1596. 

John III. Sobieski : gold ducat, 1677. 

Stanislas II., last King of Poland : thaler, 1766. 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 355 

(1501-6), and on later pieces, including an exceedingly 
rare copper solidus of 1568 by far the earliest production 
in that metal yet noticed. The little piece is as it was 
struck, before it was cut from the sheet of copper by some 
negligent or defective process, which mutilated two transfers 
from the die. 

Livonia was the monetary seat of the Grand Masters of 

the Fraternity of St. Mary, who struck gold and silver coins 

during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries till the 

Livonia. Order merged in the person of Gothard Ketler in 

Duchy of 11563 in the duchy of Courland, of which the 

Courland. , ~ . 

original currency was on the Polish model, but 
suffered modifying influences from successive political changes 
down to 1795. The Archbishop of Riga, the Bishop of 
Dorbat, Magnus, Duke of Holstein, and some of the Kings 
of Sweden, used the mints at Riga, Hapsal, Arensburg, and 
Narva, in this district or in Esthonia. 

Some account of this temporary State from 1815, when 
it was created by the Treaty of Vienna, to November 1846, 
Republic of when it was annexed to Austria, will be found in 
Cracow, the Catalogue of Mints. 

The title of Duke of Prussia was assumed by the Kings 
of Poland from Sigismund I., who on a 3 groschen of 1536 

styles himself Do To Prussi , and by the Mar- 
East Prussia. _ . 
graves of Brandenburgh subsequently to the 

seizure by Brandenburgh of the possessions of the Teutonic 
Order. Poland had at one time exercised at least a nominal 
sovereignty over the whole of this margraviat, and her kings, 
down to the end of the seventeenth century, are termed on 
their coinage Grand Dukes of Livonia, Prussia, and Russia. 
John Casimir claims, in addition, to be King of Sweden, by 
which we may, perhaps, understand Swedish Pomerania. 
Frederic Augustus I. and II. term themselves simply Rex 
Pol. or Poloniarum ; but the native princes, although they 
eventually relinquished their titular pretensions over Prussia 
and Russia, always adhered to Livonia the ancient home 
of the Jagellons. Even after the annexation to Branden- 
burgh, about 1525, East Prussia was long held as a fief of 

356 The Coins of Europe 

Poland, and the Elector was not recognised as an independent 
sovereign till 1657. The death of John Sobieski in 1697 
and the creation of the Prussian monarchy in 1701 were 
two almost concurrent incidents, which combined, with the 
internal discord fomented by Sweden and Russia, to accom- 
plish the ruin of a political system and a national greatness 
built up by the Jagellon dynasty, and sustained by two 
or three of the elected rulers ; and during the whole of the 
eighteenth century the Polish coinage shared the fortune of 
the Crown, and was mainly of Saxon origin. 

From the point of view of a collector, the series under 
consideration presents numerous features of interest and 
attraction. Contenting himself with a moderate selection of 
the more ancient pieces struck for Poland or Livonia, his 
attention is apt to be arrested when he arrives at the 
sixteenth century by the good work on the money of 
Sigismund I., II., and III., by the thalers commencing with 
1560 or thereabout, and running to the reign of Stanislas 
II., Poniatowski (1764-95) ; those of Sigismund III. and his 
immediate successors are seldom procurable in fine state, 
and the thalers of Sobieski and Frederic Christian, 1763, 
are rare. The early issue of the last king, 1766, powerfully 
and impressively contrasts with the later of 1788, where the 
cast of expression seems to foreshadow the imminent 
catastrophe. The gold and early copper are equally un- 
common, and among the former the ducats and their 
multiples are particularly desirable. The three-ducat piece 
of John Casimir (1648-68), with a view of Dantzic on 
reverse and a life-like portrait on obverse, is executed with 
care, delicacy, and skill. A double one of Michael Korybut 
(1669-74) reads Rex Polo. M. D. L. Rvs. Pr. and Ex Avro 
Solido Civit. Thorvnensis Fieri Fee. Nor should it be for- 
gotten that the franc d' argent, e'en, d'or, and other currency of 
Henry III. of France are necessary adjuncts. In England 
the acquaintance with the numismatic history of the Poles, 
before the sale of the Albert Collection, was of the most vague 
and limited nature. 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 357 


The earliest introduction to our knowledge of Russian 
monetary economy brings us into contact with a system of 
barter, under which whole skins of squirrels, martins, and 
other fur-bearing animals, with the claws and teeth intact, 
were admitted as equivalents for a metallic medium. A 
modification of this primitive and inconvenient policy at a 
subsequent date lay in the use of strips of the leather so 
obtained, stamped with certain characters ; and the same 
material also assumed the circular form. But the denga, 
which preceded the kope'ika as the Russian unit, may per- 
haps furnish us with some justification for the surmise that 
the prevalent shape of the second period of skin-money was 
similar to the small, irregular oblong which we find current 
from the time of Ivan the Terrible down to the general 
reform of the coinage in the latter part of the reign of Peter 
the Great (1707-17). 

The most ancient metallic coinage of Russia or Muscovy 
was of two distinct classes : I. The currency of the grand- 
duchy of Kief or Kiev, bearing various Christian symbols, 
but copied as to fabric and character from Byzantine pro- 
totypes ; 2. The tribute-money exacted on repeated occasions 
by the Crim Tartars, and carrying on its face an inscription 
or token (tamghd) significant of its purpose and origin. 1 The 
latter scarcely fall within the category of currency, as there 
is little doubt that the value struck merely represented the 
amount of this levy enforced by the invader ; and the probably 
limited production at Kiev of Gra^co- Muscovite pieces in 
silver and gold, not unlike those in the Bulgarian and 
Servian mediaeval series, and of the succession of deugai, 
must have continued down to the seventeenth century to 
answer all demands outside those met by exchange. In 
1852 a find occurred at Nejine of an assortment of silver 

1 See what is said below of a similar token on the Genoese colonial coinage 
at Caffa in" the Crimea, and its apparent identity with the so-termed portal or 
chatel on the French gros tournois. 

358 The Coins of Europe 

pieces answering to the references in the Russian annals in 
1115 and 1257. They represent the duke seated and 
crowned, holding in his right hand a long Latin cross ; the 
reverse exhibits a kind of trident ; and the legends are in 
incorrect Slavonic characters. 

There is the possibility that the money paid to Tartar in- 
vaders by way of tribute or ransom may have also served for 
commercial objects in the same manner as in Poland. It 
is certain that from having at the outset Arabic or Mongolian 
inscriptions on either side, the obverse was in course of time 
reserved for the titles of the grand -duke of Moscow or 
Russia, as the ruler of the country was successively designated ; 
and under Ivan III., Vasilievitch (1462-1 505), the foreign 
element finally disappeared. It was this prince to whom 
Matthias Corvinus of Hungary sent, about 1483, some of his 
own workmen with a view to an improved coinage ; but a 
pattern gold ducat of Hungarian type is all that is known to 
have arisen from the experiment ; and it appears that, when 
the Czar desired in those days to distribute pecuniary gifts, 
he procured specie from his more advanced continental 

The accession of the house of Romanoff in 1613 accom- 
plished nothing in a numismatic respect. We find Ivan 
Alexievitch (1682-89) ordering a special gold ducat with 
his own portrait and those of his brother Peter (afterward 
czar) and his sister Sophia (afterward regent). But the 
earliest symptom of a movement forward presents itself in 
certain roubles and half roubles of Peter the Great and his 
immediate predecessor, of rather poor fabric and work, struck 
prior to his tour and stay in Western Europe ; and that 
remarkable episode contributed to stimulate progress to some 
extent. Yet down to 1 704 the archaic denga still survived, 
and it does not seem to have been till about 1711 that an 
improved type in copper under the name of kope'ika appeared. 
As denga signified a token, the new denomination implied 
a lance, in reference to the armed horseman copied from the 
currency of Lithuania. The kope'ika was accompanied by a 
denga, forming the moiety. . In 1707, Peter had ordered 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 359 

at the Moscow mint a pattern rouble of an entirely new 
design and module, with the date in Arabic numerals, a plain 
edge, and the value expressed ; and it is curious that Charles 
XII. of Sweden issued a daler the same year of very 
superior style. Which was the anterior we do not learn ; 
but of the Russian experiment no immediate fruit came. 
We have to wait till 1717 for a revival of the feeling, when 
a rouble of somewhat larger module, with the date as well as 
the legend in Russian characters, was published. The 
climax was reached in 1723, to which belongs the issue of 
a rouble of smaller dimensions with the date in Arabic 
numerals, the Czar's initials in the angles of a cross (substi- 
tuted for the double-headed eagle of 1 707 and 1717), and an 
inscribed edge ; this was accompanied by that of pieces in 
gold of three and six roubles, having on obverse the portrait 
and on reverse the altogether novel St. Andrew type. 
Already Peter had struck a curious gold coin, if not a 
medalet, in remembrance of his father and mother, and we 
have spoken of two other cases where gold was employed ; 
but the grand-dukes of Kiev appear to have had none, that 
which has been offered as such being more than question- 
able ; and the coinage of 1723 may perhaps be viewed as 
the earliest regular currency in that metal. From the 
numerous very interesting patterns which have come down to 
us, and a few of which we reproduce, it is evident that the Czar 
meditated a farther development of his monetary system, 
which was now on an immeasurably better and more honour- 
able footing ; and his example furnished a precedent and 
beginning which, as in other matters, his successors did not 
neglect to utilise. The coinage of 1723 was the model with 
certain variations and improvements for several subsequent 
reigns. All the money emanated till 1724 from one of the 
mints at Moscow, which had replaced Kiev, Novgorod, and the 
other ancient seats of coinage, and was in its turn largely 
superseded by St. Petersburgh. Later czars or emperors did 
their part toward the achievement of the aim which the 
real founder of their monarchy had had in his mind, and 
Catherine I., Peter II., and Catherine II. more especially, 


Pattern rouble of 1707. 


Denga, 1704 (ancient type). 


' '.!']/,) J '. 

Kopeck, 1711. 

at* Y 

,." x^^ 



/>x 'a ' LJ 


Pattern 5 kopecks, 1723. 

Gold 3-rouble piece, 1723. 

Pattern kopeck, 1724. 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 361 

introduced fresh types or improvements of the old. Of 
Peter's widow we possess the remarkable specimens of 1726 
in copper and a grosch of 1727 in the same metal ; of Peter 
II. a pattern kopeck of 1731 on an unusually thick flan ; of 
Anne and John or Ivan III. (1740-41) several copper essays; 
of Catherine II. an imperial and double imperial in gold ; of 
the rulers from 1758 to 1809 a very handsome series of 
5 -kopeck pieces in copper; and of Nicholas, 3, 6, and 12 
roubles in platinum, ranging between 1828 and 1832. 
From Peter the Great to the present time the Russians 
have bestowed much care on their copper issues, and each 
prolonged reign has been productive of repeated and varied 
coinages, which are uniformly w r ell engraved and well struck. 
The Czar Alexander I. (1801-25), after testing their 
capacity by a coinage of roubles and half roubles, ordered 
of Boulton of Birmingham a complete set of presses on the 
English principle for the St. Petersburgh mint. 

The portraits on the silver and copper cease after 
Catherine II., and Alexander I. placed his bust only on the 
half imperial of 1801 and I 8 1 7, struck for Poland. It is 
usually believed that the Emperor Paul, the son of Catherine, 
was led to suppress this feature by his own unprepossessing 
personal appearance ; but the idea of sanctity associated with 
the office of the sovereign may have formed an inducement 
to take a course so opposed to Western policy. 

In our Catalogue of Mints numerous entries will shew 
that the Russians, content at first with Kiev and Novgorod, 
then with Moscow, where there were four mints, and Mojaisk 
(the latter after 1457), and eventually with Moscow and 
St. Petersburgh, gradually instituted many other places of 
production ; and the Czars of Georgia certainly, and doubt- 
less the numerous feudal chiefs within Russia itself, had 
separate monetary systems, of which we are not likely to 
gain very accurate particulars. The government has at 
various times struck special money for Poland, Finland, 
Livonia and Esthonia, Moldavia and Wallachia, Georgia 
and Siberia. Of all of these an account is supplied else- 

362 The Coins of Europe 

The titles on the coinage have naturally undergone 
periodical modification consonant with the change of feeling 
or circumstances. On the Kiev money of the tenth century 
we encounter such antique forms as Vladimir, and this is his 
money, or Vladimir on tJie throne, and this is his silver. A ruler 
of the eleventh century, Swiatoslav Jaroslavitch (1073-78), 
puts Money of Sviatoslaf. This was, as usual, for mutual 
identification, and continued with variations down to the 
time of the Romanoff dynasty, when a prince of that house, 
Alexis Mikhailovitch (1645-76), styles himself great prince 
of all the Great, Little, and White Russias. The Czarina 
Anne on some pattern coins of 1740 claims to be Autocrat 
of all the Russias. But from the death of Catherine II. the 
legends become very laconic and succinct. 

There are, beyond doubt, many rarities in the Russian 
series with which we are still very imperfectly conversant. 
Any early gold, the products of the parent-mints at Kiev 
and Novgorod, the first type of the rouble and its half in 
fine state, the patterns which we engrave and others which 
we name, the rouble of Peter the Great, 1725, the double 
imperial of Catherine II., 1767, the half roubles of Ivan III. 
and Peter III., the half imperial of 1801, and the 12 roubles 
in platinum of 1832, may be recommended to particular 


The two provinces of Bogdana or Moldavia and Wall- 

achia, originally separate states under their own waiwodes, 

Moldavia an< ^ subsequently united with a varying measure 

and of dependence or vassalage toward Poland, 

Turkey, or Russia, were finally emancipated from 

Turkish control in I 867, when Charles of Hohen- 

zollern was elected the first Hospodar. Roumania became a 

kingdom in 1881. 

The independent coinage of Bogdana goes back to the 
fourteenth century and to the reign of Bogdan I. (1350-66), 


Catherine I.: coronation grievinik or lo-kopeck piece, 1726. Copper 

Pattern kopeck of Peter II. 

Copper uniface rouble of 1726. 

Catherine I.: pattern uniface 
kopeck, 1726. 

Anne : grievinik, 1733. 

Anne : pattern 2 kopecks, 1740. 

364 The Coins of Europe 

and chiefly consists of small silver pieces, many of which bear 
the mystical bull's head surrounded by a rose, a star, and a 
crescent, the reverses exhibiting heraldic devices. The name 
of the sovereign usually occurs : Bogd. Waiwo., Petri. Wai- 
wodi., Alexandri. ; and one prince describes himself in the 
sixteenth century as Father of Moldavia. The legends are 
sometimes partly in Greek characters. There appear to be 
no coins posterior to 1666. 

The money of Wallachia (i 360-1799), while it remained 
a separate government of the same complexion as that of 
Moldavia, is of a more varied and ambitious character, and 
offers the common German and Low Country type of an 
eagle surmounting a helmet ; but some of the later rulers 
placed on the coins their bust draped in the kolpak. Pieces 
of ten ducats in gold were struck for special purposes and 

Considering that Moldavia and Wallachia exercised 
monetary rights during so many centuries, it is surprising 
that specimens should so sparingly occur. The Russian 
currency for the two provinces in the time of Catherine II. 
(1771-74) limited itself to pieces of I, 2, and 5 para with 
the values in Greek and Russian. 

The modern kingdom of Roumania, comprehending 
nearly the whole of this region, has possessed since I 867 a 
coinage in all metals: in copper, i, 2, 5, and 10 bani;* in 
silver, ^ and i leu, and 2 and 5 lei ; and in gold, 5, 10, and 
20 lei. The leu is = a franc, and seems to be the same 
word as livre or lira; 100 bani are = i leu. The bano is 
presumably referrible to the titular appellation given to the 
sovereigns of Bosnia. 

From the eleventh century we have Bulgarian silver and 
gold money of different kinds, including siege-pieces connected 

with the struggles against the Greeks. But the 
Bulgaria. ... _ , , 

most usual types are of the reign of Asan I. (II 86- 

96) and his successors after the establishment of autonomy, and 

1 There have been at least three coinages : 1867, I, 2, 5, and 10 bani with 
no legend but Romania; 1879-81, 2 and 5 bani with titles as Hospodar 
(Domnid Romaniei) ; 1882-85, 2 an< ^ 5 ^ jan * w ' tn titles as 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 365 

reproduce in a barbarous and degraded style the Byzantine 
patterns. The series extends to about 1395 ; and subse- 
quently to that period and down to 1879-80, when the 
existing principality was formed by the Treaty of Berlin, 
Bulgaria constituted part of the Ottoman Empire. The 
modern currency comprises : in copper or bronze, I, 2, 5, and 
i o stothemke ; in silver, -|- leu, I leu, and 2 leua or leva ; in 
gold, the 20 leva or Alexander. In 1880 and 1887 bronze 
pieces of 10 canteim were struck as patterns. 

Servia has from the seventh to the fourteenth or fifteenth 
century undergone, in common with all this group of states 

or communities bordering on powerful and rapa- 
Servia?' c i us neighbours, numerous and violent changes 

of fortune and boundary. Numismatically the 
Servians may be regarded as belonging to the same category 
as Roumania, Bulgaria, and Bosnia, but under the inde- 
pendent Schupans or Zupans the province which we are 
considering produced a currency which in the fourteenth 
century displayed, with an obvious servility to Byzantine, 

Servia : denarius of Byzantine type of Stephen VII., 1.336-56. 

Hungarian, and Venetian prototypes, far greater care and 
skill in the execution than those of Bulgarian origin. One 
of the most remarkable specimens, from the celebrated 
Montenuovo cabinet, is of concave fabric. There are a 
few pieces outside the regal currency corresponding to the 
seigniorial coinages of Western Europe, and struck between 
1386 and 1452 by various personages in right of their 
feudal tenures in Montenegro and elsewhere. Some of the 
inscriptions are in Greek characters ; and it may be suspected 
that in one or two instances the source of the coin is political, 
and was the act of a competitor for the crown. 

In regard to the question of early Servian gold, of which 

366 The Coins of Europe 

the reality has been impugned, it appears that the laws of 
Stephen VII. Duschan mention under 1349 the perpero 
carrevo in that metal as an existing denomination, and that 
the double-headed eagle on certain zlatica or aurei of that 
prince (or emperor, as he styles himself) is common to his 
seal. The pieces hitherto recovered belong to the period 
between 1275 and 1389. Looking at the evident import- 
ance and prosperity which the kingdom acquired under 
some of its early rulers, and the analogous practice of neigh- 
bouring states, there is no prima facie improbability in the 
hypothesis that Servia struck gold, and that the modern 
trouvaille is genuine. 

Servia retained its independence till 1459, when it fell 
into the hands of the Turks ; but it became an autonomous 
principality in 1804 an d a kingdom in 1882. Since the 
Treaty of Berlin there has been a separate currency : in 
bronze, 10, 5, 2, and I para; in silver, 50 para, I, 2, and 5 
dinar a ; and in gold, 10 and 20 dinara. The par is 
approximately = i centime, and the dinar = I franc; 100 
para= I dinar. 

The most ancient money with the name of Bosnia, or 

connected with it as a self-governing district, describes the 

ruler as a Ban; a piece of Stephen I. (1272-00) 

' Bosnia. 

reads Stefan. Banvs, but the later coinage bears 
the word Rex. The types are borrowed from Servia, 
Aquileia, etc., and in common with the entire body of 
Danubian money are unexceptionally Christian. The 
territory, of which the confines were never very sharply 
defined, was claimed, if not governed, at successive epochs 
by Servia- and Hungary; in 1463 it became a Turkish 
province, and it is at present an Austrian one, notwithstand- 
ing repeated efforts to shake off a foreign yoke. 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Eziro&e 367 


An interesting and extensive body of coins in gold, 
silver, and copper, but principally in the lower metal, owes 
its origin and existence to the Fourth Crusade, when the 
decadent empire of the East was finally destroyed in 1204 
by the fall of Constantinople after a protracted siege and 
the partition of the entire Greek territory and the Holy 
Land among the Venetian and other sharers of the spoils 
of war. Only a certain proportion of this immense 
dominion lay within the European continent ; and, again, of 
some of the states which arose under these circumstances 
no numismatic memorials have been hitherto identified. 
The types employed were either those to which the new 
ruler had been accustomed in his own country or such as 
were generally acceptable and familiar ; the Byzantine and 
Venetian coinages were largely copied. 

By virtue of this arrangement Greece was parcelled out 
among a crowd of adventurers ; and under the nominal 
suzerainty of the Latin emperors of Constantinople we 

The Kings of Saloniki (Thessalonica), which comprehended Mace- 
donia and part of Peloponnesus. 

The Princes of Achaia and Despots (regult) of Romania, including 
Corinth, Corfu, etc. 

The Dukes of Athens (Attica and Eubcea). 

The Barons of Patras, etc., in the Peloponnesus or Morea. 

The Three Despots (tertiarit) of Negropont or Eubcea. 

The Despots of Epirus and Phocaea. 

The Dukes and other proprietary lords of the Archipelago. 

The Seigneurs of Mitylene and parts of Thrace. 

The Venetian, Genoese, and Neapolitan lords of the Ionian Isles, 

The Greek dynasts of Rhodes. 

And in addition to these there was the Venetian assumption 
of sovereignty over three-fourths of the empire (including 
the Asiatic portion) and the Genoese colonies at Pera and 

368 The Coins of Europe 

This political metamorphosis sometimes strikes the 
student as having its melodramatic and sometimes, perhaps 
oftener, its depressing side. To the trading communities, 
such as Venice and Genoa, these acquisitions were attended 
by checkered results, and were never consolidated in a 
sufficient degree to withstand the pressure of a strong 
aggressive force from without. But the majority of the 
minor fiefs fell an easy prey to the Mohammedan conquerors, 
while many disappeared long before by cession or otherwise. 
The lion's share ultimately fell to Venice, and the Venetian 
colonial currency arose from the politic desire to spread the 
name of the republic, and supersede other currencies, 
wherever her empire extended ; and the absence of any 
coinage, which can be confidently ascribed to the Latin 
emperors, has been explained by the supposed use of 
Venetian specie. The bailo or consul-general of the 
republic at Constantinople was long indeed the actual 
sovereign and a sort of lieutenant or vicar of the Doge ; 
and a second important official was the bailo of Negropont. 
Apart from those localities, where the Government itself 
enjoyed direct jurisdiction, the noble houses of Cornaro, 
Sanudo, Quirini, Grimani, Barozzi, and Michieli occupied 
fiefs under Venetian protection. 

The numismatic lessons to be learned from this great 
historical incident and epoch are certainly not very im- 
portant. The rolls of the numerous lines, which enjoyed 
for a longer or shorter term the fruits of conquest, include 
many distinguished names of statesmen, warriors, and men 
of cultivated tastes Boniface, Marquis of Monteferrato, 
Charles of Anjou, Geoffrey de Villehardouin the historian, 
Gui de Lusignan, and Caterina Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus. 
But the majority of the host, which took the capital and 
participated in the plunder, were warlike freebooters, of 
whom a few have transmitted their names to us on coins or 
in chronicles of the age, each elucidating the other. At the 
same time two or three points of a curious character present 
themselves to our observation and criticism. The Genoese 
settlement at Caffa (Theodosia) in the Crimea found itself 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of E^l,rope 369 

subject to the payment of a tribute to the Tartars of 
Kaptchak, and the money of the colony bears on the reverse 
the tamga or cypher of the khans, in the same manner as 
that of the earlier Dukes of Muscovy ; and it is this token 
of vassalage which was copied on the gros tournois of 
Louis IX., and has the appearance there of a portal or 
an exaggerated Gothic M. On a coin of the barony of 
Karytaena, struck by Helena Angelos, Dowager-Duchess of 
Athens, heiress to one of the moieties, we discern the 
unusual words S'F, standing for semi-feudi. In 1205 
Boniface of Monteferrato apportioned Eubcea among three 
of his captains, of whom one, Geoffrey de Villehardouin, 
published a coin with the numerals III. on the reverse for 
tertiarius. In 1346 Chio, taken from the Latins by a 
Byzantine expedition, was recovered by one equipped by 
Genoa at the charge of a local association or gild known 
as the MaJione ; and the latter eventually became feoffees of 
the Genoese, who surrendered the island, subject to an 
annual tribute, in 1528. There is a series of coins emanat- 
ing from this union, with the common Conradus legend, and 
of various types ; and they seem to have outlived the 
Turkish subjugation of Chio in 1566, just as those of the 
Genoese colony at Pera did the fall of Constantinople into 
the hands of Mahomet II., more than a century prior. As 
far back as 1362 twelve members of the society had con- 
stituted themselves into a syndicate to reconnoitre Chio and 
Phocaea, doubtless for commercial purposes, and for judging 
the capabilities for development. 


The numismatic history of this region, including the 
Ionian Isles, is intimately associated with Great Britain. 
The Islands themselves, after successive occupation by the 

2 B 

370 The Coins of Europe 

Neapolitans, Venetians, Russians, Turks, French, were taken 
by Great Britain in 1809, and finally annexed to Greece in 
1862-64. The Greek kingdom had been formed in 1832 as 
the climax of a long and anxious struggle, in which Count 
Capo d'Istria, Byron, and the British Government were the 
best friends to the cause of freedom. The battle of Navarino 
contributed in 1829 to strengthen the hands of the re- 
awakening nation. Within the period of their protectorate 
( 1 809-64) the British struck in copper for the Islands pieces 
of i, 2, 5, and 10 lepta, and a 30 lepta in silver. The last 
coinage was in 1862 ; it had apparently commenced in 1819. 
The uniform type was : obverse, the winged and radiated lion 
of St. Mark, holding in its claw a sheaf of arrows enclosed 
in a band on which appears a Greek cross, and the legend 
lonikon Kraton, 1819; reverse, figure of Britannia, etc., as 
on the ordinary English money of the time. The 30 lepta 
is dated 1834, and formed the prototype as to the reverse of 
the English groat of 1836. The series was engraved by 

Between 1828 and 1831 the republic, to which Byron 
had lent his last years, but which he did not live to see 
established, struck pieces of I, 5, 10, and 20 lepta and a 
pJienix in silver of I oo lepta. The type of all these coins 
is the fabulous bird, figurative of the reviving nationality, 
rising out of its own ashes under the influence of a ray or 
beam of light descending from above ; a Greek cross sur- 
mounts the head ; and the legend is Ellenikc Politeia, The 
reverse bears the value enclosed in a wreath, the date below, 
and the inscription reading Kubernetes I. A. Kapodaistrias. 
At the foot of the obverse occurs the m.m. aco^a. 

Of the kingdom the first coinage was in 1833. There 
had been apparently an intention, judging from extant 
patterns, to employ the mint at Munich for the purpose ; but 
the order was eventually given to Paris. This issue varies 
in module from its successors, in being smaller with a 
gnurled edge, and in making no mention of the name of the 
sovereign, since the legend is simply Basileia tes Ellenos ; it 
is altogether preferable in style to the money struck under 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 371 

George I. which is of the most commonplace and unattract- 
ive description. 

The existing currency includes the silver drachma, its 
multiples in gold and divisions in its own metal, and the i, 
2, 5, and 10 lepta in bronze. The 5 and 10 lepta pieces 
are known as the obolos and diobolos. The drachma is = 
IOO lepta. 


We merely refer to this division of our subject in order 
to point out that the currency of the government of the 
Sultan belongs by its origin and costume to Asia rather 
than to Europe. But in certain respects it exerted an 
influence over those of the provinces which at one time 
formed part of the Ottoman Empire, and in emancipating 
themselves did not wholly lose sight of their former associa- 
tions. The coinage of Servia at the present moment follows 
in name that of Turkey, where the prevailing unit is the par 
and its multiples of 5, 10, 20, and 40. 


The coinage of Denmark, which is very obscure and 
involved for several reasons, seems susceptible of a classi- 
fication into four leading periods : I, the early 
Anglo-Danish and Dano-Teutonic coinage, much 
of which partakes of an ecclesiastical character and tone 
in consequence of the heads of the Church having been 
customarily associated with the sovereign on the money ; 2, 
the irregular and debased money in circulation during the 
civil wars of the thirteenth and fourteenth century ; 3, the 
commencement of a clearer chronological order and of a 

372 The Coins of Eiirope 

graduated currency under Eric of Pomerania (1396-1440) ; 
and 4, the ultimate concentration of the kingdom by the 
successive loss of Norway, Lauenburg, and Schleswig-Holstein 
between 1814 and 1864. 

The alliances of the Danes with German houses and 
consequent gain of territory outside their true boundaries, 
culminating in their share in the Thirty Years' War, where 
their king, Christian IV. (i 588-1648), was a prominent actor, 
may be judged to have permanently crippled their power at 
home, as it brought with it disaster and disgrace in the field. 
We are not immediately concerned with these political 
questions beyond the influential bearing which they had on 
the monetary production of the kingdom ; and it is certainly 
worth notice that a considerable portion of the Danish coin- 
age from the ninth or tenth century carries the impress of 
that irresistible impulse to seek places of settlement or 
objects of conquest at a distance, \vhich distinguished the 
Swedes from the epoch when adventurers from that in- 
hospitable region enrolled themselves in the Varangian guard 
at Constantinople, to the days of the wild exploits and 
ruinous policy of Charles XII. (1697-1718). 

We have to recognise in the Danish numismatic records 
two powerful factors then : i, a chronic tendency to 
aggression or conquest ; 2, a lengthened experience of in- 
ternal disunion (1232-1376), followed by the revolt of the 
Swedish house of Vasa against Christian II. The former 
accounts for a wide variety of coins, of which the country of 
origin, in the case of the pennies of Canute I. of Denmark 
and Northumbria, is sometimes disputed ; while the civil 
commotions from the reign of Eric Ploupennig to that of 
Valdemar IV. naturally gave rise to a multifarious and 
obscure currency of base alloy, of which new examples are 
from time to time brought to light. Students and critics 
have probably no richer field for speculation than this, as, in 
common with the Swedish and Norwegian, Danish soil 
formed the common ground during generations for the 
money of so many nationalities, with which the inhabitants 
were interconnected, as well as for a century's yield of all 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 373 

sorts of provisional and temporary mediums, of which the 
exact history is wanting. 

Contemplating the Danish series with the eyes of a 
collector, rather perhaps than with those of an archaeologist, 
attention is instinctively drawn to certain salient features of 
interest and curiosity. We perceive the presumedly English 
element in the coinages of the Anglo-Danish monarchs, and 
we cannot fail to appreciate the style and taste of those of 
the rulers of Denmark alone, particularly the silver denarii 
of small module, but excellent workmanship of Magnus and 

Sweyn II. (1042-75) which retain their English feeling, and 
the large assortment of bracteates figured in the folio work 
published at Copenhagen in 1791-94. Even at this early 
epoch Denmark was beginning to turn its attention toward 
north-eastern Germany, and to aggrandise itself at home ; 
between 1389 and 1397, Margaret, daughter and heiress of 
Valdemar IV., Queen of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, 
brought to Eric of Pommern or Pomerania those three 
crowns. " The Semiramis of the North," as Margaret has 
been termed, is a landmark in these times. 

Fresh troubles arose by reason of frequent changes in' 
the dynasty and succession: from 1440 to 1481 we find 
princes of Bavaria and Oldenburg on the throne. In 
1533 an interregnum is terminated by the choice of 
Frederic I. of Schleswig-Holstein (1534-59). Not long 
after, we come to the names of Christian IV., who spent 
many years of a long reign (1588-1648) either in foreign 
warfare or in exile, and of Frederic III. (1648-70), when 
Sweden invaded the kingdom and even laid siege to Copen- 
hagen. From 1730 to 1746 there was an interval for the 
first time of peace and prosperity, which preceded an almost 
uninterrupted course downward to 1864, when Denmark had 

374 The Coins of Europe 

parted with Schleswig-Holstein and nearly all her colonies. 
This historical sketch may be sufficient to indicate to the 
numismatist or amateur general lines for his guidance and 
use. We must not conclude that the checkered career of 
this unfortunate country was a bar or even hinderance to the 
accumulation from century to century of valuable and in- 
structive monuments of the class which we are studying. 
On the contrary, excepting the space of time occupied by 
the civil wars in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, we 
have it in our power to bring together a highly interesting 
assemblage of pieces in all metals and of innumerable types, 
stretching chronologically from the Middle Ages to the pre- 
sent date. We may specify, by way of example, the coins 
of Margaret, above mentioned, and her husband Eric VII. 
(1387-1440); the first money with armorial cognisances 
under their successor Christopher III. of Bavaria (1440-48) ; 
the interregnal currency (January to September 1448), with 
Moncta Regni Danice, the earliest known dated piece under 
John (1481-1513), reading loh's Dei. Gra. Rex Danor. Ivssit. 
me fieri. An. 1496 ; the first thaler or daler of 1513 ; the 
gold ducat and its divisions and multiples, especially the 
Justus Judex type of Christian IV., 1646; and the double 

one of Frederic III., 1658, with a ship on reverse dividing 
the motto Tandem, possibly intended for the Danish East 
Indies; the double thaler of Christian IV., 1624; and the 
singular klipping of 1648, with a laureated bust of Frederic 
III. on obverse, and the reverse exhibiting a vase of flowers, 
on the exterior of which occurs the same motto, Tandem, 
as accompanies the later piece just noted. A rigsdaler 
species of Christian VIII., 1840, is remarkable for the 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 375 

German type of the reverse the two wild men as sup- 
porters of the canopied escutcheon. The coinage for Norway 
under Danish rule comprises many very fine specimens artist- 

ically considered, but facile princeps the superb 6-mark piece 
of Frederic IV., I 704, having on the reverse side the crowned 
lion wielding in its claws an antique curved battle-axe, which 
in the analogous issue under modern Swedish government 
(i sp. of Oscar I., 1846) is reduced to normal dimensions, and 
parts with its archaeological significance. This symbol had 
been handed down from the autonomous Norwegian coinage 
of the thirteenth century. The copper money of the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries is of good fabric and metal ; 
and that for colonial circulation has the characteristic reverse 
of a ship in full sail, somewhat similar to the Dutch analogous 
coinage and to the supposed prototype of 1658. The con- 
tinuous hostilities of the Danes against their neighbours, or 
on German soil in the cause of Protestantism, or in defence 
of dearly acquired dominions at a distance from home, placed 
the country, as it has placed the numismatist of later times, 
in possession of a tolerably large volume of money of neces- 
sity for the payment and transport of troops, usually the 
main or only sources of expenditure, when provisions and 
shelter were obtained at the cost of the enemy ; nor were 
cases unknown, as we are aware, in which an invading army 
resorted to the most unscrupulous methods for levying even 
the stipend of the soldiers from the districts through which 
it passed. The earliest examples of this currency are placed 

376 The Coins of Europe 

by numismatists in the fifteenth century, and cover the whole 
reign of Christian I., 1448-81. A second body of coinage 
of the same character belongs to the time when the kingdom 
revolted, in the person of Frederic I., against the despotism 
of Christian II., 1531-35. During 1563-64 a consider- 
able number of pieces in gold and silver were struck by 
Frederick II. of Denmark in the contest against Eric 
XIV. of Sweden : ducats, marks, and skillings. The next 
in order of date was the coinage of Christian IV. in con- 
nection with the Thirty Years' War and that in Holstein 
against the Swedes, the whole extending over nearly twenty- 
six years (1622-48) ; and the series concludes with the 
obsidional or occasional money issued by Christian V., 
1674-79, m a second war with Sweden, and by Frederic 
VI. from 1808 to I815, 1 while the Continent was agitated 
by the ambitious schemes of Napoleon I. It may, in 
fact, be predicated of Denmark and Sweden that civil 
discord, mutual jealousy, and a common passion for inter- 
vening in European affairs, were the three agencies which, 
coupled with the unpropitious climate, have tended not 
merely to preclude their advance, but to favour a retrograde 

Of the mints and denominations a fairly adequate account 
has been already supplied. The krona and or are at present 
the silver and copper units in succession to the skilling ; 
and the current coinage is composed of 20 and 10 krona 
in gold, i, 2, 10, 25, 40, and 50 krona in silver, and I, 2, 
and 5 ore in bronze. A krona is = I oo ore. Christian V. 
issued in 1878 pieces of 20, 10, and 5 cents in silver of 
the ship type, and I cent in bronze, for St. Thomas's. The 
former monetary basis, the skilling, underwent many vicissi- 
tudes, and fluctuated in value according to circumstances. 
The skilling of 1622 in silver is heavier than that in copper 
of 1812; and one of 1771 is on a larger flan and of 
superior weight to a piece of 1710 current for Tolf skilling 
Danske, with the legend Dominus Mihi Adiutor, and below 
the date the letters C.W. 

1 Including the rigsbanktegns of Frederic VI., 1813-14, for 16 and 6 skillings. 

Descriptive Outline of the Coinages of Europe 377 

The restless and adventurous spirit of the Scandinavians, 
proceeding in part from their climatic conditions and in part 
from the facilities which their seaboard and nautical 
skill afforded for marauding expeditions, was com- 
mon to the Swedes and Norwegians, only in a more marked 
degree perhaps than to Denmark. Sweden presents itself 
to our notice from the earliest period of its known history 
as the home of a people who were constantly thirsting for 
subsistence or dominion outside their natural geographical 
frontiers ; and in this respect they resembled the community 
which we have just treated. It is true, to a great extent, of 
Norway, that it never possessed a national pulse, just as it 
has never yielded anything important in history, literature, 
or art. But while Sweden enjoyed during a considerable 
interval a large share of power and prosperity, its sources of 
political progress and military success partook of a nature 
which was bound in the result to be destructive. It was the 
insatiable ambition to extend the kingdom westward by con- 
quest or alliances which weakened the monarchy at its centre, 
and when the fruits of hard-won victory had been lost for 
ever, left Sweden weak and poor, with no other indemnity 
than Norway, the price of its loyalty to the Allies, and no 
other consolation than the memorials of former greatness 
legible in painting, medal and armorial shield. 

The numismatic remains in the Swedish series open with 
the denarii of Olaf Skotkonung about the end of the tenth 
century from the mint at Sigtuna; and probably the ex- 
tensive succession and volume of bracteates represent the 
prevailing currency over the whole of this and the surround- 
ing regions down to the thirteenth century, when an im- 
proved coinage with portraits and other types was introduced 
under Valdemar (1250-75). The periodical character of 
the money was affected by the changes which occurred in 
the distribution of territory or the balance of political power. 
The united kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden are 
indicated by three rivers or by three crowns. Probably 
the parent mints were Stockholm, Lodose, Opsolo, and 
Abo, which were reinforced by others after the incorporation 

378 The Coins of Europe 

of Denmark with Sweden by the Treaty of Calmar in I 397. 
That event proved of unforeseen importance, as Danish pre- 
ponderance led to a revolt ; and Sweden remained during a 
lengthened period under the government of Administrators, 
who exercised the right of independent coinage. One of 
these, Karl Knutson Bonde, assumed the title of king 
(1448-67), and placed on his money a boat, the cognisance 
of his family, and the legend Karolvs Rex S' G'. Other 
currency of this era merely bears the name of St. Eric. Steen 
Sture the Younger, administrator, 1 5 12-20, styled himself 
Stcen Stvre Ritter, and struck the first Swedish thaler. 

In 1523 commenced the reign of the celebrated Vasa 
dynasty and the absolute autonomy of Sweden ; and from 
this date we have down to the present moment an uninter- 
rupted body of money of irreproachable execution both in 
silver and copper, as well as, on a more limited scale, in 
gold. In the sixteenth century the noble double daler of 
John III., said to have been a coronation-piece, 1568, stands 
alone as a chef (Tceuvre ; and the singular copper mark, 
1591, deserves to be signalised. We have mentioned the 
daler struck to commemorate the battle of Leipsic (or rather 
Breittenfeld), 1631, and there is also the sufficiently well- 
known posthumous one of Gustavus Adolphus, 1632. The 
money of his immediate predecessors and his own earlier 
coinage are, with the exception of the Salvator type, very 
scarce, especially in good preservation. Of Gustavus there 
are the heavy copper ore and their divisions, which continued 
down to the end of the century, when the still more incon-